Introduction Of Exploring The Boundary Spanning Role Of Middle Managers In Strategy Work:
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Middle managers are those who manage the lower managers and report to upper management but are also considered as the manager. The responsibility of the middle manager is higher than the low and upper managers since they are the bridge which takes orders and also gives orders. The middle managers are those who have to work within the boundaries to make sure that there are right working and performance which is present. Knowledge of assigning duties and making decisions as well has to exist in them so that there is higher working which would be present. Middle manager is crucial designation which has to be current in large business so that there is good achievement that is present for company in market. The report would consist of strategic working and roles of middle manager according to the boundaries which they have within an organization. The literature review would also be discussing the advantages and improvement which middle managers have for being able to operate freely and pressure.
Theme 1: Exploring the boundary spanning role of middle managers in strategy work
Article, Bhasin (2019), states there are three levels of management which exists which includes top level management, middle level management and lower level management. Top management are the executives who are leaders of company who set the direction in which there must be operating in. Middle managers implement those decisions in company so that there would be higher communication in process and successfully achieving targets which are set. Lower level management are responsible for company to be able to have right environment of working. Lower level management is responsible for employees which are present in company. Authorities in organization would be present with middle and upper level of management to be able to have a successful functioning in market. Author Tavakoli, Schlagwein and Schoder (2017), as states, carrying out daily working is also the working of middle manager but they are focused on achieving targets in hand, that they put on a lot of their pressure employees and low management of the organization. Feedbacks are not taken from the intermediate management from employees but from the lower level management and it is very important for the middle management. Understanding employees which are being hired by them is imperative that feedbacks are taken directly so that comfort level with employees is also present for a longer run. Boundaries have to be well understood by the managers which make them be able to make the decisions and methods of working accordingly. Inventions are also going to be limited because of the boundaries since they work according to the top management which is a spanning boundary for them to follow.
As per the view of Queiroz, and et.al (2018), middle managers cannot use a lot of innovative ideas in the progress of organization since they are having a lot of limitations for working as well. Middle management is also a very powerful position which an individual would have within an organization but they still would not have full control. There are a lot of situations which rise within an organization for which instant actions must be taken and in those situations middle management does that. Experience of upper management is also present with middle management therefore that there are right actions which can be taken by middle management for organization for being able to have better long run in market. But in opinion of Lin and Lee (2017), there are a lot of advantages for middle management as well which exist so that they would be able to give in their best within Sainsbury’s. Motivation level is also in the hands of middle management which has to be given to the employees so that company would be able to make sure that there are right working. Methods of rewarding or strategies of providing the sense of direction to the employees are given to the workers by middle management so that there would be better operations.
As per, Abbas (2020), middle management must have skills of upper and low management as well because they are playing the role of both in a lot of situations. Intermediate management is going to inform all the other managers about information which is not supposed to be reaching employees of company but that advice is important for the middle management to operate effectively. Safety and other health factors of lower management and employees have to be monitored and improvement upon according to changes which is responsibility of middle management. As the author Gubery and Berta (2017) also states that, changes and innovation comes in organization like TESLA there are changes in technologies or model of electrical cars made immense pressure come on the middle management. It is because middle management has to motivate them to adapt to changes and be able to understand importance of this change for organization. Culture and beliefs of the employees also differences for that there must be an equal balance that has to be created with rules and regulation which are common. The following report would be discussing these aspects in detail so that there is going to be effective understanding of middle management.
Theme 2: To understand the roles and responsibility of middle managers
As per the view of Bos-Nehles and Veenendaal (2019), there are a lot of skills which are present in a middle level management like stress management, time management, organizational skills, problem solving, decision making, self protection and self confidence. These are few of the most important skills which a middle management must have to be able to make sure that there are right working and examples which are set in front of employees of organization. Manager has to look at all the opportunities as a positive look out so that there is going to be brighter functioning that would be there. Stated by the same author workplace environment is going to impact according to the behaviour of the middle manager or management therefore it is very essential to make sure that there are right actions which are being taken by them. Misusing the power in terms of unfair treatment or bias behaviour, is not a good factor for the middle management to have instead they must always be ready for more knowledge which is good for their development for a long run. Positive vibes within ASDA is important so that there would be higher functioning and processing towards achieving goals and targets which are set so that there would be better operations and working according to competition.
