Impact Of Advertising On Improving Public Relations Assignment Sample

Dynamics of Advertisement Tools in Brand Development & Customer Engagement

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Impact Of Advertising On Improving Public Relations Assignment

Chapter 1: Introduction


Advertisement and the public relation both are essential and attributive factors in front of this particular industry of UK. This helps in gaining the value of an organization over a large public. The use of various social media tools has a relative impact on gaining the attention of the customer. This positively impacts the customer and makes them feel satisfied. The study aims to understand the use of various models to understand the ways in which public awareness is affected by using onion model. The use of press agentry, public information and two-way symmetric tools are used to understand the purpose of the whole study. The dissemination of information through various ways and proper communication helps in the proper way of engaging with the public in this selected retail sector of UK. The use of social tools is effective in advertising and promoting the aspects of the organization to the larger public. Based on the essential perception of practice-based research it has been supported that “agile business model” is associated with potential different marketing strategy and its important dimension that is associated with evaluation of communication initiatives to promote level of customers interaction.

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Rationale or Significance of this research project

The different acknowledgement properties and identification is been done here and it is also highlighted. The underlying factors which help the organization to grow public relation by advertising are included here and it can help in the future for research purpose. Now a day’s many brands are flocking up in the market to do business and to grow or expand their business they need to advertise in public domain. By this research, many factors which help in the advertising is been highlighted so that it can help the future businesses to learn and implement the factors to have good public relation by advertising (5). It covers the ways that a company can advertise and those are advertisement through radio, television, pamphlets, and newspapers, in big banners, direct mail packages containing new products and displaying in the local stores.

 Percentage distribution of PR articles

Figure 1.1: Percentage distribution of PR articles using theoretical framework (1)

According to the research, 11% articles are in the internet focus on the companies which uses advertisement for public relations in the UK (6). 21.5% of the articles used statistical analysis to explain it. These are the methods a brand can choose to market their product as well as advertising and can acquire more customers and this will lead to good public relations. Most considerate factor is repetitions as people tend to forget short time things so they can choose to advertise time to time so that they can be relevant to the people and can become the first choice. Depending upon the practice-based evidence, it has been supported that “marketing and advertising methods” has mainly begun with company appearance and potential market demands as well. Development of the positive communication as per this model is basically associated with relevant positioning of the technological adherence in the rational manner. Application of this business onion is associated development of marketing voice as well as advertisement framework for the considered organization in order to achieve positive rate of the business success as well.

Research background

In case of development of the “marketing and advertising” for a company is associated with generation of service line efficiency along with development of the potential marketing dimension in order to promote competitive edge limit in the rationale manner. Therefore, Traditional aspect of the marketing is basically focusing over one essential pattern of this “Differential Marketing” strategy in order to influence resiliency of “extraordinary business projects” along with several business initiatives. The appropriate marketing aspect as well as advertisement onion are associated with development of the marketing resonance in order to serve similar kinds of the business purpose in the significant manner. Advertising on public relation re describes as an essential activity, purpose, survival function and fulfilment of the goals and any organization’s objectives, educational institution, commercial setting and others. It will be hard for any company to survive without advertising. In this paper the description and explanations will be provided on how the advertisement will affect the public relations for the growth of any company (2). The functions of the advertising and public relation will be discussed here and the equipment which are used to do the advertising. This concept is important for the internal and external functioning of the company. In order to create public relationship by advertising, they need to clarify whether they are manufacturing company or service Provider Company or is it marketing, financial, educational or other (3). They can do it by creating attractive or unique advertisement.

This study will discuss the retail sector of the UK. This is one of the integrated parts of UK’s overall economy. In the year 2020, this sector comprises around 5.23% of the overall GDP of the country. This sector also give employment to around 9.3% of the total workforce. Business firms such as Tesco, Sainsbury's, Walmart (Asda) and Morrisons the biggest players of this sector in the UK. This sector has spent around 871 million US dollars in the year 2021 for advertising products.

Aims, Objectives, questions and research problems

Objectives of the research

  • To explore the purpose of advertising for the retail sector in the mind of people
  • To understand the negative side of advertising for the retail sector in the UK
  • To describe the impact of implementing modern marketing advertisement strategies for the retail sector
  • To examine all the factors that drive people to get attracted to the advertisement of the retail sector

Research question

  • What is the purpose of advertising for retail sector in the mind of people?
  • What is the negative side of advertising for retail sector in the UK?
  • What is the impact of implementing modern marketing advertisement strategies for retail sector?
  • What are all the factors that drives people to get attracted to the advertisement of retail sector?


The aim of the research is to understand the impact of advertising on improving public relations and how it affects business of the retail sector of UK. This study has used the retail sector of the UK to find relevant information about the study.

Research problems

This research has been done by the method of secondary thematic systematic review which includes data which are already available in the internet so it may lead to restrained knowledge and the result can be predictable. It varies in identifying information and the amount of it as it collects the data from the internet (4). It can create a gap where much important information may not be notices. As it is qualitative research, the data archiving culture is absent. As it uses other’s data proper acknowledgements must be done otherwise the research paper can face ethical concerns. In addition, advertising is a perception that is introduced as an important in elevating the marketing value of an organization adhered by customizing public relations in the rationale manner. Depending upon the recent market analysis, it has been adhered that Retail sector of the UK is improving their market potentiality and becoming a primary source of economy in this country context.

Structure of the document

This research paper contains structures which incorporate the dissertation framework's uniqueness and utility. This structure revolves around the part of the introduction which offers significant documentation of the viewpoint with clear introspection and vision. In second chapter the literature review is explained and the methodology is followed here which is secondary thematic systematic review. The findings will follow the complete review of the narratives, as well as the reflection and conclusion provided for a thorough comprehension of the research and its aim.


