Global Strategy Development and Implementation Assignment Sample

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Global Strategy Development and Implementation Assignment 

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1. Introduction

Every firm, in the age of global commerce, has been inclined to extend its operations internationally. Along with their strategic objectives, businesses are developing their internationalization programs (Yaprak, Xu and Cavusgil, 2011). Regarding this context, AstraZeneca plc is a global pharmaceutical and biotechnology business headquartered in Cambridge, England. Its product range includes treatments for key illnesses in cancer, cardiology, gastroenterology, infection, neurology, respiratory, and inflammatory. Probably its most well-known contribution is to the development of the Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccination.

The business started in March 2020 that it has provided personal protective equipment, notably 9 million face masks, to assist different worldwide healthcare professionals in combating the COVID-19 pandemic. The company has gradually expanded its services across the globe. All over the globe in every pole, the company enormously scattered the medication services for the clients. Recently in the pandemic situation, the company has launched a vaccination process that is acute and fair enough. The company has 51 subsidiaries company that has expanded the business internationally (Thorne, 2021). They have provided the best solution for their clients for several kinds of critical health issues. As per the report of the company in 2020, it has been seen that this pharmaceutical company have 76100 employees all over.

Now, the management of the company is tending to expand its pharmaceutical services in Nepal. Regarding this context, this particular report has focused on the environmental aspects of Nepal and given a concern that is Nepal appropriate for expand the policies or not. Alongside, this report has evaluated the strategic choices of internationalization of business along with identified issues with probable solutions.

2. Evaluation of the global performances of the company

As per the final year report 2020, it has been seen that the company has widely response to the pandemic situation of COVID-19. The company has facilitated several medical departments with a high level of therapy (Flaherty et al., 2021). In the pandemic situation, they revised their Global Volunteer Policy, increasing the amount of leave available to medically qualified workers and encouraging more general volunteerism to assist overburdened health systems and communities. 894 workers donated 17,397 hours in 2020. The company has followed the strict notion of their business policies and maintains the sustainable development that has been proved from their sustainable report in 2020.

In that path, the company has responded to several critical issues across the globe that made them a potential multinational company. In the below section, the Porter’s Diamond Model evaluates the overall performances of the company in the global context from various aspects.

Porter’s Diamond Model

The Porter Diamond, more precisely alluded to as the Porter Diamond Theory of National Competitive advantage, is a model intended to aid in comprehending the competitive edge that nations or groups possess as a result of certain factors at their disposal, as well as to demonstrate how government agencies can catalyze to enhance the nation’s performance in competitive business conditions.

Factors

Description in the organizational context

Factor Conditions:

· Natural resources to which AstraZeneca PLC has accessibility in its home country and in countries where it operates and manufactures.

· The majority of equity-based capital is produced inside the business, exclusively via internal products and materials (Vlados, 2019).

· Human capital refers to the skill sets and performance of AstraZeneca PLC’s human resources. Additionally, it encompasses all training programmers and other investments made by AstraZeneca PLC in connection to its human capital and workers worldwide.

Related and Supported industries:

· The existence of allied sectors in local and foreign markets has also aided AstraZeneca PLC’s growth and internationalization efforts. This is because associated sectors have aided AstraZeneca PLC’s business operations by supplying the necessary visual aids for continuous improvement (Sterev, 2019).

· Believes strongly enable AstraZeneca PLC to grow and enhance its operations.

· AstraZeneca PLC benefits from a robust worldwide supplier system that connects it to promote its goods across many customer markets by making them readily visible to customers.

Strategy, structure, and rivalry:

· AstraZeneca PLC’s goal is to put the consumer first by providing high-quality goods with the consistently reliable quality of ingredients (Wibowo and Nurcahyo, 2020).

· AstraZeneca PLC is a more flat company that values direct and candid interaction.

· At AstraZeneca PLC, the management structure is supportive and geared toward developing employees.

· Thus, strong rivalry with domestic & global competitors enabled AstraZeneca PLC to adopt novel techniques and products, resulting in differentiated competition and benefits to patients.

