Food Consumer Marketing and Product Development Assignment Sample

This comprehensive guide covers critical control points, processing operations, raw materials, product quality, and sustainability considerations in the margarine industry.

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Introduction of Food Consumer Marketing & Product Development Assignment

Food Consumer Marketing and Product development, this course has been created for the student to have knowledge and work in the international food supply chain. The exercises of food science to the selection, preservation, processing, packaging, distribution and use of safe food are the key principles of food technology which includes biotechnology, analytical chemistry and nutrition as well. It is chiefly the advancement of understanding the connection between health and nutrition with the developed concept of food consumption.

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Flow chart of HACCP of soft-spreading margarine

Figure 1: Flow chart of HACCP of soft-spreading margarine

(Source: self-created)

The processing of soft–spreading margarine is a critical process. It requires thorough analysis and measurement of the unit of production and the materials to be taken into consideration that will give out the derived product. It is essential to measure the oils and fats properly as minor spillage will spoil the entire product Therefore it is one of the major CCPs in the preparation of this product (Sahri et al. 2018). The soft-spreading margarine is significantly rich in water content and thus it requires high attention. The choice of oils and fat is also important which is to be added with other components and mixed thoroughly.

The re-melting phase is another CCP of this process because it involves backtracking of the mixing stage and thus chances arise that it might go further lubrication which might hinder the quality. The completion of the packaging, the process is a critical stage to consider and proper care is need to be taken because this product is highly susceptible to spillage.

Chosen product

Soft-spreading margarine is either animal or vegetable oil-based, a buttery-flavored product that contains water, salt, emulsifiers and sometimes milk solids. It is a type of soft spreading used in baking and cooking in the food industry. The worldwide industry for margarine spread is mainly commanded by North America, followed by Europe and Asia-pacific.

Critical discussion of 4 themes

Issue 1

The spread ability, oil separation and melting temperature of margarine are the main characteristics. Oil separation happens due to the type and size of fat crystals. Oil separates due to the insufficiency of fat crystals to hold the liquid oil in the matrix (silverson, 2022). Oil can be spread out of the packaging (Guiné et al, 2020). Oil spread creates shipping and transport issues. Margarine-producing factories need to take the proper measurement in the processing of margarine. A developed web model can maintain the balance between recipe management and product processing.

Issue 2

Margarine has a high water footprint as compared to other food products. One pound of refined sunflower oil requires 814 gallons of water (Tien, 2019). Needless water consumption must be reduced. Water intake should not be reduced. Reduction of the water footprint in the processing of food items is required. There must be a fixed amount of using water in the production supply of goods.

Issue 3

Some kinds of margarine accommodate trans-fat in general, the more solid the margarine has the more translated fat it contains. So stick margarine generally has more trans-fat than the tub’s one. Doctors are nowadays expressing worrying about the added trans-fat because it increases the risk of heart attacks and types 2 diabetes (Wedel, Bigné & Zhang, 2020). This trans-fat plays an important role in increasing blood pressure, bad cholesterol and the risk of heart disease.

Issue 4

Research has shown that the usage of soft-spread margarine in food items lowers the quality of a mother’s breast milk as it affects the level of trans-fats in her milk (Bazaluk et al. 2020). For example, after regular use of margarine in food, a comparison between the breast milk of Canadian mothers to Chinese mothers’ breast milk found that it had 33% more trans fat in their milk than the Chinese mothers which is affecting the newborns day by day.

Description of the product characteristics

Soft-spreading margarine as the name says is soft contains 50% fewer solids than regular margarine and is spreadable at refrigeration temperatures. It has now become a part and parcel of people’s daily life. It is a type of spreading that is used for baking, flavoring and cooking in the food industry (de Morais Watanabe, 2020). It can be processed from plants as well as from animals. Margarine consists of 80% of oil, and water is dispersed uniformly through the unsaturated fat phase in a stable solid form and sometimes milk solids. Soft-spreading margarine has its root in France which was originally made from beef tallow and skimmed milk in 1869 but in modern industry, margarine is made from vegetable oil and water and it may also contain milk. It is mainly used as an ingredient in other food products like cakes, cookies, sandwiches, and pastries for its wide range of functionalities. Soft spreads are good in HDL cholesterol and are also cardio protective they are much lower in fat and healthier than usual butter. The most significant functional features of margarine are melting temperature, oil separation and spread ability on any other food product (Zainuddin & M. T. B. 2019). . Mainly soft-spreading margarine has been used as a substitute for butter and gaining popularity day by day.

Food Preservation principle of Technologies

Food preservation is explicated as the procedure or techniques undertaken in order to maintain the far and wide factors that may cause food spoilage. Among the ancient methods of preservation drying, fermentation and refrigeration were the main ones. But modern methods include a lot of other procedures also like selecting the best raw materials, canning, pasteurization, refrigeration and adding chemicals for enlarging its life span. On the other hand development of materials, and packaging has been playing an important role in the modern food-preserving industry (Ityotagher, A. & Terhile, 2020).