The study deals with all the aspects that have the potential to impact overall public relations through the mode of advertising. This is done by following a proper approach to apply the correct tools to customize the attention of the public. Social media tools are relatively useful in advertising information about the organization and successfully grabbing the attention of the public. All the ethical methods are considered for the study in collecting the articles and journals. The dissertation framework was properly followed throughout the entire study. Most of the articles are focused on the companies and maximum of the articles use statistical analysis to collect the entire data. Proper transparency is maintained in collecting the data from websites and scholars. The violation of contract is strictly denied to ensure that the study remains accountable and transparent. The GDPR law of the UK has been maintained while collecting the data and ensuring that the data collected are within the standards of the UK.

CHAPTER 2: Literature Review


The impact of advertising on improving public relations is an important part that is followed in every business for developing customer relations and for the promotion of the products that are newly launched. People nowadays can have extended information about the process of advertising and its impact of it on public relations. Advertising is a kind of process that is very important for the promotion of the services and products that are newly formed.

Background of the research

Advertising is a kind of function that is important for giving information about the use and importance of the services and the product that is formed newly (5). Advertising and public relation are directly related as with the help of advertisement, the public can be informed about the benefits of the subject on which the advertisement is taking place. Advertising can be helpful for the development of new institutions, news outlets, search engine companies, social media websites and etc. These kinds of new openings are powered by the advertisements that are encouraged by the customers when they are seeing them (6). The advertisement that is constructed is for providing effective information about the product or the services that are implemented new in the market.

Importance of advertisement for firms in retail sector

Advertisements are the way of proceeding methods to convince customers to buy a product or service. Through this advertisement, the quality of the product, the use of the product and its benefits are discussed evenly in an open forum for the development of the services and the product demand (7). Nowadays companies spent a lot of revenue in order to have advertisements and marketing so that the product which is developing by the company is evenly distributed in the market and with the help of the advertisement the company seeks to claim revenue from the external market. This is one of the major reason business firms are spending around 95.14 billion US dollars for advertising in the year 2022 all over the globe. In the fiscal year 2022, Walmart has spent over 3.9 billion US dollars. Advertising campaigns aim to raise brand awareness and exposure among the intended audience. Retailers may successfully reach a wide spectrum of potential customers by utilising a variety of media channels, including TV, radio, print, and internet platforms. This increased brand awareness contributes to the development of a favourable opinion of the business, ultimately strengthening its public relations.

The advertisements are not only for marketing products but also it is used for social awareness. The advertisements are there for conveying messages about social welfare and for developing awareness of society. The advertisement is a part of the service that is given in order to maintain public relations (8). There are effective measures for the improvement of public relation that is managed by the process of advertisement. Advertising and public relation are related to the use of strategic communication processes for engaging the target market audiences. The target audiences are captured through the way of advertisement by which the key role of the company is served (9). The company, in order to sell products, has an effective way of advertising and communicating with the public for serving them with quality products that are represented by the advertisements.

Effect of advertisements

Advertising and the public relation can be differentiated in respective ways and the ways that are maintained for the differentiation of the public relation with the effect of advertisements are:

  • Advertising can be used for targeting potential customers while public relations can be used for targeting audiences like stakeholders, media, legislators and the normal public.
  • Advertising can be helpful for the short-term goal which is sales promotion whereas the public relation is used for meeting long-term goals like the maintenance of a positive brand image.
  • Advertising can be helpful as it produces more control of the company and the products than that of public relations.

Advertisement and public relation are very important as it promotes the increase in brand credibility and product awareness. The advertisement and public relation also drive sales and the competitive advantages of the company are strengthened (10). There are differences in the advantages of advertising and disadvantages are also discussed in the context by providing effective points that are very important for the study. The advantages and the disadvantages of the advertisements are:


  • Advertising can be helpful for the implementation of awareness about the new product coming into the market and about the existing products. If the advertisement of the product is not done then the customers can also not be able to have knowledge about the products (11).
  • Advertising can be helpful to customers in choosing the right product that is necessary for them. Through the use of advertisements, customers can have knowledge about the product and through these advertisements; they can choose the right product that can be used by them in order to meet their necessities.
  • Advertising is also important for the producer of the product and it is also important for the seller as this is the process by which they can make their target customer aware of the fact of the new products and services.
  • Advertisements can be helpful for the implementation of the sale of a product that is newly launched and ready for the market.
  • Advertising can be helpful for the company to know about their competitors and with the help of these measures the company can set its product value. It also can make the company aware of the fact that how it can develop its product quality so that it can be popular in the market.
  • The process of advertisement can be used for creating customer loyalty and it helps in the development of the demands that are necessary for the market value of the product.

Advertising is not only used for the promotion of the event or the product it is also helpful for the spreading of awareness about social issues. The social issues are spread through this advertisement and the remedies for the issues are also described through the way of advertisements. Most of the business firms in the retail sector the UK, use advertisement for increase public awareness about their special offers and launching new products. This will help them to get huge public attention as well as increase their sales


  • The cost of advertising is very high and the process of advertising needs a lot of investment that is done by the manufacturers from their pocket. As the investment is high in the advertisements the company or the manufacturers can go into loss after investing.
  • The advertisement also can be fake and for this reason, the customers can be cheated by receiving a product that is lower in quality and it can be different from the product that is seen in the advertisements (12).
  • Advertising can have a negative impact on social values as by this advertising reality can be interrupted by fantasy and buyers can buy the product without any detailed reviews.
  • Advertising also can be done for the encouragement of bad product sales. There is no filter that can measure the quality of the product and so an advertisement can be used for the promotion of a bad quality product that can cause a negative impact on the customers.
  • The advertisement can be insulting to certain audiences. For gaining recognition from particularly targeted customers another range of customers can be hurt or they can feel insulted. In some case business firms make advertisement that heart public sentiment and create a negative image of the brand. For example, Walmart’s collaboration with Juneteenth for private-label ice cream has created controversy as the advertisement hart sentiments of black people.

Impact of advertisement and public relation

The advantages and the disadvantages are described well with all the required factors. The next that is important and needs to be described is the differences that can be observed between the public relations and advertisements (13). The differences can be justified in order to have differences in the thoughts and for the understanding of the fact about the public relation and advertisements. The differences that are seen among these two criteria are: those public relations can be developed to target potential customers whereas advertisements can be produced for targeting diverse audiences. Advertising can be a key component of reputation management during crises or periods of bad press. Advertising can be used to directly address problems, give the company's perspective, or convey activities done to remedy them when a retailer encounters difficulties or public scrutiny (14). This proactive strategy exemplifies transparency, promotes public confidence, and ultimately helps public relations recover.

