Identity of Adolescents and it's Causes Assignment Sample

Role of social media, the internet, and school information� in the identity of teenagers

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What Role Do Social Media, Internet, And School Information Play In The Identity Of Adolescents Assignment

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Chapter 1: Introduction of using social media, the internet, and school information and effects on students

1.1 Research background

Adolescence is a time when individuals produce their identities. Adolescents are supposed to be focused on setting their educational as well as professional goals, as well as forming a sense of who they are and who they want to be. The building of a strong sense of identity, social relationships, and individualism are all important aspects of adolescent identity development. As a result, a strong adolescent self-identity is critical since it affects a teen’s sense of belonging not only throughout their youth but also throughout their lives (Arnold, 2017). Furthermore, having a stronger sense of self appears to be associated with having a stronger personality. In today’s society, identity is critical in enabling people to carry out their responsibilities and liabilities fairly. And, identity creation is largely associated with school information, the internet, and social media platforms. Social media platforms, the internet, and school information play a very significant role in developing the personality as well as the identity of adolescents.

Adolescents spend a significant amount of time at school, and this is an important setting in which their identity development can be aided: Teachers can assist teenagers in assessing the emergence of new concepts, behaviours, or opportunities that they encounter at school. In school, the students learn a variety of things that can increase their interest in various factors. The adolescents can gather necessary information about various topics. The information helps change the perspectives and viewpoints of the youngsters and thus it is crucial for identifying the creation of the adolescents (Arnold, 2017). Information can also generate innovation in society. The teenagers can create some innovative ideas which they can turn into reality by giving them a proper shape and structure with the help of their motivation as well as dedication. They can create some innovative products and services with the help of the information they acquire from their teachers, ideals, and the people they connect with on social media as well as the internet.

Youngsters have always been influenced by social media. In all domains of development, the media has the ability to have a positive or negative impact on adolescent growth. They develop their social behavior by demonstrating modesty or aggression, and by using social media platforms to make new friends and strengthen old ones. During its early stages, the internet became a source of information. Due to the development of Web 2.0, it is not anymore a site where teenagers go to absorb information and knowledge (Ngonso, 2019). It became a place where people could participate and learn new things and try to develop themselves by getting inspired by any content. This is a fluid environment that they have already established by their actions and efforts.

People, especially teenagers, use the internet on a regular basis. They spend a substantial amount of time on social media, and as a result of the increased usage of the internet, their means of contact with one another have evolved. Teens are greatly influenced by social media because they use it. The material that adolescents see on social media has an impact on their opinions (Ngonso, 2019). In the current digital age, the internet and its accompanying components, such as social media, have only a minor impact on teenage identification. Aside from that, what they gain at schools is school data. This information has an impact on how children perceive things and how their minds develop.

The students and adolescents can gather various information about many new things including technical things, entrepreneurial ideas, and information about some study topics, business ideas, and about many famous people (Arnold, 2017). With the information, the minds of youth can be attracted. It helps them ponder about those things resulting in the development of new some unique things. It thus can help them develop their identity.

1.2 Research rationale

Interactions with social media, the internet, and school material have an impact on adolescents’ personalities and roles. These events have an impact on how youngsters perceive themselves. The influence can be negative at times, which can have serious consequences for their mental health and that of their family because it can change their conduct (Bhimani, Mention, and Barlatier, 2019). This is why understanding the magnitude of these effects is critical. The study is particularly important for parents of teenagers because they must understand the role of the internet, school information, and social media in the formation of their children’s identities in order to safeguard their children’s well-being. The rationale of the research is to analyze the areas through which adolescents can develop their identity using school information, the internet, and social media platforms. Identity creation plays a very significant role in the personal and professional development of adolescents.

With the help of the research, the adolescents and their parents can get the necessary information for developing their identity. They can also be benefitted from how they can use the information from the internet, social media platforms, and school to boost their own identity. They can appropriately use these sources to develop some unique and new things which can generate their personality. Social media and internet contents provide information about various things which generate ideas and develop the thought process of adolescents (Dennen, Choi, and Word, 2020). It therefore can become a significant factor for the adolescents for using information from the sources.

The study can help young people by encouraging them to consider how these factors shaped their identity and determining whether they are increasingly reliant on social media platforms or the internet. The students can thus make the most suitable use of the information for enhancing their skills and knowledge development. Their personalities are changing as a result of it. The motivation for this study is strong, and it can help audiences have a better understanding of the internet, social networking sites, and institutional information, as well as their role in educating or changing the identities of young people (Monacis et al., 2017). This study cast the spotlight on the role of social media, school information, and the internet in the growth and development of adolescent identities. Most importantly, adolescents can utilize the research paper for transforming their viewpoints on social media platforms and the internet. They can also get a thorough understanding of identity development.

1.3 Research aims

The research aim is always an important point for the research paper. This research paper has also an aim that has been effectively maintained. The purpose of this research is to look into the “role of social media, the internet, and school information” in the identity of teenagers. This study sought to determine the relevance of factors for creating identities. The primary aim of the research paper is to explain the significant role of the internet in developing the identity of adolescents. Moreover, the roles of the internet, social media platforms and school information for the identity development of adolescents are aimed in this research. The importance and significance of the school information, social media platforms, and internet are explained to identify the major roles of these features for transforming the identity of the adolescents.

1.4 Research Objectives

Without the objectives, no purposeful action can be implemented in any field. The objectives can help set an action plan and thus necessary strategies for reaching those goals are developed. Setting objectives and goals can help the researchers get the desired outcomes (Islam, and Samsudin, 2020). Also, having no objectives, a research paper can be vague and meaningless. The goals can provide a basic structure to the research paper. The main objectives of the research are:

  • “To identify the role of social media in the identity of adolescents”
  • “To understand the role of the internet in the identity of adolescents”
  • “To analyze the role of school information in the identity of adolescents”

1.5 Research Questions

The research questions are very prominent as these help the researchers in directing the research in the right direction. Also, with the help of the research questions, the researchers can obtain desired goals of the research effectively (White, 2017). Focusing on the questions, they can set their plan for a purposeful research method. The research questions for this research are:

  • “What role social media plays in the identity of adolescents?”
  • “What is the role of the internet in the identity of adolescents?”
  • “What role school information plays in the identity of adolescents?”

1.6 Research Significance

The research has a huge significance as it can help the teenagers get necessary help and assistance for using social media, the internet, and school information for building their identification. Also, the parents and the superior of the children can understand the importance of these tools for the identity creation of their children. Along with that, the research can also help future researchers get guidance for directing their research work based on a similar topic. People’s actions are guided by social media platforms and the internet (Fullam, 2017). Internet, social media these days are being widely used for sharing news and innovative ideas among various people. This is the main significance of the research to use these tools for something good purpose. The main purpose of the research paper is to strengthen the understanding and concept of the teenagers for utilizing these tools for their betterment.