The chief objective of food preservation is to expand its shelf life retaining its prototypical nutritional values, texture, flavor and color. Margarine was mainly made out of the hydrogenation of vegetable oils like olive oil. Plum oil, and sunflower seeds by a professional procedure for transforming these oils into a stable and spreadable product. The margarine manufacturing process includes 5 sections,

  • First, the oil juncture with the emulsifier composing
  • Second, the water part
  • Third, the preparation of the emulsion
  • Fourthly, pasteurization
  • And last, the crystallization phase of the product.

The process of margarine manufacturing consists of different units of operations. To achieve a constant quality product, knowledge of the process is very necessary (Wikström, 2019). The strategic model of the production of margarine was built by considering the votator barrel as a sequence of well-furnished stages. A tub of good quality margarine should not suffer from separation of oil base, discoloration, material hardening, separation of water base, graininess and sandiness and others. The major effort in the production of margarine should be for the material to be in the crystal form as it would be then smooth, homogenous and creamy textured (He, 2019). The fossilization of oils and fats in soft margarine manufacturing is not a very easy process. Therefore the main thing in margarine production is the solidification of the oils and fats.

Effect on Pathogen inactivation or Reduction

Microbiological destruction is caused by microorganisms like fungi, bacteria, yeasts and others. They spoil the product by growing in it and creating objects that change the composition, color, texture and odor of the food material (Aschemann-Witzel, 2019). Eventually, the food will be inconsumable for human beings. On the whole pathogenic microorganisms in lieu of intrinsic conditions such as a pH above 4.6 and activity of water greater than 0.85 in margarine, which may be advantageous for the durability of pathogenic microorganisms and their growth in soft spread margarine is not at all likely. To keep the food safe from the microorganism’s effect or follow the method of pathogen inactivation and reduction, a company must keep the food out of the temperature danger zone and if the food started sits out, then build a habit of getting the product in the refrigerator within the following two hours. The hot food should be cooled down quickly and brought away in that time duration as well (Malak-Rawlikowska, 2019).

Inactivation or reduction of pathogens is a process created to eliminate pathogens from the food product which provides a long duration of survival from bacteria, viruses and fungi. Pathogen reduction provides assurances of adding an additional layer of protection from infectious agents and has the capability to impact the safety of food and materials worldwide. Food irradiation decreases or reduces the pathogens from food such as bacteria and molds that spoil the materials of food and cause food poisoning and other bad diseases. Storing raw and ready-to-eat foods at the proper temperature can prevent the levels of bacteria or pathogens in the food and can protect us from unwanted illnesses (Linkedin, 2022). Pasteurization, this famous process developed by Louis Pasteur by heating the food product for a required heat by 30 minutes is another successful way that has been followed by companies to reduce the num, ber of pathogenic and spoilage parts in foods.

Product quality and production

Spreads are categorized according to their fat content. Fat content can be categorized as high (almost 82 per cent), medium (almost 60 per cent), low (42 per cent), and very low ( less than 30 per cent). Soft margarine contains solid content half to regular margarine. Soft-spread margarine can be spread at refrigeration temperatures (Ketelsen, Janssen & Hamm, 2020). A higher percentage of liquid oils with 70 per cent polyunsaturated fatty acids is needed to make the soft-spread margarine. This margarine is packed in tubs made of plastic. Soft-spread margarine does not have the oil leakage issue as it comes in a tub. Soft spreads are healthy options for the heart. The product is trans-fat-free. There is less saturated fat in the product. Soft spreads can be used in cooking, salad preparation, and on slices of bread (Nguyen et al. 2019). The product has no use in baking. Soft spreads are healthier as it is made with vegetable oils. The presence of higher mono and polyunsaturated fats makes this product cardio-protective. Healthy fats increase good HDL cholesterol.

Margarine is produced through the oil phase, water phase, emulsion preparation, pasteurization and crystallization. Oil flows through pipelines to the weighing system. Oil is mixed with emulsifiers. Manual use of lecithin, monoglycerides and diglycerides can be seen in emulsifier tanks. Salt, citric acid and skimmed-milk powder are used in the tank during the water phase when water is heated above 45 degrees Celsius (Frantsisko et al. 2020). The oil phase and water phase occur in the emulsion tank. Flavour, aroma, and colour are manually added in this phase. Emulsion takes place smoothly with fine equipment. Fine emulsion makes fine margarine. The emulsion flowed to the pasteurization area. Pasteurisation is the heating process of emulsion. The growth of bacteria and other microorganisms improves emulsion stability. Pasteurization takes place at a certain temperature (Barrett et al. 2019). The pressure pump transfers pasteurized emulsion to a heat exchanger with a higher-pressure scrapped surface. Refrigerant is injected into the cooling system. Temperature sensors measure proper cooling. The consistency and structure of the product are ensured before packing.