Impact of advertisement and public relation

Figure 2.1: Impact of advertisement and public relation

The primary goal of public relations is to have brand awareness about the organizations on the other hand the advertisement is produced for the marketing of the product in order to generate more sales (15). The company is not having much control over the public relations but it has extensive control over advertisements. Public relation is a long-term goal that is important to produce brand reputation; on the other hand, advertisements are for the short-term goal that is only for the implementation of the sales. Public relation is more credible and it is also trustworthy while the advertisements are not trustworthy and the target audience does not believe much in them. Advertising needs to be carefully employed to draw attention to a company's strengths and successes. Retailers in UK improve their standing with the public by highlighting elements like high-quality products, first-rate customer service, corporate social responsibility programmes, and positive consumer experiences. Effective advertising campaigns help public view the business favourably, enhancing its reputation.

The given study of the part is described by the preparation of the themes that are very useful in the thematic analysis (16). The results that are produced are discussed with the help of theme construction and the analysis of the themes is done to have justified results.

Marketing strategy by advertising and public relation

Figure 2.2: Marketing strategy by advertising and public relation

Use of advertising and its importance in the target market

Advertisement is made with three primary objects- a) It is used at the front of a business to inform people, b) to make a company-centric persuasion, and c) to remind people consistently about the business. Advertisement generates information about a particular product in a fun way, that can appeal to consumers and make them think about the product. It convinces customers about the service and the product and convinces a consumer to switch brands and later on remain loyal to the current brand. It also reminds people about the need for the product and its features. Advertising is a kind of process that can be used in many ways for the development of the business and for promoting new products or services. Advertisements are constructed for the implementation of the sale regarding any new products or services that are produced by the company and the company is ready to sell those products (17).

Factors influencing advertising

The products that are produced in the company are first gone through a quality check and after the completion of the quality check the product is sentenced into the market for selling to the targeted audiences. The target audiences are formed and informed about a product or new services with the help of the advertisements. Through these advertisements, the quality of the product and its values are described in the market so that the product can be sold into effective markets. Advertising is a very crucial part of business and commerce for many reasons. It is a way or an idea to put an impact on many people. It can be done through many mediums like printing, through radio, television which is a great way of promoting a product. Apart from this nowadays social media have taken over the place as it is used almost by everyone around the world. It is extremely important to advertise the product in its target market because it increases the sale. It also helps the needed customers of that particular good. For promoting in the targeted audience firstly the audience must be researched where an ad of that product will help people to find that good in their nearby places (18). Tien, Phu, Chi reiterates the importance of advertising goods in a targeted audience in the international journal of research in marketing management and sales.

Importance of public relations in the market

The public relationship is a kind of relationship that is very important for increasing brand value and trust. Public relation is a kind thing that can be developed by extensive service quality and by improving brand loyalty (19). The public relation can be important in an organization with the help of some clauses and those are:

Increase the brand sentiments: The brand sentiment can be developed with the help of the public relations. It is a part of marketing that can develop brand loyalty and trust. Brand trust is developed by the continuous production of quality goods and services that develop trust in the public (20). This trust can increase the brand value of the company and the brand value that is developed will give a long-term effect on the company by producing long-term revenues.

Builds credibility: Credibility is one type of thing that can be produced by an organization on its products. Credibility is a type of brand trust that is there in the consumers so that they can purchase goods from the particular brand leaving the other brands. Public Relation configures techniques and strategies that are related to managing a person or a company, and how the news is spread and circulated among the public. The primary motive of a PR group is to make a brand name of a company. It puts a cover on the negative facts of a company and minimizes its faults. It may occur as the name of the press release, social media posting, and other different ways to present a product. It's an altogether industry where an image of a product is made.

Public relation process

Figure 2.3: Public relation process

Public relation is a kind of relationship that can be generated by a continuous process of giving good quality services (21). With the help of this public relationship, the market can be justified and if anything happens in the market the organization that is high in public relations will not be affected and the market will be smooth for the organization. Public relations in the market are another crucial point. This sector includes building image between people and brand equity. When any organization launches any new good, the public relation is necessary for promoting the product. A complete and focus team is needed for the promotion. Media plays a big role in building a well image of the organization (22). Public relation manages the news and media in maintain that good will of the company. On the other hand, the company gets a specific targeted message to the chosen audiences in a compact way (23). Public participation is encouraged by advertising campaigns that include interactive components, social media integration, or user-generated material. Retailers in UK can improve their relationship with the public by actively involving customers in brand experiences.

The negative impact of advertising

There are many negative impacts of advertisements and these impacts are very essential to keep in mind about the fact of delivering products to the customer in order to produce revenues. The primary negative impact that can be discussed in order to show the value of advertising is the matter of cost (20). The cost of advertisement is so high that it can cause a bad impact on the society and organizations (24). The advertisement can produce fake news about a product and this also has a very bad impact this experiences a loss of trust and the buyer who buys the product can get disgusted about the company. Advertising can cause severe effects on society by developing advertisements about a bad quality product that can cause a worse impact on the customers and society (25). The negative impact of advertising can be vast and that too can happen by producing insulation for the group of people who are not targeted by the market.

For attracting the target audience can insult another group of consumers by providing negative information. There are some negative impacts of advertising like promoting consumerisms. There are so many things which people thing is normal but in real they do not have much worth. According to Gordon (26) many organizations are encouraging its targeted audience to spend more money without any valid reason. On the other hand, social media spreading the brand as much as possible between people but that is also affecting peoples mind in some cases (27).