Moreover, the school has ever been utilized for developing the career and identity of the students by empowering them with an abundance of knowledge and information. They not only learn new things there but also can get the opportunity to practically use the information for building some new things (Ruthmann, and Dillon, 2018). It thus can help them create their identity.

These are the areas where they share their everyday life. As the social media platform can depict various components of an adolescent’s status in geographical, virtual, and community interaction, social media plays a very important impact in identity. As it has a very tremendous impact on people’s ideas within the community, social media has become much more popular these days and it is becoming incredibly valuable. Identity, discovery, and innovation are all facilitated by not only social networking sites but also the internet and school. Adolescents can collect and learn numerous information which enhances their ideas and knowledge. Depending on the information they can also generate their ideas and creativity (Barbot, and Heuser, 2017). It is extremely helpful for them for increasing their knowledge. In these platforms, they can find other people sharing their ideas and thoughts which can inspire them to generate new ideas. This is how they can also build their creativity. It thus helps them build their identity.

The Internet has a robust power to let people connect and communicate all over the world. Adolescents are no exception to this. They can connect people to a large extent and also can observe how famous scientists and professors develop new ideas and share some valuable information. The research can also help teenagers and adolescents in using the internet and social media platforms for developing their morals (Ardi, Viola, and Sukmawati, 2018). The teenagers thus can collect the information and can learn various new things.

The internet and social media platforms provide them the opportunity to connect with the people of their ideals to gather new information from them. They can also set aim for developing unique things by getting simply inspired by the thoughts of those famous people. It helps them in building their personality (Muninger, Hammedi, and Mahr, 2019). It is therefore very significant to use the internet for a good aim. This is how the significance of the research has been established throughout the research. In this paper, not only the roles but also the proper and beneficial usage of the internet, social media as well as school information has been developed for a thorough understanding.

Chapter 2: Literature Review of impact of the identity of adolescents

2.1 Chapter Overview

The literature review mainly throws light on how social media, Internet as well as school information tends to impact the identity of adolescents. Therefore, revenant and authentic secondary sources that includes scholastic journals, articles, as well as relevant PDFs have been analysed for deriving literature regarding this chapter (Andrei, 2018). The goal of this literature study is to determine the degree to which components such as social media and the internet contribute to the formation of teenagers’ sense of self. Adolescents’ identities and social roles are shaped by their interactions with technology, whether it’s social media, the internet, or school information. Adolescents’ perceptions of themselves as social persons are shaped by these encounters.

When the impact is unfavourable, might have major ramifications for the children’s and their parents’ mental health and behaviour. Identifying the extent of these impacts is a crucial factor in this process. In order to protect their children’s emotional and physical health, parents need to be aware of the role social media, the internet, and school information play in their children’s identity (Brosch 2016). The literature is also useful for youngsters to reflect on how their identities are being influenced by this, and if they are giving social media or the internet an excessive amount of importance that is causing distinctions in their identities. In addition, the vacuum in the literature reveals an area of research that needs to be pursued in the future.

2.2Role of social media in the identity of adolescents

Gündüz (2017) asserts that social media platforms play a huge part in people’s life since they are the areas where individuals display their day-to-day activities. Adolescent identity is heavily affected by social media since it is a reflection of the numerous elements of their social, physical, and virtual positions. People’s sense of self is increasingly shaped by their usage of social media, which has skyrocketed in popularity in recent years. It is possible to explore and experiment with one’s identity via the use of social media sites (Hasanah, 2018). People’s identities are partly influenced by their relationships with others, and social media may be seen as the vehicle that facilitates such connections and interactions. Identity is defined in large part by group interactions, such as those that take place on social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter (Fonseca et al., 2021). Adolescents learn about their own self-perceptions and the kinds of connections they may make on social media that can help them grow, alter, or distort their sense of self. Creating several profiles and using fictitious names to flaunt one’s coolness are two common examples of teens misrepresenting their identities on social media. The author of this research has delved into the practical aspects of how social media shapes one’s identity. The authors have discovered that teenagers place a great deal of importance on their online personas, which are established via the use of social media. The author has found that teenagers’ social and cultural identities might be questioned by the virtual identities they build via social media.

Doble (2018) has discussed the impact of social media on teenagers’ identity development. Adolescent identity formation and growth are heavily influenced by their use of social media, according to Doble’s studies. Students in this study were made aware of their social media use and its effect on identity development. Adolescents are so used to utilising social media in our digital era that the author has noticed. Nowadays, social media platforms are mostly used by teenagers to communicate virtually. However, adolescence is characterised by a wide range of physical and mental changes that are heavily impacted by social media. The adolescent years are defined by dramatic changes in relationships, personal growth, and socialisation. Adolescents become more aware of the impact of their social environment on their own growth and development when this change occurs (Glynn, 2020). In the opinion of the authors, people on social media who have virtual interactions with teenagers may have beneficial or detrimental impacts on their identity development. Research shows that social media has both beneficial and negative effects on the formation of teenagers’ self-identity.

Adolescence, as per Mirkin (2017), is a time when a person’s sense of self is forming. Social media platforms always have an impact on how teenagers establish a sense of self-identity. Adolescents’ self-perceptions, socialised attitudes, and how they see their identities from the perspectives of others are all influenced by social media. It is via social media platforms that teenagers may nurture self-esteem and create strong connections with others, allowing them to grow as individuals. Adolescents’ identities may be shaped by the problems they face on social media platforms, which provide a variety of avenues for them to express their individuality. In today’s society, social media plays a vital part in helping teenagers recognise who they are and what they’re here for (Mishra, 2020). It is crucial in today’s world for teenagers to be social media literate, the author says, in agreement with the conclusions given in the previous two publications. The author of this research used many identity development theories in order to better understand how teenagers form their identities and how social media plays a part in this. To sum up, the author believes that teenagers’ low self-esteem and mental health may be a consequence of a negative social media influence in identity formation. Positive role results in a decrease in social anxiety as well as the development of strong self-identity, among other things.

During adolescence, a person’s development, psychological health, and, most importantly, his or her sense of self-identity all take place (Huang et al., 2021). Research, theoretical foundations, and facets of teenage identity formation are discussed in light of the particular challenges faced by this age group and the possible consequences of contacts with social media platforms on the internet are discussed in this chapter. Adolescent identity development research and theories are now available, but their validity is now under dispute because of the rapid proliferation of electronic social media platforms among today’s adolescents. As a result, it is essential to keep in mind that the majority of today’s kids prefer online socialising over face-to-face activities. In order to understand adolescence, one must look at it from a variety of angles and consider the socialisation of those involved.

