The Impact Of Eco-Friendly Construction On Improving Life On Earth Assignment

Primary Data Collection & Green Construction Theory

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The Impact Of Eco-Friendly Construction On Improving Life On Earth Assignment

1: Introduction

1.1 Background:

Sustainability is a practical tool that assists in changing both global and local strategies for acts that are detrimental to the environment and human existence in the modern world. Construction activities are responsible for a significant portion of “global greenhouse gas emissions”, “resource consumption”, and “waste generation”. The use of substances and procedures that have detrimental effects on the environment, such as pollution and carbon emissions, define the traditional construction sector. 39% of the world's “greenhouse gas emissions” are caused by the construction and operation of buildings (Tubiello et al. 2021). In order to mitigate the environmental impact and challenges eco-friendly or green construction practices have been emerging as an alternative approach which has the aim to reduce the “environmental impact of the construction industry”. Eco-friendly construction practices mainly focus on using sustainable material which is environmentally friendly and has the least impact on the environment along with energy-efficient designs and construction techniques. It is anticipated that 47% of businesses can have more than 60% of their initiatives be green construction projects from 2018 to 2021 across the globe (Statista.com, 2023). Hence, it is important to understand the impact of “eco-friendly construction” on the environment.

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Levels of green building activity worldwide in 2018 and 2021

Figure 1: “Levels of green building activity worldwide in 2018 and 2021, based on a percentage of green building projects”

(Source: Statista.com, 2023)

1.2 Problem statement:

Traditional construction methods have a significant impact on the environment, contributing to two climates, deforestation, pollution and other environmental problems related to it. An eco-friendly construction approach offered a potential solution to the negative impact and issues by incorporating materials and designs which are sustainable and improve the construction technique. However, the extinct construction practices have been adopted Global is so far and their effectiveness in improving life on earth remains a questionable topic. Therefore, the research aims to explore the positive and negative impact of Eco-Friendly construction on improving life on Earth and also provide recommendations for promoting and implementing eco-friendly approaches in construction practices.

1.3 Aims and objective:

Aim:

This research topic aims to investigate the impact of eco-friendly construction on improving life on earth. The research explores the benefits of eco-friendly construction practices and their potential to mitigate the negative impact of traditional construction methods on the environment.

Objectives:

  • To find and evaluate the current state of eco-friendly construction practices, including the materials and techniques used in eco-friendly construction, and the extent to which they are being adopted globally.
  • To investigate the advantages and disadvantages of eco-friendly construction in improving life on earth.
  • To identify the environmental impact of traditional construction methods and the contribution of eco-friendly construction in mitigating these negative impacts.
  • To recommend architects, builders, and developers on how to promote and implement eco-friendly construction practices to improve life on earth.

1.4 Research questions:

  • What is the impact of eco-friendly construction on improving life on earth?
  • What is the current state of eco-friendly construction practices, including the materials and techniques used in eco-friendly construction, and the extent to which they are being adopted globally?
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of eco-friendly construction in improving life on earth?
  • What are the environmental impact of traditional construction methods and the contribution of eco-friendly construction in mitigating these negative impacts?

1.5 Rationale:

The construction sector is one of the main causes of environmental damage particularly in developed countries such as the “United Kingdom”. In order to reduce the “detrimental effect” of “conventional construction methods” on the environment, it is necessary to investigate the potential of eco-friendly construction techniques. Also, by constructing sustainable and healthy living places, eco-friendly construction techniques can have a substantial impact on the health and well-being of communities. So, the purpose of this study is to find out how eco-friendly building practices have improved life on earth in the United Kingdom. In order to establish a sustainable constructed environment, policy-makers, architects, builders, and developers would be informed by the study findings about the possible advantages and difficulties of eco-friendly construction processes.

2: Literature review

2.1 Critically evaluating the current state of eco-friendly construction practices, including the materials and techniques used in eco-friendly construction, and the extent to which they are being adopted globally

Eco-friendly construction practices have gained significant attention in recent years as a means of reducing the environmental impact of the construction industry. The materials and techniques used in eco-friendly construction aim to minimize the use of “non-renewable resources”, reduce “waste and pollution”, and create “energy-efficient buildings” that are healthy and sustainable for occupants (Tomar, 2021). One of the key materials used in eco-friendly construction is wood, which is a renewable resource and has a lower “carbon footprint” compared to “traditional building materials” such as steel and concrete.