The contradictions between the advertisements and public relation

There are various differences between the advertisements and the public relations of a company. When a company produces a product, it can have a major promotion of the product for increasing the market value of the newly launched product. Public relations can target the potential customers while advertisements can target diverse audiences. Public relations can be maintained for determining brand awareness on the other hand the advertisement has a particular goal of increasing sales. Public relations cannot be controlled by the organizations while advertisements can be controlled by the company in implementing the target customers. Public relations are more credible than advertisements that cannot be believed by the target audiences. Advertising is a media where the advertisers can control their advertisements exactly whether the public relation firms have controls over the press releases of the product stated by Quesenberry. On the other hand, influencer marketing performances are carried out through various social media platforms (28). Engaged customers are more inclined to feel good about the business and become brand supporters, enhancing overall public relations. It can help in the development of consumer base.

Literature gap

Advertisements create an impact on establishing better public relations with the brands or the companies. The literature reflects different aspects of advertising including both traditional and digital advertising that enhance the marketing strategy. However, the literature failed to describe the primary data interpretation; Studies show the secondary record-keeping method describes the impact of advertisement among the target population (29). The primary research methods might help to gather more detailed and valuable information about the public feedback on the advertisement. Literature is also unable to show the effectiveness of the other platforms for a promotion that influences the relationship development of customers with the brand. Apart from that, the literature failed to describe different strategic approaches that change according to public demand. The lack of first-hand data due to missing interviews created a gap to analyze the actual impact of the advertisement to draw the public attention that might influence the business profit of the brands. The literature only concentrates on the secondary data analysis which is insufficient for the review. Therefore, a more primary study is required to obtain in-depth results about the present topic.

CHAPTER 3: Methodology

Research Question

The research addresses the importance of advertising and how it helps in improving public relations. This is followed by increasing the credibility of the brand and making it more awareness among the public.

Research Onion

Determination of the research question is necessary to determine the positive correlation between this research aim and related theoretical perspective. Hence, identification of the theoretical perspective of the respected research question has mainly assisted in selection of desirable research pathway as per the perspective of “research onion”, for this descriptive research (30). The phases of research onion assist in the development of research papers within a certain period.

Based on this above-mentioned figure 3.2, it has been supported that “Research onion” plays an essential and distinctive role for evaluation as well as understanding of desirable and suitable pathway to conduct this whole research process.


The philosophy of the research is to understand the need for the advertisement and the impact of advertisements on improving the relation with consumers. The philosophy used in completing the method is positivism. The researcher has used this method as it aims to minimize the subjectification and focused on the main work. It helps to promote a systematic approach towards the research. Some state that the process of advertising a product is important to generate a free marketing process to generate revenue for the company (31).


The approach toward the advertisement of the product is needed for the growth in the company and also to give knowledge about the product to the consumers. The approach initiated is deductive method to complete the project. This method has been chosen to establish a clear understanding throughout the research. The researcher has developed the project on the bases of this approach as it initiates the establishment of the general principles that are supposed to be true or are accepted (32). The rules of the approach determine and validate that the data collected are logically correct.


There can be few strategies that can be used for studying the impacts of advertisement for enhancing the public relation with the organization. The systematic literature review strategy has been used in this research. It has helped in the development of findings based on the research topic. The researcher used this method as they help to understand the depth of the work and helps in implementing it accordingly (33). This strategy has helped in achieving the research aim effectively by developing the presence of a wide range of data. The strategy of systematic literature review has been chosen to evaluate the research topic more critically.


The mono method is used to complete the research as the research is a secondary method is used in the research to complete the project. The mono method is the method where only a single type of method issued in order to complete the project. This has helped in completion of the project (34). The usage of this method has helped in completing the practices of the research within a certain period and assess the research topic more critically.

Search Strategy and database

The understanding of the attributes is done by taking help from websites and journals. The search process for selective journals is categorized based on their content. The content that effectively discusses the perspective of the study is taken. The below provided is the methodology that is followed to filter the searchers and take the relevant content based on the search database. Google scholar for taking the relevant resources and references for the development of this research (35).

The attributes of the study are helpful in searching for the exact database that is required for the study. These attributes are necessary as it helps in filtering the content that is appropriately required for the study. The huge results obtained during the search can only be evaluated by searching for the exact keywords that are presented in the search. The search strategy helps in choosing the exact journal that has a similar match with the content related to advertising and PR. The websites are not chosen for the reason that blogs are mainly presented which is not helpful for the study.

Inclusion and Exclusion criteria

The inclusion and exclusion criteria have been followed to determine the content that can be excluded or included from the search that is generated in the scholar.

Parameters Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria
Importance of the topic The content that is relevant to the given topic is only chosen. This is followed by marking filters on the publication year as for this case study, content published after 2019 has been chosen. Certain contents are included that have the citations included in the context. The content that has no relevance to the topic is totally excluded from the list of choices. This is followed by excluding the constant that is published before 2019. Custom dates followed by patents are excluded from the search list of the content.
Year of publication The journal that has a publication year after 2019 has been included in the study. Any citations, articles or journals that are beyond these criteria are not chosen. This is followed by choosing content that is authentic and relevant to the study. The journals and articles that are not authentic are not considered for the study. The sources whose publication year is before 2019 are not chosen. This is followed by excluding the criteria not matching the proper content that is considered for the study.
Management of privacy Journals that are opted from the privacy limitations are included in the study. This helps in binding the privacy measures that are important for our overall study. Journals that are within the limitation of the privacy policy are excluded from the study to ensure that the research goes in a properly ethical way.