Government:

· AstraZeneca PLC’s quality and investment goals and prospects have been aided by government initiatives.

· Industry laws have also aided AstraZeneca PLC in sustaining and growing its strategic advantage in the direction of sustainability (Vlados, 2019).

· By accelerating, the administration has aided the commercial operations and growth goals of AstraZeneca PLC.

Chance events:

· Random occurrences have impacted AstraZeneca PLC in a variety of ways, depending on their effect on the company’s business activities and advertising campaigns in general.

· Scientific discoveries bolster AstraZeneca PLC’s operations by offering support and development possibilities for both planning and innovative procedures (Wibowo and Nurcahyo, 2020).

Demand conditions:

· Domestic sounders who are sophisticated and exacting have forced AstraZeneca PLC to focus its efforts on development, which has resulted in the development of distinctive goods for consumers.

· AstraZeneca PLC, for example, may also affect consumer behaviour in one area depending on the reaction they got in the other.

3. Possible strategic choices available to the parent Company

In the case of the internationalization of the business, multinational companies are adopted the various effective notions of the choices that can help them to improvise their operational system.

Strategies

Description

Transnational Strategy:

A global business organization in which a company’s worldwide business operations are managed via collaboration and dependence among its head office, operating division, and globally based companies or retail stores. A transnational strategy is essentially a plan of action wherein a company chooses to execute its operations across state borders. A transnational business plan’s main benefit is that it is less expensive than a multi-domestic approach since it places a premium on global standards and effectiveness (Wilkins and Huisman, 2012). Businesses that operate on a global scale concentrate as many assets as feasible, thus reducing expenses. Therefore, in the expansion of the business in Nepal the company will use this strategy to get the better ramification and expected profit.

Multi Domestic Strategy:

A multi-domestic strategy is a business strategy that aims to maximize local responsiveness by tailoring both the product offer and marketing approach to the unique characteristics of each country. The business may tailor its goods to the particular tastes and requirements of local consumers by pursuing a multi-domestic approach. As a consequence, the business is capable of competing more efficiently and expand market share in each regional supermarket (Cortés et al., 2021).

Nestlé is an excellent example of a multinational corporation. Nestlé has developed a distinct marketing strategy for each area in which it competes. Additionally, it caters to local preferences by providing distinct goods in distinct markets. In the same manner, the company will also make this choice as for the appropriate marketing strategies that will help them in Nepal.

International Strategy:

International strategy is similar to the others strategies that help a company to implement its multinational policies with expected outcomes. An international strategy is a business plan that involves the sale of products and services outside of the company’s home country. If a business remains primarily focused on its native markets, its tactics outside of those areas may be considered worldwide (Verbeke and Yuan, 2021).

Firms that pursue an internationalization expansion are unconcerned with expenses or cultural adaptation. They try to market their goods globally with little or no modification. When Harley-Davidson exports bikes outside of the United States, they are not required to reduce their pricing or modify the motorbike to local motorcycle regulations. People in foreign nations purchase Harleys mostly because they are distinctive from domestic bikes. As a consequence, AstraZeneca PLC will also follow this practice that enhances the probability of the ramifications of the internationalization of business in Nepal.

Global Strategy:

A global strategy is a set of strategies made by an organisation to expand outside its boundaries (Peng, 2021). Its specific objective is to promote exports of products and services. As a result, the company will formulate a proper way of internationalization of the pharmaceutical business.

4. Country Analysis

A. PESL Analysis

PESL analysis is a tool or approach used by marketing to analyze and identify macroeconomic factors that may affect a business.

Political

· Nepal is a democratic republic area; a federal state is a confederation of states governed by a republic system. The government is referred to as a federation (Panthi and Chalise, 2021).

· Political parties seem unable to complete the task of drafting a constitution within the allotted time. This resulted in the Constitutional National assembly collapse, paving the door for fresh elections to seek a new public mandate.

Economic:

· Nepal’s economy is heavily reliant on farming and remittance. Economic growth has been hindered and harmed by the cyclical idea of democratic situations (Vaidya, 2021).