In according to Chaudhary and Akhouri (2019), working environment must be positive and friendly for operations to take place effectively. This is good for the overall development and changes in organization would come in easily and that is a great factor. Productivity has to be supported by the middle management and flexibility has to be provided from time to time which is good for operations. Training and development when changes are coming in also has to be implemented so that there is good routine which exist. Building the team is very important for the middle management so that tasks in hand would be distributed equally and make sure that they support each other to achieve goals. Also according to, Singh and et.al (2019), inspiring the juniors of the organization are in hands of middle management since the senior management is not in direct contact with other employees. Changes are taking place in the company throughout the year which middle management has to get in the businesses but it is only possible accordingly to the plan of the top management. Leading employee’s according to expectations of business is important which makes sure that there are right actions that is important for company to have. Layers are made so that there is good working for the processing and company would be able to capture a large base for themselves in the market that is good for the overall working.
In the view of Caza, Vough and Puranik (2018), guidance must be provided to the employees from the management so that there are right actions and improvement which would take place. Valuing all the employees of the organization is very important to make sure that there is right encouragement and behaviour pattern is also observed by the middle management. Observation is important for the middle management so that they would be able to plan strategies and sense of direction as well accordingly. Troubles also need to be repaired by the middle management so that there is good sense which exists so that the organization would be able to make the right planning for them. Entrusting relationship is very essential for achieving the bigger picture of the company which would make sure that the development is taking place effectively. Authorities have to be well worked out and middle management has to get the right importance in the company as well. Respect for one another and make sure that there is good and effective working that would make the working is higher as well.
Theme 3: To analyze the boundary spanning of the middle managers within an organization
As per the author Tajeddini, Altinay and Ratten (2017), there is a direct authority in a lot of fields which is given to the middle management as well which has to be analysed well in the company. There are a lot of managers which misuse their power in the company that has to be understood well. Middle managers become the role models of employees therefore they have to be working hard to the expectations of the employees so that there is going to be better influence that would be present for better monitored and controlled from time to time so that there is good effective working. Creativity has to be present in the middle management to make sure that they are getting in right changes which are required so that organization can benefit from it. There are boundaries within which the managers must work so that they would be able to make sure that there is positivity in the environment of the company. Clear goals must be communicated but strategies have to be innovative and creative for employees to be motivated enough to help the middle management to implement them which is a great factor. Admirable work has to be provided and shown to the lower management so that the middle management would make sure that there is good motivation which exists. Good responsibility has to be provided to the conditions that are there so that there is good dedication that is going to be there for that there must be experience workforce in the companies.
Author suggested Baptista and et.al. (2017), upper level of management makes sure that they set aims and goals for the organization to follow so that they would be able to get higher conditions for the operations. Large organizations understand the value of the middle management which would be helpful for working of the overall working. Influencing running is what middle management can do easily by showing them how much they are working but they also have to understand the operational of employees. Good observation has to be present for actions of all individual workers so that there is effective functioning that would be good for overall working. A condition of company has to be improvement like TESCO, employees are being provided with physical and mental awards in order to make them continue to give in their best. It is very important for company to make sure that they are taking right actions for them. Middle management is also responsible for recruitment which is taking place in organization and this factor has to be monitored by human resource as well. Management is aware of requirement from an employee’s which is expected for company to be able to operate effectively.
In according to Elmagrhi and et.al (2019), self development for the middle management is essential to make sure that there are right actions and improvement that would take place. It has to be quick for middle management to adapt to changes which come in company so that they would be able to make sure that they are being implemented from time to time. Allocating resources as well as work of middle management so that there is going to be right functioning that would take place and also make company be able to have right working. Activities have to be distributed and overseeing first line managers by intermediate management so that they would be able to make sure that there are right actions which are being taken care of by organization.
Theme 4: To evaluate the limitations in the working of the middle managers.
As stated by Gemünden, Lehner and Kock (2018), there are a lot of limitations which exist on the middle management since they are having a good power in the organization but they still cannot take actions and decisions in the planning. Strategies which are implemented by the middle management are for the internal working of the organization which has to be controlled and monitored by the upper management. Middle management has a lot of expectations but they have limited authority to be able to operate effectively which is going to be discussed in the future report. In the author Burcharth, Knudsen and Søndergaard (2017) opinion, they have been directed by upper management to take actions which they do for lower management so that the company benefits from this factor. It is very important to make sure that they are taking right actions and improvement in organization. There are a lot of promotional methods which are being implemented by management but company has to make sure that employees are working according to them and the middle management is the bridge to fulfil this factor. Problems which come in the internal working and environment are solved by the middle management or lower management so that they are not making a huge impact on the overall working of the company.
In opinion of Raffaelli, Glynn and Tushman (2019), hierarchical working is very important in an organization so that there is good distribution of working and operations which exists. Companies like Tesco, Sainsbury, Marks & Spencer, Amazon, etc. are all having this factor in order to make sure that they are having right working and functioning which is going to be present. Stress on this level of management is that they have to make sure that they are taking right actions and measures but implementing only those which are being told to them. Emerging changes like technology, labour laws, etc have to be implemented by the upper management and middle management must make sure that they are following them in the company which is a great factor for the overall working. Approaches have to be well implemented so that the company is going to find it easier to be able to get the right working.