Table 3.1: Inclusion exclusion criteria

Identification of the keywords (Boolean and PRISMA)

Description Keyword
Kent and Li (36) have described the normative social media theory for describing public relations. This is really important when advertising tools and techniques are used to present information towards the public. The unfolding possibilities as a result of the extensive internet facilities have helped in advertising the information before the public. This shows that social media has a huge effect on the process of advertising and increasing relations with the public. Building social media theory for developing public relations
Mahaputra and Saputra (37) have stated the impact of advertising on brand awareness and customising the interest of the public towards a particular product. This is creative when the advertising is impacted by the tools of social media. Impact of advertising on customising the choice of the public
Doorley and Garcia (38) have described the performance and behaviour of the public with respect to a certain mode of advertising. This has changed the overall perspective of the people with respect to certain media tools. Content development in the field of marketing is essential in reviewing the proper information for the public. Impact of advertising in modifying the performance and behaviour of the public

Table 3.2: Identification of the keywords


Keywords and/or Keywords and/or Keywords
Advertisement And communication And Public relations
Performance and Behaviour Or Review
Social media And Digital press and perception
propaganda and Advertising and influence

Table 3.3: Boolean table

The above Boolean table establishes the relationship between the advertisement and communication and its impact on the public relations. The performance and behaviour of the public are also affected as a result of advertising but a review can be generated on the overall relations. Social media acts as the best tool for publishing advertisement that has the capacity to influence a huge amount of the public. This is followed by controlling the propaganda in the mode of advertising so that it does not negatively influences the public mind. All the journals that are taken have properly met the criteria both in terms of year of publication and citations. This is followed by presenting a PRISMA diagram below.


The above diagram shows the presentation of the final 10 articles after filtering from the initial 18000 articles that came after the search result. The selection of the final 10 articles came after a process that involves the initial search of 18000 articles followed by 1800 articles after excluding the articles that are not considered authentic. This is followed by language selection and coming to the final conclusion of 10 articles.

Annotated bibliography

Systematic literature review has been conduced to develop this research effectively. Different articles as well as journals have been defined below to depict the findings of the research.

Citation Keyword Paper name Themes Description
Kent (39) Social media for public relations Public relations review Impact of social media on public relations The study aims to understand the impact of social media tools on public relations.
Mahaputra and Saputra (40) Advertisement and product quality International Journal of Digital Business management Impact of advertisement on maintaining the product quality The study has maintained the equivalent relationship in maintaining the relationship between product quality and advertising
Doorley and Garcia (41) Reputation management Public relations and corporate communication Impact of public relations in maintaining effective corporate communication The study has maintained effective build-up of the relationship between the public relations and corporate management
Taylor & Francis (42) Media planning A brand management approach Impact of advertisement on advertisement of the brand The study focuses on applying suitable policies to manage the public relations in brand management
Men and Yue (43) Positive emotional culture Internal communication employee supportive behaviour Effect of internal communication on supporting the behaviour of the individual The study focuses on building the relationship between the internal communication and its impact on the public
Weismueller, Harrigan, Wang and Soutar (44) Advertising disclosure Credibility on consumer purchase intention Advertisement and its impact on credibility of the consumer The study focuses on building the credibility of the customer based on disclosure of the advertisement
Poels and Dewitte (45) Emotions in advertising A call to action Effect of public emotions in advertising The study deals with the impact of the emotions of the public on the field of advertising
Ong and Cabañes (46) Moral justification International Journal of Communication Moral justification in advertising The study aims to deal with the moral justification and its impact on the social identities
Shareef, Mukerji, Dwivedi, Rana Islam (47) Social media marketing Journal of retailing and consumer services Comparative effect of source of the advertisement The study aims to understand the impact of advertisement on customer choice
Das, Wiener and Kareklas (48) Consumer relation to advertising Journal of business research Relation of consumer to the method of advertising The study focuses on identifying the need of the method of advertising and its effect on the public relations

Table 3.4: Annotated Bibliography

(Source: Self-created)

Data Collection

In this research the secondary thematic systematic review or qualitative thematic method is used where the search strategy is finding data. This is already available in websites and journals. In the methodology, the given method is searching initial journals from google scholar using keywords such as impact of advertising on customizing the choice of the public”, “building social media theory for developing public relations, impact of advertising in modifying customer's behavior. After searching with this keyword, much result came out so there are some criteria which were used to filter the findings and for the relevance of the topic (49). In order to filter those search results, some criteria are used called inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria are selecting the relevant articles or websites or journal and exclusion criteria is differentiating the non-relevant sites or journal and not using them in the research. In filtration, the year of publication is used 2019 so that the recent findings can be taken into account. Another criterion was using those journals which are not under any policy limitation and are safe to use in the research (50).

Data analysis

In the finding there are multiple data which are related to the research. After the filtration, the final journals which have relevant data are analysed thoroughly and those relative data are taken for the research and mentioned in the paper (51). After using of criteria, there are only 10 journals which have proper authentic data and privacy or policy limitations. In the filtered data the generated keywords were social media, public relation, product quality and advertisement, reputation management, positive advertising, media planning, emotions in advertising, advertising disclosure, emotional culture, moral justification, marketing in social media and consumer relation (52). With this keyword the journals are grouped ad the data were taken from it. Initial search was around 18000 results and after the screening of the articles the numbers came down to 300 and after language selection it came to 50 and finally 10 journals were selected according to the theme (53). The key words, searching techniques, citations and journal selection are explained in the tables and charts by Prisma diagram, Boolean table and Annotated Bibliography (54).

Ethical and GDPR Consideration

The data are collected for completing the project is taken bases on the secondary research-based papers and it is not intended to harm anyone. It is written in way to protect people's privacy and it follows the principle of anonymity, informed consent. GDRP has established itself as a model law for privacy of data, not just in UK, but globally also, because the influence it has upon creation of privacy regulations (55). GDRP is a law which maintains the data privacy and regulated in 2016 in the UK. The most ascribed functional aspect of researches is transparency maintenance. The contract violation for meeting own purpose and utilizing is strictly denied within researches.

CHAPTER 4: Data Findings and Data Analysis


Advertising is one of the main components of any business and it increases the marketing of the business as well as develops the business in a proper manner. On the other hand, this helps to gain the utility and benefits of the organizations as well as affect the overall business result by considering the proper tools. It also increases customer reach and, in this way, the customers can believe in the output of this company. Advertisement impacts public relations as well as these two factors are the key features in business management. Advertisement creates a proper framework for business to increase public interest in their products, ideas, and services. In other words, it helps to encourage public behavior and responsibilities through different approaches.