It’s during adolescence when the notion of identity starts to impact a person’s daily life (Sebre and Miltuze, 2021). One’s self-perception as an individual and one’s affiliation with a social person or group of people are the two halves of one’s identity formation. A person’s sense of self does not emerge from inside; rather, it is formed as a result of their responses to both internal and external influences. It’s interesting to note that people’s sense of self-identity is shaped by variables beyond their control, such as the environment. Since identity is multifaceted and dynamic, it also evolves with time, making it difficult to define. A person’s self-identification and their social identity are both defined by Noon, (2020). Self-identification, on the other hand, is a descriptive notion that refers to a person’s likes, hobbies, friends, and engagements in their own concerns. Social identity, on the other hand, is conceived by external variables. When it comes to a person’s sense of self-worth, the basis is drawn from their self-identity, which is the way they see and value themselves. Changes in one’s self-perception occur throughout adolescence as a result of the influences of school, family and friends and other external elements in the social environment. Individuals’ sense of belonging is therefore shaped by their own self-identities.

There has been a change in the psychology literature on identity formation over the last several decades away from classic paradigms (Kerpelman and Pittman, 2018). As a result of the proliferation of electronic social media platforms, the notion of self-identity has been supplemented by external influences, rather than internal ones. Social groups such as parents, schools, classmates, extracurricular activities, and schools have traditionally affected conventional notions of identity formation. Identity was traditionally divided into three categories: ideas and values, homosexuality and race (Syed and Fish, 2018). Psychologists have influenced the area of psychology via theoritical contributions of Carl Rogers, Urie Brofenbrenner, Jean Piaget, Lawrence Kohlberg, and Erik Erikson. In the modern day, however, these views seem to be outmoded by comparison.

2.3 Theories of identity Development

A person’s identity is made up of the objectives, values, and beliefs that they hold dear. Consistent self-awareness, as well as the acknowledgement of this constancy by others, is the essence of self-awareness (Moon, 2021). Individuals and groups are both involved in the process of creating their own sense of self. Adolescence is a critical time for developing a person’s “theory of self”, which is shaped in part through exposure to positive role models and a variety of possible self-images. Adolescence, according to Erikson (1968), is a time of ‘identity crisis’ in which a person must make a decision about how they want to be seen and who they want to be. Personal identity is developed via a process of considering several possibilities and then making a decision to commit to an alternative that best suits one’s needs and desires. Identity confusion may emerge from a lack of well-developed self-identity. As a result, those with identity confusion are unsure of who they are or what they are supposed to accomplish in the world.

A person’s ability to comprehend and participate in their social systems depends on their ability to form their own sense of identity. Identity development, according to Adams and Marshall (1996), serves five purposes: it provides order and structure to one’s self-knowledge, a sense of consistency and cohesion to one’s beliefs, objectives, and self-knowledge, a sense of continuity for one’s past and future, goals and direction, and a sense of control over one’s choices and outcomes.

Erikson’s Identity vs. Role Confusion

This theory of psychosocial development stresses the importance of social interaction in the development of the individual. According to his theory, we go through many stages of psychological and social growth throughout the course of our lives (Maree, 2021). Erikson argued that our concept of self, or ego identity, is shaped through our interactions with others. According to him, the motivation comes from the desire to improve ourselves in particular aspects of our life. From birth through late adulthood, humans go through eight developmental phases, according to psychosocial theory (Kolacz, Kovacic, and Porges, 2019). A disagreement or job must be resolved at each level. As a consequence of successfully completing each developmental activity, a feeling of competence and a healthy personality are formed. Feelings of inadequacy might arise if one cannot do these activities.

An adolescent’s fundamental psychosocial duty is to build one’s identity, according to Erikson. For Erikson, adolescence is a time of “identity versus role uncertainty,” when people are still trying to figure out who they are and what they want to accomplish with their lives. Individuals are questioned at this stage regarding their physical attributes, job choices and career goals; education; relationships; sexuality; political opinions; personality; and hobbies (Erwandi et al., 2021). When it comes to one’s identity and life direction, Erikson considered this as a time of uncertainty. A psychological moratorium occurs throughout adolescence, in which adolescents put their attachment to an identity on hold while they consider their possibilities.

Adolescence is a transitional period between childhood and maturity, and it is determined by how the individual resolves all of their earlier childhood psychological crises. In Erikson’s opinion, the key questions of an adolescent are: “Who am I?” Likewise, the age-old question, “Who am I supposed to be?” During adolescence, the development of a strong sense of self was seen as the most important measure of success (“in contrast to role confusion, which would be an indicator of not successfully meeting the task of adolescence”). Adolescents who have re-examined their own aims and values in relation to those of their parents and society find a way to overcome this crisis by gaining a new virtue: loyalty. When children grow up, they often take on the values and personas that their parents have for them(Maree, 2021). While some teenagers choose to identify with their parents, others choose to associate themselves with a peer group. As teenage friendships become more important, this shift is frequent.

A more complete understanding of oneself emerges as a result of this investigation. A failure to get through this stage may lead to social exclusion or becoming lost in the throng. However, new research reveals that few people leave this age period with a strong sense of identity and that most identity building happens in early adulthood.

Marcia’s Identity Statuses

Marcia (1966), building on Erikson’s theory, said that adolescent identity development involves both exploration and commitment in terms of ideas and professions (e.g., religion, career, politics, gender roles, relationships ). When people connect with role models who can provide them possibilities for who they can become, identity development gets off to a good start. teenagers are involved in decision making and commit themselves to possibilities within their social surroundings as their identity development continues. In certain circumstances, the person will not commit or will decide without having the chance to examine alternative possibilities, which may lead to a lack of commitment or a lack of commitment (Marcia, 1993).

When teenagers do not investigate or commit to any identities, they experience identity confusion/diffusion. When a person commits to an identity before considering other possibilities, they are likely to end up in foreclosure. Adolescents are in a state of moratorium when they are actively considering their alternatives but have yet to make any decisions. Achieving one’s own identity is a goal that many people want to attain after doing their due diligence, discovering their purpose, and committing to a certain identity.

Many children have identity dispersal, which is the most immature state. Identity diffusion is a state in which a person has neither investigated their alternatives nor committed to a certain identity. Marcia (1993) stated that people approach the process of identity construction with little knowledge or experience of identity exploration or the intention of committing to an identity. Marcia Children and early teenagers are anticipated to transition out of this identity-diffusion stage when they have been exposed to role models and activities that provide them with identity options. Those who hold on to this identity may find themselves drifting aimlessly through life, feeling disconnected from others and without a clear sense of direction. Diffusion is characterised by poor self-esteem, a lack of genuine connections, a lack of commitment or endurance in activities or relationships, ego, and self-indulgent.