According to Jackson and et.al (2017), knowledge of the middle level management has to be present so that there is good working and make sure that there are right actions and improvement which is coming in. Development has to be done in company so that there is going to be effective working and make sure that there are higher functioning and working which is going to have higher running. There are a lot of situations which are present in organization which has to be solved by middle management from time to time so that there is going to be higher operations. Challenges and methods has to be covered and make sure that there is going to be effective working which is good for overall working and development of company. Smooth running is very important so that demand and needs of clients can be matched by organization for long run. Middle management is delicate management which is present in any organization which is handling upper and lower management at same time.
Theme 5: To suggest and adopt actions for maintenance of better satisfaction in this role to make the profit margins of any organization be higher
According to Shujahat and et.al (2019), it is crucial for the middle level management to know their place in market so that there would be higher operations and working. Improvement for the operations to be achieved management needs to improve them by using self evaluation method only then they would be able to make sure that there is good improvement in surroundings as well. Tesco hired experience middle level management since they are experienced and understand the value of this position in company. There is a sudden increase in the demands and needs of the clients as well which has to be balanced out by the company to be able to maintain their reputation in market. As per the view of Lopez-Cabrales, Bornay-Barrachina and Diaz-Fernandez (2017), due to the hectic working routine the management must know how to self protect themselves as well so that there is effective working which is present. Initiatives of self behaviour and management must be taken by management from time to time to make sure that there are right working. Capabilities and regarding towards the lower and upper management has to be present in middle management. Open mind needs to be present in management for getting in changes and getting in new innovative methods and strategies is very important to be considered by management.
As per the author Rowe and Zegwaard (2017), there are a lot of methods which can be used for checking the productivity which the organization is having in the market which would be discussed in the further report. Methods like, feedbacks from the employees are also a very effective method which can be implemented so that there are right actions and improvement which can be taken. This feedback which is being taken by the middle management would help the planning and designing of the direction of the company would be dependent upon. Good benefits must be provided to all individuals who exist so that there are right actions and improvement which are going to take place in organization. Resistance to changes show that management has not done their work effectively which is the responsibility of middle management so that there are right actions which are taking place.
According to Ford and Troy (2019), information can directly be passed on the employees from upper management as well. There has to be good involvement of technology which employees must be friendly towards so that there is less time consuming method and makes sure that everyone has got that information. Exploiting any kind of power is not going to be good for the overall development of organization which must be controlled and monitored effectively. Advancement is taking place in almost all the fields which has to be well implemented from time to time so that the organization would be able to compete effectively.
In the view of Reimer, Van Doorn and Heyden (2018), understanding the upper level management and supporting them with the decisions and working is very important only then the company will be able to operate. Internal conflicts are not good for the profit margins or the brand recognition which exists in the market. There is a blind trust which middle management has on upper management and it does the other way around as well so that there is effective understanding between two so that there are right actions which can be decided for company to be able to operate effectively in the market. As stated Boxall and Winterton (2018), positivity comes from within and the middle management must be self motivated so that they would be able to make sure that there are right improvement and changes which are coming in. Commitment has to be for the bigger picture of the organization so that there is good achievement and self management which would take place. Questioning self actions is also a good method for the middle management to adopt to be able to get in the right strategies for the benefit of the organization. The company will have to get the right internal strategies which can be implemented and that is beneficial for the overall working.
The report concluded that working in the organization it is essential for the management to work with the middle manager as it increases the overall relation of the workplace. This help in development of business as well also increase in quality performance of workplace. The roles and duties of manager need to be worked with quality performance and help in increase of better performance. Goals are set on the objectives which are provided to them from the upper managers. Pressure of working of middle managers is higher than other management. Middle manager plays the role of a human resource department as well since they hire the right employees to the organization as well. Increase in market information and knowledge which can develop a better strategy to increase the performance. Strategies are also implemented for them which is good for the tracking of the aims and progress which business is making in market. Objectives of the organization are not established by the middle manager but they are included in the decision making though. Monitoring and controlling of the working has to be done which makes the company be able to make sure that they are getting closer to the targets they had set for in market.
Books and Journals
Abbas, J., 2020. Impact of total quality management on corporate green performance through the mediating role of corporate social responsibility. Journal of Cleaner Production. 242. p.118458.
Baptista, J and et.al., 2017. Social media and the emergence of reflexiveness as a new capability for open strategy. Long Range Planning. 50(3). pp.322-336.