· However, As a result of the corona virus’s current condition Political instability has had a significant impact on economic development or expansion. Economic growth is very slow.

Social

· Nepal is confronted with a slew of societal issues, including the caste system, child labour, illiteracy, gender discrimination, prejudices, and religious disputes. No one individual is to blame for these societal ills. It is past time to put an end to these heinous societal ills (Mauksch, 2021).

· 27% of the citizens live in abject poverty. Due to the agricultural sectors slow development, rural regions’ living standards are lowered, resulting in poverty. The increasing population has placed a strain on arable land. Superstitious ideas, which are ingrained in Nepalese society, also contribute to societal issues. Individuals adhere to a variety of customs that prevent them from progressing. This occurs as a result of a person’s innocence.

· Nepal was a latecomer to contemporary science and technology. To achieve self-sufficiency, it established technical skills in a variety of sectors, including agriculture, engineering, construction, mining, water management, medical, textile and paper manufacturing, dyeing, and food technology.

Legal

· Nepal has patent laws where an organization or a person desiring to get rights to any invention must register such a patent under a different name according to this Act (Lamichhane, 2021). No one may reproduce, use, or cause to be used in the identity of another. Without changing the property or obtaining written authorization following Section.21d, any individual may file a patent in his or her name according to this Act.

In the above section, the analysis through the PESL Analysis has been reflected that Nepal is considered as the moderate level of place for expanding the business. If AstraZeneca PLC will execute the business then they may face some social obstacles. Because, it has been seen that, socially Nepal has followed the norms strictly this has negatively impacted the progress of any new multinational company. On the other hand, the accuracy of the legal factors will helpful where the economical condition will be a big problem.

B. Country Environmental Analysis

The environmental analysis of Nepal is evaluated through the framework of Porter’s Five Model that can help to understand the competitive environment.

Bargaining Power of Buyers:  As per the current scenario the bargaining power of the buyers in Nepal is so high. They have mostly preferred biopharmaceutical products as alternatives.

Bargaining Power of Suppliers:  The bargaining power of suppliers in Nepal is moderate. Due to the low economic level, there are limited industries available which are why the choices of suppliers are comparatively low (Jaiswal, 2021).

The threat of Substitutes: Recently, in Nepal, the company will not face any substitutes in a wide way but the future may become.

Industry Rivalry: The traits of a monopoly market are high in Nepal which is the big cause for competitive factors in the local market.

The threat of entry: In Nepal, the threats of new entrants are low. Due to the low economic and social development, there are limited companies are tend to expand (Grundy, 2006).

As per above the scenario it has been evaluated that, Nepal is environmentally less stable that will create great trouble for the company to implement the business adequately.

7. Strategic entry modes of the company

The phrase “market entrance strategy” relates to the procedure of marketing and distributing goods or services in a new market. It is the process of making, implementing, and managing contracts for the imports and exports of services in a foreign nation. In such a scenario, upon entry into Nepal, AstraZeneca PLC would implement these measures that would aid in the country’s appropriate expansion.

Licensing

Licensing is a kind of business arrangement in which one company gives another the right to manufacture its goods in return for a price. Licensing is the practice of giving rights to another company to use one’s patents, trademarks, copyright, designs, and other intellectual material in return for a percentage of revenue or a fee (Jhunior, Abib and Stocker, 2021).

In such a scenario, the firm should do the same approach in Nepal, which will aid in the company’s expansion into the seller’s currency. The licensing process allows the business to identify a business that will be evaluated for incorporation as a franchise.

Franchise

A franchise is a method of distributing goods or services that involves a franchisor, who owns the brand’s copyright and business centre, and franchisees, who typically pays an access payment in return for the legally required to conduct underneath the franchisor’s brand and structure (Domínguez-Falcón et al., 2021).

As a result, franchisees may acquire a nearly full commercial company based on the franchising contract terms AstraZeneca PLC Company requirements and the firm’s structure. Furthermore, it will aid in the establishment of a company from the ground up, since the organisation will need to build its branding and customer base in Nepal from idea to finish. Additionally, it is less hazardous than operating a single company.