People who are in identity foreclosure have made a commitment to a certain identity without first considering all of the alternatives available to them. In many cases, adolescents may enter a period of “foreclosure” when they may, at least initially, commit to an identification without making an effort to explore it further (Marcia, 1966). In many cases, this kind of dedication is the result of pressure from family, friends, or culture, as well as adolescent fear over change or uncertainty. Most teenagers should be able to think for themselves and have a variety of possibilities for a new identity by the time they reach adulthood. There are occasions when youth and adulthood are both affected by the effects of home foreclosure.

In other circumstances, parents make these choices and decisions and do not let the adolescent to make his or her own. In some cases, teenagers want to emulate their parents and other adults in their lives(Meeus, 2018). An authoritarian parenting style, high levels of conformity, poor tolerance or acceptance of change, and traditional thinking are all characteristics related with long-term foreclosure.

Adolescence is associated with a change from identity dissemination and foreclosure to moratorium and accomplishment. College is the best time for students to build a sense of their own identity since they are exposed to a wider range of job options, personal styles, and worldviews. Identity concerns are likely to arise as a result of this experience (Erwandi et al., 2021). Adolescence and early adulthood are crucial times for developing one’s sense of self and developing a specific vision of what one hopes to achieve in their lives after graduating from high school or college. People who are in an “identity moratorium” state are still trying to figure out who they are, but they haven’t made any decisions. The adolescent’s transition from childhood to adulthood may be a stressful and emotionally fraught time. There are no guarantees and many questions, but few answers (Marcia, 1966). The pause period is indeed a prelude to achieving one’s own identity. During the moratorium phase, teenagers are expected to be rebellious and disobedient, avoid dealing with issues, delay, have poor self-esteem, feel uncomfortable, and unclear about their future plans.

People who have made a commitment to their identity are regarded as identity achievers. Developing one’s identity is a lengthy process, and many people don’t accomplish it until they’re in their early twenties. They have a strong sense of self-worth and self-definition, and they have a strong sense of commitment to that self-definition.

Criticisms of the hypothesis that Marcia’s statuses may assist us better comprehend the process of forming identity are many. For starters, the identity status may never be uniform; different components of the identity may be at various states of readiness(Marcia, 1966). For distinct parts of identity, a person may be in numerous identity statuses at the very same time. It’s possible that a person’s religion, employment, and gender identity are all in a different state of flux than they are in the rest of their life.

In addition, identity statuses do not often proceed in the manner shown above, but this is the most usual path. Identity attainment isn’t for everyone, and it’s not a state that can be maintained indefinitely. Beyond investigation and commitment, there could be a third stage in the process of identity development: reassessing one’s level of commitment (Kim and Choi, 2018). Adding this status would generate a fifth one, a prohibition on searching. After a commitment is made, this condition is a re-examination. It is unusual for the commitments to components of their identity to shift as they acquire knowledge and access to new possibilities. Adulthood may be the time when this prohibition on seeking comes to an end.

2.4 Role of the internet in the identity of adolescents

Teenagers’ identities are being moulded in large part by social media, and not only in terms of their group identities, but also in terms of their individual identities, the ones that set them apart from others and enable them to express who they are as individuals (Huang et al., 2021). Social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram are more than just places to meet new people, exchange messages, and post photos. Teenagers’ identities are being shaped by the social media as much as they are by their time in school. A teenager’s self-image is formed and defined by their interactions with others ((Fuchs et al., 2018). The importance of constantly comparing oneself to others cannot be overstated. Whether they weren’t able to compare themselves to their classmates, they wouldn’t know if they were tall or short. Because of this, they may not see themselves as witty or serious. A group’s acceptance, assimilation, and success in personal connections will also be a factor. Granic, Morita, and Scholten (2020) claim that digital displays and the internet are no longer merely a source of entertainment, but that teenagers’ identity formation is influenced by them. Adolescents’ daily lives are being impacted by virtual reality in today’s world. The authors of this research have primarily focused on the relationship between screen use and students’ mental health. Using a functional approach, the authors have analysed how and why the internet influence’s teenage identity formation. Adolescents’ mental health could be either good or harmful as a result of identity formation via the internet, particularly the core development of adolescents. The theoretical frameworks and theories of narrative development have indeed been offered in order to achieve the study’s goal. This digital ecology has both harmful and beneficial consequences on the mental health of the young folks who are growing up today—the adolescents. Adolescents’ screen usage has a direct influence on their identity formation via the internet (Hasanah, 2018). Time spent on digital apps, browsing, or any other platform that involves access to the internet is included in screen time. Adolescents’ real lives have been profoundly influenced by their online personas for quite some time now. In adolescence, important physical and psychological changes occur that are influenced by internet use. The results of the research suggest that after 2007, the internet had a significant impact on teenagers’ identity formation. In part, this is due to a rise in teenage internet usage. When it comes to their identity development, psychologically and physically activities, the younger generation could no longer be regarded without the internet.

In the perspective of Borca et al (2015), the internet facilitates the accomplishment of teenagers’ identity development tasks. Authors in this research suggest that the internet has a good impact on the formation of an individual’s identity, while the prior study found that the internet had a detrimental impact. According to the authors, the internet has a considerable impact on the development of teenagers’ identities, their autonomy, and their social networks. For teenagers, the Internet provides a tool for them to identify their interests and compare them to those of others, so that they may better understand their social identity. Using the internet may lead to conflict between teenagers and their parents, according to research published in the journal Pediatrics. However, this does not necessitate conflict. A good connection with parents may also benefit from it. This research found that teenagers’ internet use had a significant impact on their self-image. Teenagers’ use of the internet to explore their sense of self in relation to schoolmates, family members, and other peers seems to be on the rise. A common practise among teens, according to the author, is using a false name on the internet. Adolescents form their false identities to construct an ideal identity inside the social environment.

Young people, according to Manago (2015), have grown up in a world where using social media and other forms of online communication is practically expected of them. Throughout this research, the author has concentrated primarily on the impact that the internet has on teenagers’ identity formation. A few of the articles’ results have indeed been backed up by the author of this piece. Internet-enabled teenage socialisation and self-expression concerning self-perception among peers, relatives, and friends are now fresh claims made by researchers in this study. Adolescents’ use of the Internet has grown dramatically over the last several years, allowing it to play a larger part in their formation of self and social identities. The internet is a wonderful way for teens to communicate with their classmates and their parents in today’s digital world. Adolescents have a fresh perspective on life due to the Internet, which helps them build their own identity. Adolescents’ self-expression on the internet is encouraged to be free and uninhibited. It gives young people the chance to shape their identities in ways that are consistent with society’s ideals for what it is to be a good person.