Theme 1: Purpose of the advertisement in the public domain

An organization uses an advertisement to increase the sale of its product and promote its services. In this project, the data analysis process is the secondary qualitative thematic analysis and this process includes different journals, websites, photos, and many documents. It can help to make a clear sense of this study as well as demonstrate the study in a different approach. Secondary qualitative analysis is the usage of existing data to clear all answers and these questions differ from the original research. These approaches are used for many businesses companies' data analysis, policy analysis, and other purposes. In this study, the secondary analysis has been used to increase interest which is different from the original analysis or the additional analysis of the original data. This process can help the project to complete in a proper manner and the audience can easily understand the value of this project through this analysis. On the other hand, it also helps to analyze the project objective by considering the tools and data.

There are different benefits that can influence the public domain as well as others factors related to this domain. From this advertisement, an organization can increase their sale in different ways and it will be effective for this organization. The overall business is increased by this marketing policy. There are different approaches to marketing and these two are offline and online marketing. The advertisement is helpful for both online as well as offline marketing. On the other hand, the advertisement helps to provide the primary information of a company to know this company in a better way (56). Increasing sale is another important role of advertisement. The advertisement increases sales by considering the product quality and the service. These two are associated with the public interest. The Covid-19 pandemic affected businesses all over the world and after this pandemic; advertisement is a good way to evaluate their business.

It is examined that the global digital advertisement spending amount was 522.52 billion US dollars in 2021 and the spending amount will be reached 836 billion US dollars within 2026. Advertising can help any type of business to meet its requirement. In addition, with it, due to technological modernization, digital advertisement helps to reach the goal within a short period of time. Mobile advertisement spending is also another aspect of online advertisement and it can relate to the total marketing policy (57). Another purpose of the advertisement is to mitigate the requirement of customers as well as tell customers about different offers, improvements, and launching of new products. Moreover, it can develop a particular position in the global market as well as the local market by increasing the market value.

Considering different strategies, the advertisement can influence public relations, and the goals of these two factors are similar. The goal is to attract customers and increase the relationship between the public and the company. Different data are collected during the time of public relations activities and these data can be utilized in advertisement to know the interest of the targeted audience (58). In recent times, social media is a popular platform and advertisement can increase their engagement with the public through this platform. This platform may overlap with two factors by considering all the requirements.

On the other hand, the audience is the main focal point for those two factors. Advertisement is inserted to capture new customer and public relations also have a positive approach to the new customer. In this way, they are related to each other (50). It keeps the relationship alive and involves the targeted customer toward their goal. In addition, with it, different factors such as communication, critical thinking, creativity, and many more are responsible for increasing the engagement of the advertisement to the customer. As a result, proper balance always is maintained by those elements.

Advertisement helps to provide some marketing strategies as well as creative things to fulfil the ultimate task of the company. The ultimate goal is to inform the customer about their product and services. On the other hand, different media such as social media, radio, and television help to promote their ad by considering multiple tasks (51). There are also different advantages of the advertisement and some of these are increasing customer engagement, building customer ideas about the product, promoting the importance of the product, increasing the relationship between customer and the company, reducing the competitor with attractive advertisements and giving the information about the business.

Theme 2: Different approaches to the advertisement can increase the sales of its product

Advertisement is an important feature of any organization to develop the business of the organization in a proper way. If the organization cannot successfully do its job and meet its goal then, this can be the best way to complete the objective as well as to develop the future business properly. There are different approaches that can mitigate all objectives as well as ensure the organization's product development (56). There are different types of advertisement approaches that can influence the public interest as well as future business. Different approaches are informative, persuasive, and reminder advertisement.

First of all, the informative advertisement helps in a different way and it increases the awareness of the service and brands (57). It helps to announce the newly launched product that can encourage the sale of the product as well as increase the demand of ordinary people. These approaches also have different dimensions which are created by the organization's higher authority. Secondly, the other approach is persuasive advertising; it serves to convince the buyers that the company's product is the best product by comparing other companies. Sometimes comparison of the other company is not included in this procedure (58). It works to increase the image of the company as well as to encourage the customer by providing attractive keywords. Its goal is to meet the company's main objective within the proper time. Also, it influences them to switch their current company or brands and try a new brand. On the other hand, the other approach is reminder advertising, which says that the people know the value of the product or the brand through this advertisement. It can provide the benefits and the characteristics of the product and in addition to it; these all approaches are helpful for improving the public relation with the organization.

Some different techniques and tips can make a unique advertisement. And on the other hand, it makes a broad idea about the product to the public. Therefore, it builds up the effectiveness of advertisement in public relations. These tips are as follows: making a good-looking ad, making an ad memorable, trying to increase the connection between the product and the customer, including a strong message, double checking, and reflecting the business quality of the advertisement, also there are some other approaches and these are media, production, and creation (49). In this way, a good advertisement can be promoted and the overall business develops correctly.

Media helps to deal directly with the public and it increases the public relationship with the help of the different advertisement in different media. advertisement. On the other hand, considering the modern situation or the modern technology, media is the only way to connect with people very easily (50). In this case, the company has to be focused on its objective to fulfil its goal. Production is another approach for advertisement and it can increase the engagement of the people as well as their interest. Production needs to be done properly and it is related to the media. Different product managers can help to produce an advertisement for preferred media. Moreover, the media and production teams work together for making an ad unique and in this way; this ad engages the public with the product. Creation is also another factor and a good creator enhances the quality of the ad as well as the productivity of an advertisement (51). As a result, the engagement of the people is increased towards the company's recommended product. Considering all those approaches an advertisement can improve the relationship between the company and the customer. Therefore, this discussion can give an idea of the impact of advertising on public relations. Public relations are important for any business to flourish at both the local and on international stage.

Theme 3: Different factors of advertisement affect customer attraction.

There are different factors that can make the advertisement unique and attractive to the customer. As a result, the overall business of the organization has increased day after day. The business needs to be developed through different advertisements by considering the current scenario. On the other hand, it will be helpful for the future growth of the organization. The different factors are as follows:

One of the important factors is the thirds and golden ratio rule.

It includes the different equal rectangles in a canvas as well as the designer needs to be added visual elements within these equal rectangles (42). The golden ratio follows another type of sequence ratio within the canvas.