Joint Venture

A joint venture is established when two firms combine their assets and work together to achieve a shared economic objective (Kim et al., 2021). In opposed to acquisitions, where the period is unlimited, the timeframe of a joint venture is often defined and limited in duration.

As a result of the business growth in Nepal, AstraZeneca PLC Company will allow its companies with limited capacity to grow. This gives both companies a competitive advantage in Nepal since it enables them to attain efficiencies.

8. Identification of the issues in the management and organizational performance

Organizational coordination issues

Inadequate organisational coordination may create a significant problem for operational personnel. Similarly, at the AstraZeneca PLC Company, there have been instances when gaps in the business’s cooperation in support of internationalization have been discovered. This global corporation has endorsed pioneering initiatives that occasionally cause havoc owing to the reckless nature of certain instances.

Culture issues

The company’s cultural functioning is assessed using the Hofstede cultural model, which assists in defining any problems.

Factors

Identified Issues

Power Distance Index (PDI)

 

AstraZeneca PLC’s organisational structure is flatter. AstraZeneca PLC’s organisational decision-making is more decentralized. Because AstraZeneca PLC’s organisational culture is characterized by a minimal power gap, the business views executives and executives transferring authority freely but without reservation.

Individualism versus Collectivism (IDV)

 

AstraZeneca PLC places a premium on its workers’ privacy both at work and in their personal lives. All duties and perform tasks are organized in such a way that they do not interfere with an individual’s social or personal life and that a work-life harmony is maintained. Individual achievements are recognized at AstraZeneca PLC.

Masculinity versus Femininity (MAS)

 

AstraZeneca PLC has a low MAS score, which indicates that job tasks often overlap between men and women in the company and that job description are neither gender-biased nor stereotypical (Sent and Kroese, 2020).

Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI)

 

AstraZeneca PLC promotes an adaptable culture throughout the company. By group activities, the business regularly participates in change management initiatives to enhance its procedures, cultures, and work tasks. AstraZeneca PLC is a risk-taking company (Gallego-Álvarez and Pucheta-Martínez, 2021). The company’s willingness to take chances demonstrates its desire to discover and capitalize on possibilities — while also avoiding failure.

Long Term Orientation versus Short Term Normative Orientation (LTO)

AstraZeneca PLC has a long-term perspective on its strategic emphasis and growth, while implementation and associated operations are driven mainly by a short-term perspective.

Indulgence versus Restraint (IVR)

 

At AstraZeneca PLC, the organisational culture is a good blend of the two, with a strong preference for excess.

Organizational structural issues

The main feature of the AstraZeneca PLC board that seems to have led to these issues is a lack of independent directors. Along with the majority owner, the government’s holding of the company has been a key structural problem for the company’s board of directors.

9. Probable Solutions based on the issues

In the above section, there is nothing critical gaps that have been found however some suggestions are provided that are executed to develop the nominal factors.

  • Effective communication is essential for cooperation. Official communications assists in resolving interpersonal and team disputes (Training, 2012. Many communication channels abound, including departmental data, quarterly newsletters, and group or committee sessions.
  • It is essential to develop a common understanding of the organization’s main goals to guarantee successful coordination. Each group member must put the institution’s interest first.

10. Conclusion

In the age of global trade, every firm seeks to expand its operations internationally. Businesses develop internationalization strategies in line with their objectives. In that case, AstraZeneca plc is a multinational biopharmaceutical company locates in Cambridge, England. As a result of this study, it has been determined that Nepal has both serious environmental problems and benefits. In such a scenario, it has been verified that the business will have no difficulties operating in this state. On the other side, the business must be sufficiently worried about Nepal’s criticality. Additionally, this study examined the corporation’s culture and administrative elements using Hofstede cultural model. Additionally, this study made some recommendations for potential remedies based on the observed problems.