The raw material of the selected products

Margarine is actually a butter substitute. Historically margarine is made of beef or mutton fat. Earlier margarine is prepared from animal fats and vegetable oils. A shortage of beef fats encourages the use of vegetable oils. Any edible vegetable or animal oil can be used to produce margarine. Corn oil, sunflower oil, and soybean oil are some sources of vegetable oil. The liquid component of margarine is produced from milk, water and liquid protein mixture. Margarine must contain approx. 80 per cent of fat (de Morais Watanabe et al. 2020). Strict government protocols are there for margarine manufacturing. Skimmed milk, water and soybean protein fluid are necessary to produce liquid margarine. Different vegetable oils need to be treated with caustic soda to reduce unnecessary components. Oil needs to be blended with hot water. Oil separates and comes under a dry vacuum. Bleaching earth and charcoal is necessary to bleach the oils. Unwanted colorant gets absorbed through bleaching.

Oil gets filtered after bleaching. Milk is used as a liquid base. Salt and emulsification agents are of important use in the processing chamber (Miranda et al. 2019). Refined soybean oil used to produce margarine has fatty acids in low concentration. Fatty acids can get oxidised when exposed to light. Aroma substance is formed. 3-methyl-2 with diacetyl produces a buttery aroma. Soybean oil is stable when out of exposure to light. Margarine is alternative to butter for vegans as it is animal cruelty-free today. Animal fats have no direct use in margarine production. Animal-derived products like milk, lactose and casein have usefulness in margarine production. Vitamin D3 in margarine is from lanoline found in sheep’s wool. Marine oil has usefulness in margarine production. Suet, one kind of fat found around the kidneys of animals is used in margarine.

Discussion on Processing Operations

Storage of raw material

Margarine manufacturing facilities must have their own refineries with various tanks to store the raw materials. The tanks often get set up outside the production facility. A stable temperature to store the materials must be maintained (Misra et al. 2020). Fats need to be stored above melting temperature. Agitation can help fractionation of fats. Storages are used to store blended material or single material.

Water soluble and fat-soluble phase preparation

Water, salt and milk proteins are used during the water-soluble phase in the water tank. Stabilizers and preservatives are of use in this phase. All the ingredients get mixed in this phase and get stored for the emulsion phase. Pre-treatment of water is necessary. Water must be of drinking quality. Fat blends of fat-soluble get separated in the fat-soluble phase.

process of Processing Operations

Figure 2: The process of Processing Operations

(Source: self-created)

Final emulsion phase

Measurement and pumping of various fats are necessary for the emulsion process. A flip-flop system of two tanks performs the preparation. One tank will continue the process line. Another tank will process the new preparation. Weighing load cells are used to measure the load properly.


Total emulsification goes through the pasteurization process. Pasteurization temperature ranges between 45 degrees celsius to 85-degree celsius for a few seconds. A plate heat exchanger is used with a low-pressure scraped surface in the pasteurization process. Processing parameters are necessary for continuous processes.

Cooling and Crystallising

A high-pressure pump is used for the transformation of pasteurized emulsification to the cooling and crystalling tank. Cooling agents help the cooling process in a high-pressure piston pump. Proper crystallization structure takes place in pin worker units to get the desired crystallization structure.


The packaging process starts after the cooling and crystallization process. Consistency of the product decides the packaging machinery. A paper wrap is a must for a firm texture. Liquid consistency gets cup or tub packaging. Adequate products need to be available while packaging. Overrun product returns to the emulsion tank.

Process control

The automation process of processing technology is a required criterion in the food processing industry. A complete history of the processing method needs to be registered to carry out fluent processing of all the required events. A web-based recipe and report system is required. Data storage can help re-trace the data if needed.

Product structure

Consumers are choosing healthier options for food consumption. Soft spread margarine is generally found in lower calorie and lower fat content. Soft spreads are developed with 10 per cent fat content. The product processing structure does not use hydrogenated oils or fats. Hydrogenated emulsifiers are not used in the product. Certified palm oil can be used. An oil absorber is necessary to stabilize low-fat products. Soft-spread margarine is trans-fat-free. Margarine is a water-in-oil emulsion product. Soft, whipped, liquid, and spreadable margarine are classified as margarine.

Soft margarine has half the solid content of the original margarine.

Whipped products are made through the process of whipping while incorporating nitrogen into them. This product contains more volume than the actual pound (Dekker, Koenders & Bruins, 2019). The lower density of whipped products makes them less calorigenic with equal consumption of other margarine. Liquid margarine is packed in bottles. This margarine is used in pan frying and spreading over cooked foods. Diet spreads are formulated with a balance between low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein. There is an optimum balance of polyunsaturated, monosaturated, and saturated fatty acids and omega-6 to omega-3. Better health profile margarine contains high polyunsaturated fatty acid, low energy content and natural ingredients.


Production industries are quite under the pressure to build the appropriate way for providing satisfaction to customers around the global market as the customers are demanding products with clean labels and sustainability. Food brands are concentrating more on the sustainability of their products. Producing plant-based margarine is already more sustainable than making animal-based foods. And by manufacturing margarine in even more imperishable ways, industries can brand themselves as more socially responsible towards the future world.



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