Understanding the psychology of the colours for advertising the material is essential as the popping colours help the consumer get attracted toward the company. Colours play an important role when the company wants to maintain a specific emotion as well as the specific demand for the product. It can also influence the customer regarding their demand and on the other hand, it can mitigate the all requirements of the customer. There are different attractive colours and some of these are red, blue, green, purple, and many more (43). Red can increase the urgency of the product and also can create passion and excitement. Blue can stimulate trust and transparency in the product. It is related to emotion as well as reliability. Green encourages the brain by considering health and nature. On the other hand, purple makes a creative brand.

Typography is another important factor that is associated with the advertisement and moreover, it encourages public relations with the organization (44). Great companies include lots of visual thought in their advertisement to increase the product value of the company. In this section, the important areas are the focus, source of the light, and exposure.

Gestalt principles are the procedure by which human perception is considered through different factors such as proximity, continuation, symmetry, and many more. Typography can consider these principles for making an ad properly structured advertisements can help to increase the customer's interest as well as the demand (45). On the other hand, typography gives the messages and also creates a proper idea for the advertisement. Some traditional advertisement does not follow the proper rule to create this ad but a good advertisement needs to be followed the rules for attracting a large number of people.

Sometimes advertising is not the proper way to promote the business and the organization cannot trust it. A testimonial is an affirmation that can help to know the quality of the advertisement or the qualification of the creator. Customers look at this testimonial and they know the proper idea from it. It can also increase the brand value as well as the market value of the product (46). Authentic testimonials in any advertisements not only save from extra research about the product but also make the brand trustworthy to the customer.

One of the important factors is the visual path and it can make an attractive advertisement for any purpose. It increases the impact of advertisements on public relations by considering all the rules. Viewers are interested in different elements within the advertisement rather than particular patterns. Visual path refers to the look of the advertisement as well as creating the proper framework. There are mainly two types of visual paths and these are Z shape and F shape. Advertisements are primary source of attraction of customer base of an organisation.

Theme 4: Understanding the public domain where the advertisement is going to show

Different domains are involved to show the different types of advertisement and on the other hand, it will be effective for improving public relations. An organization can increase its business through attractive advertisement and it helps to encourage the customer through different tools and techniques (47). Domains help customers to find the business properly as well as develop the business in the proper way. A sub domain is also associated with the domain and these two can be used to encourage deliverability. An un-copyrighted work is considered to be accessed in the public domain for advertisement purposes and it can be used without any copyright law. On the other hand, the public domain is a good way for increasing the engagement of the advertisement as well as improving the relationship between the public and the company.

There are different public domains that can be used for advertisement purposes and moreover, no copyright issues are found in this domain. Any company can use these domains to develop its advertisement properly and efficiently. Domains are free to use for commercial purposes and in addition to this, it will be a great move for any company (48). It also has images, and clip art and these images are not copyrightable. Different libraries and photographers release public domain images and these images can be used for advertisement purposes. Moreover, the companies are trying to mitigate their goal and increase customer interest through this advertisement. There are also other domains that are useful for offline advertisement.

Different copyright transformations can help meet reality and on the other hand this transformation helps to know the last date of the legal protection given to the preferred advertisement. Different types of public domain factors can promote the advertisement, as well as increase the awareness of the customer. Four common pathways of public domain need to be followed by the organization when they promote their business through advertisement (49). On the other hand, there are four public domains here, and these are automated public domains where the copyright issue is not focused, secondly titles, names, slogans, and finally ideas, facts. These three types of public domain have a great impact on the advertisement and this help to promote the business or the brand by considering all factors (40). As a result, the overall business will be appropriately increased day by day.

Analysis based on the link with findings

Based on the findings of the research, it can be stated that public domain images are the different types of material such as photos, clip art, or modern art which are available for any company to access and it does not require any charge to use these images or clip art. It has been found that innovation is required to develop engagement among people. The images or clipart have no copyright issues and which means the company does not pay anything or they do not have any restrictions on utilization. The public domain can help to promote the advertisement in a proper way and on the other hand, it is important to give knowledge or awareness about the preferred subject. All the methods are applied to this study by considering the different articles, journals, websites, and many more documented things. Most of the sources are associated with different statistical data as well as informative data. United Kingdom's GDPR law is used during this study and it can help to collect the data with proper transparency. This analysis can help to mitigate different factors of the proposed work and moreover this work will be helpful for further research for the audience as well as the researcher.

This study also shows the interesting parts of the recommended project properly. The usage of secondary qualitative analysis can help to apply a new approach as well as a different perspective from the original research features. On the other hand, it helps to provide study material for further teaching and an analogical approach. In this case, using existing datasets can promote training for researchers and it may be important where the topic is sensitive and difficult to access appropriately. In this study, the secondary analytical process is transparent, considering ethics and explaining all the factors regarding data, so that the knowledge production is also transparent and ethical. Therefore, this study aims to elaborate on the impact of advertising on improving public relations.

Linking with objectives

Linking with objective 1

The purpose of advertising has been evaluated in literature review as well as findings of the research. It has been found that in the UK, there is intense rivalry among many businesses for consumers' attention in the retail sector. With the help of promoting special selling qualities, cutting-edge capabilities, or great value propositions, advertising can help shops separate out from the competition.

Linking with objective 2

Drawbacks associated with advertising has been assessed in the second chapter. The findings of the research have also presented the negative sides associated with findings. While advertising can have a huge impact on public relations in the UK retail industry, it is vital to reminisce that public relations efforts go beyond just advertising (59).

Linking with objective 3

The impact in the case of modern and advanced advertisement strategies implementation has been discussed in the literature review as well as findings. In order to influencing public opinion and upholding positive connections with diverse stakeholders, public relations experts also concentrate on media relations, community engagement, crisis communication, and other methods.

Linking with objective 4

The factors related to attracting people towards advertisement has been presented effectively in the findings of the research. Retailers can obtain a competitive advantage and boost their public image by presenting themselves as market leaders or trend setters by skilfully expressing these differentiators through advertising (60).