2.5 Role of school information in the identity of adolescents

According to Verhoeven, Poorthuis, and Volman (2019), schooling has a significant impact on how teenagers form their sense of self and who they are. The authors of this research were particularly interested in the ways in which schooling aids in the formation of one’s personal identity. Teachers, in particular, have been shown to have an unintended impact on young people’s identity formation, according to the authors’ research. Teachers at school may unwittingly tell students what they should be and how they should act, according to several studies. There are several ways to convey this message to children, including peer norms, choosing them for something, or using successful teaching tactics. In addition, the writers looked at the ways wherein the instructors help shape their students’ identities in a positive manner (Hatchel et al., 2019). In order to help teenagers, create their own identities, instructors purposefully share their own experiences in the classroom with them, allowing them to experiment with a variety of identities, and helping them better understand their own self-image. One way to promote a supportive classroom climate for teenagers is for instructors to share their own personal experiences, according to the authors.

Abbasi (2016) believes that the formation of an individual’s identity starts at the age of infancy. Developing one’s identity begins in adolescence and continues for the rest of one’s life. During adolescence, humans undergo physical and psychological changes, as well as the creation of social expectations from others. At a school, these adjustments and requirements are managed well. A study published in the Journal of Adolescent Development found that the school environment helps teenagers build their identities. According to the author, teenage identity formation relies heavily on what they learn in school (Graham, 2018). There are several factors that contribute to a student’s identity formation in the classroom, including social, organisational, and educational ones. Adolescents spend a significant amount of time in school, according to the author, and this plays a significant part in their personal identity formation. Teenage identity formation is made possible in large part by the programmes and activities offered by the educational establishment where they attend school. Effective interpersonal relations and social interactions are fostered at school, especially with one’s fellow students and one’s instructors. A place where identity exploration, socialising, and trying out new roles and relationships may all take place in the context of education.

Adolescent identity formation and the function of school learning have been examined in a fresh light by Ragelien (2016). An adolescent is said to have to deal with the difficulties of comprehending the significance of role and identity in society. Adolescents’ enhanced cognitive health may be attributed to schooling, according to the author, which helps them develop a stronger sense of self and purpose. As their feeling of psychological and emotional growth is enabled by good connections with peers, support for identity development is provided. Peer connections and identity formation have been the focus of this study’s author. There was evidence to suggest that having positive interactions with one’s peers aids in the formation of one’s own identity (Graham, 2018). This has also been shown that school lessons may aid in the development of healthy connections between teenagers and their fellow students. Schooling is shown to have a vital impact in teenagers’ successful identity formation. This is due to the fact that students spend a great deal of time in the classroom interacting with one another, instructors, and participating in various learning activities. Adolescents who participate in these activities are better able to define themselves.

There is a first evidence of teenage identity success when adolescents make choices in school that reinforce their identities. According to Ragelien (2016) variables such as the school’s overall structure and environment, as well as interactions between students, teachers, and other members of the community, may have long-term effects on a student’s identity. The impact of the school environment on adolescents’ identity development has only been examined in a few empirical research. An investigation of the influence of school climate on students’ self-identity development was carried out by Swanson and Spencer (2019) at three high schools with varied socioeconomic origins. Context was shown to have a greater influence on student identity exploration and commitment at the school with kids from better socioeconomic backgrounds, the researchers concluded. It is not obvious what characteristics and variables in schools help adolescents’ development of their own identities in this research. A confluence between students’ socioeconomic status and school influences on identity formation was identified in the research. This reveals how schools may assist or impede adolescent identity development. According to Graham (2018), teenage females who attended both private and public schools were more likely to develop a strong sense of self identification. Girls attending private schools were more likely to be in foreclosure status than those attending public schools, which were more likely to be in moratorium and identity achievement status. According to the authors, a larger percentage of foreclosed teenagers may be attributable to the private school environment’s homogeneity, which exposes kids to fewer ideological opinions and places more responsibility on them to determine career goals. As a result of their education at the state school, teenage females were exposed to a broader variety of ideological ideas and belief systems, which allowed them to consider and commit to a wide range of options (Abbasi, 2016). This research shows that schools may help or hinder teenage experimentation with multiple career paths.

2.6 Positive Influences of social media on Sense of Belonging

Roberts and David (2020) conducted a series of interviews with 32 teenagers to examine the importance young people put on online contacts with their peers. Study participants reported a stronger feeling of community among themselves after exchanging texts, using social networking sites like Facebook, and using instant messaging, as previously noted. They said that social media allowed them to communicate with their friends regardless of where they were or what time of day it was. These findings show that teenagers’ urge to belong may be fulfilled by the ability to experience connectivity — remaining in contact — (Alizadeh et al., 2018). Among the findings of Roberts and David (2020) was that young people’s ability to widen their social circles was much enhanced by the social networking aspects of their teenage socialisation. Online communication considerably and favourably influences people’s feelings of social integration and bonding, according to other study.

A feeling of belonging may be fostered via social media by encouraging young individuals to gain approval from their peers, according to Davis. Gender-specific findings have been mixed in previous research on the relationship between social networking sites and a feeling of belonging (i.e., Quinn and Oldmeadow, 2013). According to Quinn and Oldmeadow (2013), 443 young people were given a modified measure of belonging (Anderson-Butcher & Conroy 2002) and found that a feeling of belonging was linked to social networking sites only for guys. In comparison to their peers who did not use social networking sites, 12–13-year-old males who used social networking sites expressed a greater feeling of belonging to their peer group. According to the authors, boys may be using online spaces to practise caring connections, which are essential to a feeling of belonging. Despite this, further study is required to determine the exact nature of these gender disparities and the factors that may be contributing to them. When it comes to promoting a feeling of belonging and social contact, the same technologies that ease social connection have indeed been demonstrated to have the opposite effect. Because of the development in social media and the greater usage of these sites by young people, adolescents will be much more susceptible to experiences such as ostracism, which adversely impacts their feeling of belonging, as a result (Pharo et al., 2011).

2.7 Negative Influences of social media on Sense of Belonging

Social exclusion, ostracism, and disconnection are all terms researchers have used to characterise the lack of a sense of community for those who experience this condition (Williams, 2007). The psychological urge to belong is directly threatened by ostracism, which is defined as that being ignored or ostracised (Williams and Nida, 2011). It has been called cyberostracism to characterise the experience of exclusion that may occasionally occur in digital social contexts. This idea is founded on the premise that being excluded, ignored, or disregarded in these places may be just as damaging as the equivalent in face-to-face meetings. There is proof that cyberostracism, like ostracism, affects people’s feeling of belonging (Abrams et al., 2011). It was shown that cyberostracism had a negative impact on the lives of 166 participants, aged 8 to 9 years old, 13 to 14 years old, and adults. All ages were capable of playing Cyberball, a socially engaging online multiplayer ball tossing game, with instructions given orally and graphically so players could follow along.