Bos-Nehles, A.C. and Veenendaal, A.A., 2019. Perceptions of HR practices and innovative work behavior: the moderating effect of an innovative climate. The International Journal of Human Resource Management. 30(18). pp.2661-2683.
Boxall, P. and Winterton, J., 2018. Which conditions foster high-involvement work processes? A synthesis of the literature and agenda for research. Economic and Industrial Democracy. 39(1). pp.27-47.
Burcharth, A., Knudsen, M.P. and Søndergaard, H.A., 2017. The role of employee autonomy for open innovation performance. Business Process Management Journal.
Caza, B.B., Vough, H. and Puranik, H., 2018. Identity work in organizations and occupations: Definitions, theories, and pathways forward. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 39(7). pp.889-910.
Chaudhary, R. and Akhouri, A., 2019. CSR perceptions and employee creativity: Examining serial mediation effects of meaningfulness and work engagement. Social Responsibility Journal.
Elmagrhi, M.H and et.al., 2019. A study of environmental policies and regulations, governance structures, and environmental performance: The role of female directors. Business Strategy and the Environment. 28(1). pp.206-220.
Ford, B.Q. and Troy, A.S., 2019. Reappraisal reconsidered: A closer look at the costs of an acclaimed emotion-regulation strategy. Current Directions in Psychological Science. 28(2). pp.195-203.
Gemünden, H.G., Lehner, P. and Kock, A., 2018. The project-oriented organization and its contribution to innovation. International Journal of Project Management. 36(1). pp.147-160.
Jackson, D and et.al., 2017. Employer understanding of work-integrated learning and the challenges of engaging in work placement opportunities. Studies in Continuing Education. 39(1). pp.35-51.
Lin, H.C. and Lee, Y.D., 2017. A study of the influence of organizational learning on employees’ innovative behavior and work engagement by a cross-level examination. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education. 13(7). pp.3463-3478.
Lopez-Cabrales, A., Bornay-Barrachina, M. and Diaz-Fernandez, M., 2017. Leadership and dynamic capabilities: the role of HR systems. Personnel Review.
Queiroz, M and et.al., 2018. The role of IT application orchestration capability in improving agility and performance. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems. 27(1). pp.4-21.
Raffaelli, R., Glynn, M.A. and Tushman, M., 2019. Frame flexibility: The role of cognitive and emotional framing in innovation adoption by incumbent firms. Strategic Management Journal. 40(7). pp.1013-1039.
Reimer, M., Van Doorn, S. and Heyden, M.L., 2018. Unpacking functional experience complementarities in senior leaders’ influences on CSR strategy: A CEO–Top management team approach. Journal of Business Ethics. 151(4). pp.977-995.
Rowe, A.D. and Zegwaard, K.E., 2017. Developing graduate employability skills and attributes: Curriculum enhancement through work-integrated learning.
Shujahat, M and et.al., 2019. Translating the impact of knowledge management processes into knowledge-based innovation: The neglected and mediating role of knowledge-worker productivity. Journal of Business Research. 94. pp.442-450.
Singh, S.K and et.al., 2019. Environmental ethics, environmental performance, and competitive advantage: role of environmental training. Technological Forecasting and Social Change. 146. pp.203-211.
Tajeddini, K., Altinay, L. and Ratten, V., 2017. Service innovativeness and the structuring of organizations: The moderating roles of learning orientation and inter-functional coordination. International Journal of Hospitality Management. 65. pp.100-114.
Tavakoli, A., Schlagwein, D. and Schoder, D., 2017. Open strategy: Literature review, re-analysis of cases and conceptualisation as a practice. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems. 26(3). pp.163-184.
Bhasin, H., 2019. Middle Management: Role, Importance, Examples and Skills. [Online]. Available Through: < https://www.marketing91.com/middle-management/>.
Gubery, J and Berta, W., 2017. Understanding middle manager’ influence in implementing patient safety culture. [Online]. Available Through: <https://bmchealthservres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12913-017-2533-4>.
Tools are to understand the internal capabilities, performance and options which are present in the strategy. Defining objectives, measures, initiatives and capabilities to make sure the resources are processed so that there is good resourcing that is present.
Risk analysis and competitors have to be understood well which is present in the report so that there is a good development which is going to be present. Understanding the current performance that is going to be present revenue statement has to be present so that there is a good tool which is present to get higher outcomes.
Positioning of the external and internal tools has to be understood so that there is a good development that is going to be present. There is no tool in this category that is going to be present. Stakeholders, mergers, management is going to be involved in the processing and working of the business.
Out of 100% the use of analysis are as follows.
- Internal strategic analysis
- External strategic analysis
- Strategic analysis- fit