References

Cortés, A., Esteve-Llorens, X., González-García, S., Moreira, M.T. and Feijoo, G., 2021. Multi-product strategy to enhance the environmental profile of the canning industry towards the circular economy. Science of The Total Environment, p.148249.

Domínguez-Falcón, C., Fernández-Monroy, M., Galván-Sánchez, I. and Ballesteros-Rodríguez, J.L., 2021. Training as an internal marketing tool within the franchise system. Journal of Service Theory and Practice.

Flaherty, K.T., Doroshow, J.H., Galbraith, S., Ribas, A., Kluetz, P.G., Pazdur, R. and Theoret, M.R., 2021. Rethinking Cancer Clinical Trial Conduct Induced by COVID-19: An Academic Center, Industry, Government, and Regulatory Agency Perspective. Cancer Discovery.

Gallego-Álvarez, I. and Pucheta-Martínez, M.C., 2021. Hofstede’s cultural dimensions and R&D intensity as an innovation strategy: a view from different institutional contexts. Eurasian Business Review11(2), pp.191-220.

Grundy, T., 2006. Rethinking and reinventing Michael Porter's five forces model. Strategic change15(5), pp.213-229.

Jaiswal, L., 2021. Choice of Response Strategy Adopted by Indian Private Higher Education Institutions Collaborated with Foreign Education Institutions: Applying Porter’s Five Force Model. Education Quarterly Reviews4(2).

Jhunior, R.D.O.S., Abib, G. and Stocker, F., 2021. Risk Perception in the Internationalization of Brazilian Companies: An Analysis in Different Entry Modes. Organizations and Markets in Emerging Economies12(1), pp.106-130.

Kharub, M. and Sharma, R., 2017. Comparative analyses of competitive advantage using Porter diamond model (the case of MSMEs in Himachal Pradesh). Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal.

Kim, C.Y., Seo, E.H., Booranabanyat, C. and Kim, K., 2021. Effects of Emerging-Economy Firms’ Knowledge Acquisition from an Advanced International Joint Venture Partner on Their Financial Performance Based on the Open Innovation Perspective. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity7(1), p.67.

Lamichhane, B.P., 2021. Good Governance in Nepal: Legal Provisions and Judicial Praxis. Journal of Political Science21, pp.19-30.

Mauksch, S., 2021. Being blind, being exceptional: work integration, social entrepreneurship and the reimagination of blind potential in Nepal. Disability & Society, pp.1-20.

Panthi, B.R. and Chalise, A., 2021. Development and Challenges of Capital Market of Nepal: A survey. Nepalese Journal of Management Research1, pp.35-39.

Peng, M.W., 2021. Global strategy. Cengage learning.

Sent, E.M. and Kroese, A.L., 2020. Commemorating Geert Hofstede, a pioneer in the study of culture and institutions. Journal of Institutional Economics, pp.1-13.

Sterev, N., 2019. New industrial business models: From linear to circular economy approach. Trakia Journal of Sciences17(1), pp.511-523.

Thorne, N., 2021. Towards Lean & Green production management in the pharmaceutical industry: A framework for E-VSM and Kaizen event prioritization through a systematic literature review and case study at AstraZeneca.

Training, M.T.D., 2012. Effective communication skills. Bookboon.

Vaidya, R., 2021. Relationship between Stock Market and Economic Development: A Study on Nepal Stock Exchange Limited. Khowpa Journal4(1), pp.62-71.

Verbeke, A. and Yuan, W., 2021. A few implications of the covid-19 pandemic for international business strategy research. Journal of Management Studies58(2), pp.597-601.

Vlados, C., 2019. Porter’s diamond approaches and the competitiveness web. International Journal of Business Administration10(5), pp.33-52.

Wibowo, N. and Nurcahyo, R., 2020. Competitiveness In Global Transformation: A Systematic Review. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management (Vol. 12, No. 10).

Wilkins, S. and Huisman, J., 2012. The international branch campus as transnational strategy in higher education. Higher education64(5), pp.627-645.

Yaprak, A., Xu, S. and Cavusgil, E., 2011. Effective global strategy implementation. Management International Review51(2), pp.179-192.

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