Through into the game, the players went through experiences that either promoted social inclusion or excluded them. As a result of the trials, the participants were assessed based on their satisfaction with four basic psychological needs: self-worth, identification with a group, meaning, and sense of agency. Interestingly, the urge to belong was threatened the greatest for individuals whose first encounter with the game was exclusion (ostracism). Cyberostracism had a significant impact on 13- to 14-year-olds’ sense of belonging, compared to the younger or older groups, according to the research. According to the findings of Pharo et al., (2011) teenagers may be more vulnerable to cyberostracism and may put more importance on being accepted by their friends than children or adults. Inducing sentiments of cyberostracism may take many forms, of which Cyberball is only one. Being refused admission to exclusive Facebook groups, de-friended or prohibited from seeing others’ accounts, or denied permission to follow people on Twitter may also cause comparable sensations. However, these theories should be tested experimentally in the future.

2.8 Impact of social media on psychological well-being

An individual has been said to feel lonely if their expectations of interpersonal interactions are in conflict with their actual experiences (Heiman and Olenik Shemesh, 2019). Adolescents, according to Margalit (2010), are frequently torn between the desire to feel a sense of belonging of peers and the desire to forge their own unique identity. There are times when this delicate equilibrium is broken, leading to a feeling of isolation. Loneliness in childhood and teenage years may have a negative impact on a person’s mental health and well-being (Margalit, 2010). Researchers have questioned whether social media promotes or diminishes a sense of community among teenagers, as has been the case with online networks such as Facebook (Laghi et al., 2013). Social media may be a powerful tool for enhancing social connectivity, providing training in social relatedness, or contributing to increasing alienation and social exclusion, as Williams and Nida (2011) points out. Recent research reveals, paradoxically, that both sides of the debate may be correct, but that the outcomes may vary owing to variances in individual characteristics. As “a lack of personal contacts or exclusion from social networks” is defined, one is said to be socially isolated. An individual’s absence of meaningful social interaction, a feeling of belonging, and an enjoyable connection is linked with an increased incidence of death and illness. As a result, those who suffer from social isolation are unable to form meaningful relationships with others or participate in social activities. Stress, loneliness, and depression have all been linked to social media use, as well as feelings of social isolation. On the other hand, several recent research claim that the usage of social media helps people feel less alone (Heiman and Olenik Shemesh, 2019). Increased usage of social media sites like Facebook, Twitter and Instagram may help people feel less isolated from their friends and family. When it comes to social media, for example, videos and photographs may help people demonstrate closeness, reducing social isolation.

Positive In?uences of social media on Psychosocial Wellbeing

It has been shown in recent research by Bonetti, Campbell, and Gilmore (2010) that teenagers who are lonely and isolated and stressed are more likely to participate in self-disclosure while communicating online. Researchers gathered information on loneliness, confidence issues, and internet communication among 626 Australian adolescents aged 10 to 16 years old. Using online chat, lonely students were shown to be much more probable students to talk about personal issues, such as mysteries and feelings. In a recent study of shy teenagers who spoke through the Internet, researchers found a similar trend (Laghi et al., 2013). There is research to support the notion that students who are isolated are more likely to confess to using social media as a means of meeting new people and feeling a sense of belonging than their non-isolating peers. When it comes to communicating face-to-face, students who are lonely say that internet chats make them feel less awkward and more at ease. The foregoing findings show that internet conversation may have good effects on lonely teens. As a result, it seems that the good benefits may be more noticeable in teenagers who have difficulty or are uncomfortable in social circumstances in which they interact with others. According to Laghi et al. (2013), the decrease in social signals given by the internet helps socially anxious persons to feel more at ease while revealing personal information to others. This finding confirms this notion”. For example, internet communication lowers the requirement to establish eye contact or answer immediately, which decreases anxiety-inducing cues. As a result, social media sites like Facebook and Twitter may help socially anxious teenagers build better bonds with their classmates, which in turn might reduce their feelings of isolation and improve their overall well-being.

In addition, research shows that adolescents with learning challenges are more likely to become lonely than adolescents without disabilities (Heiman and Olenik Shemesh, 2019). When Laghi et al. (2013) saw this, they decided to undertake a research and see whether internet communication and virtual friendships might help alleviate feelings of loneliness in students with learning difficulties. The research recruited 716 Israeli high school students (375 males and 341 girls) between the ages of 16 and 18 for participation. 334 of these pupils were diagnosed with learning difficulties. Using the internet to contact with existing friends was shown to be a predictor of less severe loneliness in the study. Loneliness may be reduced in teenagers with learning difficulties by online communication with existing friends. Using social media to expand offline ties into the digital world makes sense.

Social media’s negative impacts on mental health and well-being

Online communication may well have a harmful impact on teenagers with learning difficulties, according to research by Sharabi and Margalit (2011). When students predominantly accessed the internet to communicate with persons they had met online, this impact exacerbated their feelings of loneliness. It’s significant to observe that this discovery runs counter to the previous research on online communication among teenagers suffering from social anxiety disorder (Laghi et al., 2013). Individuals with social anxiety and those with learning difficulties may have different preferences for online communication, as seen by this divergence. For instance, socially anxious teenagers may be aware that emotional loneliness stems from their inability to connect with others in real-world circumstances, such as at school or in the community. But as stated by the social comparison theory (Laghi et al., 2013), socially anxious teenagers may utilise the internet to feel powerful and minimise the anxiety that would otherwise prevent them from forging new relationships. Studies analysed show that teenagers with learning difficulties do not have the same feeling of social power via online communication as their peers without disabilities. Because teenagers with learning difficulties may have difficulty developing meaningful social relationships in person, past research shows that they may instead choose to communicate with others online (Sharabi and Margalit, 2011). Given these findings, it is plausible that teenage traits or reasons for using social media affect the effect of such usage on psychological well-being.

Chapter 3: Methodology of research to fulfil the study’s goals and answer its research questions

3.1 Chapter Overview

The approaches and techniques that the researcher will apply to fulfil the study’s goals and answer its research questions are alluded to as its methodology. The study’s methodology consists of the strategies, processes, and methods that the researcher is using to evaluate and process the research further in order to come at beneficial results. Data about a particular issue is gathered by researchers using procedures such as data collection, data analysis, and data evaluation. In a research article, readers may evaluate the validity and trustworthiness of a study’s methodology. In order to arrive at the most accurate result, researchers have used a variety of research approaches, which will be discussed in this part (Zhao et al., 2020). This section outlines the methodology employed in the study, according to the title. This chapter not only provides a framework for doing research, but it also offers suggestions on how to go about it in a methodical manner. This includes the assessment of the research designs and the way in which the research was normally carried out (Chilisa, 2019). Additionally, this chapter covers all of the previously mentioned ideas in adequate detail while also delving into the meatiest aspects of the subject. As a result, the chapter addresses a pressing research issue while also providing an in-depth look at various research techniques used.