The recommended topic is analysed properly through the secondary qualitative thematic analysis method with the positivism philosophy applied to complete the research. In this topic, the researcher focuses on different aspects and tools of the method to explain the topic properly. The recommended topic is the impact of advertising on improving public relations and this analytical process can help to explain the method in a proper way. This project deals with all the possible features that have the ability to impact overall public relations through the different types of advertising. In this case, the main goal of the advertisement is to increase the sales of an organization's product as well as promote the brand in a different approach by considering all the factors like internal and external factors. On the other hand, public relation is a strategic technique and it manages different information by considering the public's access. Public relations also maintain the balance of business and determines what types of advertisement can be used for media. There are different relations between public relations and advertisement and the audiences can understand this issue from this study. The main relation is promoting awareness to the customer about the recommended brand, product, and services.



The study on the report helped analyze the impact of improving public relations with the help of the advertisement. The facts that like its effects, advantages, disadvantages on the organizations in creating a good public relationship. It can be concluded from the research that advertisement plays a critical role in modifying public relations. The increase in public relations develops the profitability of the company. Adopting innovative ideas regarding the advertisements makes people catchier towards the advertisements of the brand. Advertisements and public relations are correlated with each other. It engages the target market. This plays a crucial role in creating a useful message for the audience. Advertisement increases the brand's credibility with the consumers. It creates brand and product awareness among the public. Advertisements help in marketing the products of the company. The company increases its sale by making the advertisements more attractive to the customers. The process is done through attractive visuals and messages by the company. Improving the style of the advertisements enhances the acceptance of the brand by the customers. The team working on it first needs to segment the type of consumer and accordingly, they can work on it. The most popular method is adopted by the rising of consumer personalities and their need. The intentions of the consumers on purchasing the product and understanding the behavior is can also be adopted by the organization.

The impact is complex ad there are many philosophies that state the advantages and disadvantages of it. There are several positive and negative aspects regarding advertisements to make successful public relations. Collecting the proper data regarding the impact of the advertisement on public relations helps to understand the positive sides of the matter. Advertisement plays a vital role in attracting the targeted market that helps to get an idea about the craze of the people regarding the brand or the product. This helps in developing a positive image of the brand to the public. This helps the organization to look for the effective patterns or themes that can create impact on the consumers. Historical analysis helps the organization to examine the evolution created by advertisement over the period of time. Advertisement of a brand improves the sales of the products of the brand. It conveys what the brand thinks about the product. The eye-catching advertisement increases the curiosity among the public. Through the advertisement procedure, the company tries to encourage the targeted public to buy the product. The discussion in the study is about the process of how the advertisements encourage the customers towards its product. The study is about the process of customer reach and building awareness about the products to the customers. The advertisements promote the benefits of the product. The growth of a business directly depends on the advertisement process of the product. This helps in communicating the business to the public which helps in increasing the interest of the public in the brand. Attractive and eye-catching advertisements help in accelerating the sales of the products and help in gaining advantages over the competitors. Advertisements help in exploring new markets for the product. The factors of an advertisement are to inform about the product to the customers, to persuade them about the product and to remind the products of the customers.

The advertisements help in increasing the sales of the company products. With the help of advertisements, the company influences the audiences to buy the products. The overall business growth of the company is depending on the advertisement process of the company (1). The companies take strategies regarding online advertisement as well as an offline advertisement which improves the sales of the products of the company. The company creates innovative ideas to attract the targeted people to buy the product. The offers of companies and the schemes of the companies are conveyed through advertisements. With the help of advertisements, the company introduces its new products to the market. This influences public relations. In addition, with the help of the advertisement, the company makes communication with the public.

This can be an essential move for the organization to shape the behavior of the consumer, influence the beliefs, or can also be used to create social norms among the consumers. The second approach can be to look at the larger side of the social and cultural effects of advertising creating impacts (52). The approaches could help to examine the role in perpetuating harmful stereotypes, consumerism promotion, and also false needs and desire froe the consumers. The approach can draw on the theories related to feminism, critical race, or the critical perspective for examining the way in which reinforcement of the advertising power dynamics and cultural norms are implemented.

Advertisement helps the company about taking a decision about marketing strategies. Through the advertisement process, the company promotes its products as well as informs the public about the effectiveness of the products. Different types of advertisements help in attracting customers that boost the sales of the products. In offline advertisements, different types of colors engage the customers towards the products. Advertisement of the brand depends on the culture of the society. The way of approach to convincing the customers depends upon the place of the advertisements. The different type of process advertisements helps in accelerating the growth of the company. Implementing different types of strategies for advertisements regarding the products increases the business growth of the company.


  • The company may identify the targeted consumers to improve the public relation with the organization. That process drives more sales for the products of the company. In addition, the company can evaluate the existing brands on the same product and analyze the market for the product and take necessary strategies to influence the audience through the advertisements (53).
  • In order to improve public relations through advertising the companies should use skilled employees to improve the quality of the advertisement. The company should use professional craftsman-like professional models, photographers, and experience webpage developers to provide high-quality advertisements (54).
  • The organization can use social media for advertising as it is growing day by day. The company should focus on eye-catching social media advertisements. That increases the involvement of the public with the brand and its products. The company should provide a short and meaningful message through advertisements on social media.
  • Different types of approaches can be taken by the companies to increase public relations. The advertisements of the products should be framed depending on the targeted audiences. It can be mixed with emotions, appeal, and inspiration to make the advertisement catchier to the audience (55). The company can change the platform for advertising to increase public relations. The adaptation of new types of marketing criteria like search engine optimization, email marketing and video marketing push the interaction level with the targeted audiences.

Research limitations

There are some limitations that resist the research to become more relevant. The research is based on the secondary method and there is a lack of primary data that can be marked as the limitation of the research. Along with this, the presence of limited time period can be marked as other limitations. The data is collected from Google scholar that helps to get an idea about the public relation with advertisement. Most of the articles are not relevant to get the exact information regarding the topic. The ground-level information can help to gather an ample amount of data. Due to the lack of time, the data collection did not conduct through interviews or surveys.


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