A comprehensive overview of research methodologies and study guidelines is covered in this chapter, which focuses on the most relevant components of the topic. This was also done using qualitative methods. The approaches and procedures mentioned in this section are generally recognised since they encompass the most significant characteristics and tactics of the subject matter. To that end, the remainder of this section focuses on three distinct aspects of study methodology and design. Sample and sampling procedures, as well as methods for acquiring and analysing data, are all discussed in this section. Ethical issues may arise in this section, which also provides an anticipated completion date for the experiment. In addition, the researcher’s ability to give data on sampling technique and sample size has been greatly increased and transformed as a result. Apart from that, the researcher has exhibited a full understanding of the most appropriate procedures and processes employed in this particular study of the research.

3.2 Research Philosophy

A method to collecting, evaluating, and applying evidence is referred to as a research philosophy. Researchers believe data may be seen, analysed and utilised as a single phenomenon. According to the research, the study relies heavily on qualitative data, which is generally acknowledged and gathered in western philosophical tradition as both interpretivism and positivism (Melnikovas, 2018). The work of various authors, positivists, interpreters, practise practitioners, and philosophers has led to four major advances in research philosophy. Theories of positivism claim to be able to comprehend the social world based on empirical evidence. Interpretive theory, positivism, and calm contemplation are all types of research philosophy.

It is the major goal of positivist to re-establish learning, certainties and conceptions from resources that impose plausible frameworks and dependable segregation, which would be the basic purpose of positivism. By incorporating social critique with science, interpretivism is utilised to comprehend the researcher’s characteristics (Abdelhakim, 2021). According to the interpretative school of thinking, access to reality can only be achieved via the use of theoretical frameworks like perception, shared beliefs, and perceptions. As a result, the foundations of this theory are often built on an empirical criticism of positivist philosophy. Qualitative analysis is generally regarded as superior than quantitative analysis in this form of theory (Mardiana, 2020). Metaphysical positivity is a metaphysical assertion that is often used to gather numerous methodologies, save for existentialism and functionalist approaches. As a result, the researcher has used the interpretivism philosophy to evaluate significant facts and concepts in the following study project.

3.3 Research Approach

There are many different ways to do research, and each of these methods has its own advantages and disadvantages. As a result, the kind of study needed is largely determined by the research question. The second method of inquiry was used in the subsequent research, which focused on the worldwide influence of culture (Rastogi, Sharma and Madan, 2021). In the paper, the researcher said that this study would be qualitative since they had decided to utilise a qualitative design (Maarouf, 2019). A qualitative technique was used to gather data for the study, as stated by the researcher. It is possible to select the most appropriate qualitative research approach for this study from a variety of accessible options. Focus groups, inspection, interviews, and case studies are all examples of qualitative data collection approaches. The researcher collected data for this study via the use of interviews (Ahmed and Asraf, 2018). Semi-structured and unstructured interviews may be used by the researcher in their study. Semi-structured interviews have been conducted by the researcher. They used interviewing to acquire honest replies from their respondents by asking them the same question and keeping their responses open.

An inductive technique does not need hypotheses. In conducting a study, the researcher should take certain factors into account. An abductive method is used to investigate “incomplete observations,” “surprising facts,” or “puzzles” that have been pre-specified. Inductive, deductive, and abductive research methods are the most prevalent. A deductive approach is being used in their inquiry. This method is ideal for the project since there is no need for a hypothesis. (Coombes and Ryder, 2019) a. Researchers are able to focus more intently on their study goals when they used the inductive strategy. Data is gathered and hypotheses are generated at the beginning of the process. Researchers have benefited in the long term from the development of new hypotheses. Consequently, it is being used in research.

3.4 Research Design

The researcher’s goal of tactics and procedures is what we might refer to as the research design. The study’s audience is able to understand its purpose owing to the research design. The researcher would choose the most appropriate of four basic study designs. Qualitative and quantitative research designs are the two most common kinds (Johnson, Adkins and Chauvin, 2020). Correlational, descriptive, explanatory, experimental, and diagnostic research are all types of studies that fall under this broad umbrella term. A case study analysis was chosen by the researcher to undertake this qualitative research approach. Beginning with a discovery process that identifies the source of the information, followed by the gathering and evaluation of relevant data and ultimately a suitable study that focuses on a research aim, the design of research requires four independent phases (Basias and Pollalis, 2018). Analysing how many individuals hold specific beliefs, thoughts, or viewpoints is the primary goal of qualitative data analysis (QDA). Sources and methods of data gathering and analysis, as well as the consideration of moral and ethical questions, all form the basis of the research. Qualitative analysis has been pursued by the researchers in order to have a better picture of what will transpire. In order to ensure that academics can continue to study the validity of evidence as well as brand new material, it is critical that they should be given the chance to develop and evaluate hypotheses and facts via observation and experimentation (Hayashi Jr, Abib and Hoppen, 2019). For example, it aims to gather a broad variety of relevant knowledge and then build on it using both plausible and non-sounding results, which match the evidence base to accepted, significant ideas, via exploratory research led by facts.

First and foremost, the researcher adopted a qualitative design for this investigation (Johnson Adkins and Chauvin, 2020). The purpose of this design is to explain an existing theory. The researchers were able to get to sound conclusions based on credible data by adhering to a qualitative research approach. The researcher employed an explanatory research design for the sub-design (Swain, 2018). This was selected by the researcher in order to ensure that the audience would be able to get an in-depth understanding of the subject matter by trying to explain the study questions. The explanatory research design aids the researcher in addressing both the why and the what of the study issue. This qualitative study has been a great fit for this study’s research strategy.

3.5 Data Collection Technique

A researcher’s data collecting process refers to the methods used to gather and document information. There are several ways to collect data, but the most common is a methodical approach. Researchers of all stripes may benefit from data gathering since it gives them access to first-hand information and new perspectives on the problems they’re studying. The analysis of variables important for the gathering and testing of hypotheses is largely owing to comprehensive data collecting methodologies (Kyngäs, 2020). The most crucial and first vital step of every study is the collecting of data, and that this is true regardless of the research topic. The thesis focused on the methodology’s concepts and ideas. Gathering data from a report requires a thorough examination of the results and the context in which they were found. This research was qualitative since the researcher decided to utilise a qualitative design in the study (Rastogi, Sharma and Madan, 2021). This indicates that the study has gathered data using a qualitative technique. It is possible to choose the most appropriate qualitative research approach for this study from a variety of accessible options. Focus groups, interviews, observation, and case studies are all examples of qualitative data collection approaches. The researcher collected data for this study via the use of interviews (Mardiana, 2020). Semi-structured and unstructured interviews may be used by the researcher in their study. Semi-structured interviews would be conducted by the researcher. When conducting interviews, researchers would also pose the same topic to many respondents and leave their replies open-ended in order to get genuine answers. Semi-structured interviews may necessitate follow-up interviews with certain participants, as the researcher is fully aware. This helps researchers better grasp and describe how teenagers feel about the study question. Interviews using open-ended questions enable for the collection of detailed information for this study, allowing researchers to successfully answer their research questions.

3.6 Data Analysis Technique

There is a single term that may be used to describe a wide range of data analysis methods. Using raw data, a company’s management may make better informed judgments via data analysis. Charts, tables and graphs are used to provide relevant information and data, reducing the inherent risk of decision-making in the process. Creating new insights and making them available for business decision-making may be accomplished via the collection, modification, and modelling of data (Melnikovas, 2018). The heart of Data Examination is making a decision based on the information gleaned through the analysis of data. Every day, when the researcher is faced with a choice, they ruminate on what could have been if they had chosen differently in the past. A study of this review’s data revealed that it was more divided into semi-tasks and subgroups than previously thought (Abdelhakim, 2021). Making the point of how similar values and knowledge validate one’s hypotheses is at the heart of research, according to the axiom, “Data and evidence analysis” Analytical systems are capable of processing both forms of data, increasing the value of information gathered from multiple sources. There are several different data-gathering units that may benefit from the data analysis technique. Quantitative data is clearly analysed using narrative techniques, whilst qualitative data is analysed using content techniques. A content analysis was employed since the study was done utilising a qualitative technique.

3.7 Research Sampling

It is common to conduct a systematic research to discover relevant effects and investigate or establish their constituent parts. One of the most important responsibilities of the researcher is to look for potential participants, or interviews, and then narrow the pool of potential participants down to a manageable size. When doing qualitative research, the researcher has a variety of methods for recruiting participants and selecting samples from those participants (Mardiana, 2020). The sampling procedure requires a selection of a sample from the population, whereas the recruiting phase comprises contacting the sample and obtaining their permission to participate in the research or not (Rastogi, Sharma and Madan, 2021). Probability and non-probability sampling are the two main categories of sampling procedures. The researcher will choose the most appropriate sample method from each technique’s additional sampling methods. Every member of the population has the same chance of being chosen as a random sample in probability sampling (the interviewees). Non-probability sampling, on the other hand, does not provide an equal opportunity for everyone in the population to be chosen (Maarouf, 2019).

Non-probability sampling was used by the researcher in this study. The researcher will employ convenience sampling as a non-probability sampling strategy. The researcher will choose respondents based on their accessibility and willingness to participate in the study using this sampling strategy. Among non-probability sampling approaches, convenience sampling is among the most appropriate and important (Ahmed and Asraf, 2018). As a result, convenience sampling is often used in qualitative research to make it easier to reach the interviews (the sample). Using accessible resources and a graphical location to facilitate sampling and recruiting is a key component of a convenient sampling. This research will use a sample size of 30 teenagers.

3.8 Ethical Considerations

As a researcher, one has a responsibility to evaluate and observe research ethics so that you might bring good to everyone you come into contact with. Qualitative research has a number of ethical issues to address, including:

  • Voluntary participation of sample: The interviewees ought to be able to select whether or not to participate in the data gathering procedure. The participation and conduct of interviews should not be imposed upon them. If any of the interviewees feel uncomfortable, they should indeed be permitted to walk away at any time throughout the interview (Basias and Pollalis, 2018). In an interview, interviewees should indeed be permitted to decline to answer questions if they don’t feel like discussing them. The researcher must respect the participant’s choice to participate in or not participate in the study.
  • Informed consent: Firstly, the researcher must educate participants of the study’s history, goals, reasoning, and other relevant information. Interview candidates should be provided with all the information they need to make an informed decision about participating in interviews. In addition, the researcher should assure them that any information they provide will be kept strictly secret (Gefenas et al, 2021). All of these facts should be provided to the interviewees in a permission form, and they must sign it if they accept to participate in the research.
  • Confidentiality: The researcher will keep respondents’ names and contact information private. The name, mobile number, e-mail address, and other relevant information should be included here. In addition to protecting participants’ identity, researchers must keep any sensitive information they receive from them private. The researcher must keep secret the subjects’ opinions, perceptions, and any other relevant information they disclose in response to interview questions.
  • No Harm: When collecting, analysing, and sharing data, the researcher must make sure that no one is harmed in the process. The researcher must take into account the potential for psychological, economic, social, and legal damage in order to ensure that no harm occurs (Hayashi Jr, Abib and Hoppen, 2019). It implies that the researcher must make absolutely sure that no one is psychologically harmed as a result of the study, which means that sensitive issues should be avoided in interviews. During the data-gathering procedure, interviewees should not be subjected to any bodily damage, such as discomfort or injury. As a rule of thumb, researchers should avoid doing anything that might jeopardise their own reputation or the reputation of others. An example of a legal injury is a violation of someone’s privacy, which is something a researcher should avoid.
  • No Misconduct: This implies that the researcher must guarantee that the study does not include fabrication or modification of data, as well as no misrepresentation of any kind. There must be no academic dishonesty committed by the researcher. There are harsh implications for researchers who engage in any form of wrongdoing (Sood et al., 2021). Misconduct is a serious ethical concern that has the potential to sabotage whole research and all of its findings. Misbehaviour results in a loss of investment capital. From the beginning until the finish of the study, the researcher should keep this ethic in mind.

3.9 Summary

To sum up, according to the title, the purpose of this part is to provide an explanation of the research technique. Not only does this chapter give guidelines for doing research, but it does it in a systematic way as well. Among other things, this comprises a review of the study designs and methods used. They said that this study would be qualitative since they had opted to use a qualitative design in the report (Swain, 2018). According to the researcher, a qualitative method was employed to collect data for the study. From a wide range of possibilities, one may choose the most suited qualitative research method for this project. Qualitative data collecting methods include focus groups, inspections, interviews, and case studies. Interviews were used by the researcher to gather information for this study (Kyngäs, 2020). Researchers may employ both organised and unstructured interviews in their research. The researcher has performed semi-structured interviews. They employed interviews to get honest answers from their respondents by asking them the same topic over and over and leaving their responses open. This study’s semi-structured interviews allowed researchers to acquire more specific information, enabling them to answer their research questions satisfactorily. As a non-probability sampling approach, the researcher will use convenience sampling. Respondents for the study will be selected by the researcher using this sample approach based on their accessibility and willingness to take part in the research. Convenience sampling is one of the most useful and essential non-probability sampling methods (Rastogi, Sharma and Madan, 2021). Consequently, convenience sampling is often employed in qualitative research to make it simpler to locate and interview participants (the sample). Convenient sampling relies on readily available resources and a visual location to make sampling and recruitment easier. In this study, a total of 30 high school students will participate.

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