Cross-laminated timber or CLT is a popular material used in eco-friendly construction that can replace steel and concrete in building structures. CLT is made by layering wood panels in alternating directions, “creating a strong and stable material” that can be used for “walls, roofs, and floors” (Granzotto, Marzi and Gasparella, 2022). Another material used in eco-friendly construction is recycled materials, including recycled steel, glass, and plastic. The use of recycled materials in construction reduces waste and promotes a circular economy. Furthermore, eco-friendly construction practices also include the use of low- or zero-emission insulation materials, such as sheep wool, cellulose, and aerogels. They sometimes use “straw bales, precast concrete, earth, plant-based polyurethane rigid foams”, etc (Mehravar et al. 2022). These materials are renewable, non-toxic, and energy-efficient, reducing the “carbon footprint of buildings”. It is projected that by the year 2026, the market for sustainable construction materials is expected to reach the value of 523 million US dollars (Statista.com, 2023). The popularity of sustainable construction materials also increasing regularly making it a highly demanding industry.

Global market value sustainable construction materials 2016-2017, with 2026 forecast

Figure 2: “Global market value sustainable construction materials 2016-2017, with 2026 forecast”

(Source: Statista.com, 2023)

There is significant importance in using sustainable materials in the construction industry because they can be in and safeguarding the environment. According to a survey period, 50% thought and said that it is beneficial for the environment to use sustainable materials (Opoku, Ayarkwa and Agyekum, 2019). The market share of sustainable building systems is anticipated to represent 7.1% of the global market for sustainable building materials (Statista.com, 2023). With the passing of time, more companies switching to green building practices.

Global market share sustainable construction materials 2016, with 2026 forecast

Figure 3: “Global market share sustainable construction materials 2016, with 2026 forecast”

(Source: Statista.com, 2023)

In terms of techniques, eco-friendly construction practices include passive solar design, which maximizes the use of “natural light and heat” to reduce “energy consumption”. Other techniques include green roofs, which provide insulation and reduce the urban heat island effect, and rainwater harvesting, which reduces water consumption and promotes water conservation. The use of “Sustainable Indoor Environment Technologies” and “Water Efficiency Technologies” helps to develop and utilise the resources and space through innovation (Tomar, 2021). Despite the benefits of eco-friendly construction practices, their adoption globally has been slow due to various challenges. These difficulties include a lack of knowledge of the advantages of environmentally friendly building practices, high start-up costs, a shortage of competent labour, and a lack of building codes that promote such activities. Governments and organisations have been pushing green building techniques and offering incentives and subsidies for eco-friendly construction, however, interest in these methods has grown recently.

Eco-friendly construction practices offer a sustainable and environmentally friendly alternative to traditional construction methods. Using eco-friendly building materials and methods aims to reduce the use of non-renewable resources, waste, and pollution while producing energy-efficient structures that are sustainable and healthy for inhabitants (Kayabekir et al. 2020). Despite the challenges, the adoption of eco-friendly construction practices is increasing globally, and there is potential for further growth as awareness and understanding of the benefits of eco-friendly construction continue to increase.

2.2 Critically analysing the advantages and disadvantages of eco-friendly construction in improving life on earth

Green building, sometimes referred to as eco-friendly construction, strives to lessen the negative effects of construction on the environment and support sustainable growth. As more people become aware of the value of preserving the environment and natural resources, this strategy is gaining popularity. Nonetheless, there are benefits and drawbacks to the eco-friendly building.

Eco-friendly construction can have a significant impact on reducing the environmental impact of construction activities by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. It promotes the use of sustainable building materials, which are environmentally friendly and have lower carbon footprints (Robati, Daly and Kokogiannakis, 2019). It also encourages the use of “renewable energy sources” such as “solar power and wind power”, which can significantly reduce the “carbon emissions” associated with buildings. Eco-friendly construction can also result in significant cost savings over the life of a building. Buildings that are designed to be energy-efficient and use renewable energy sources can significantly reduce energy costs, resulting in lower operating costs over time (Kwon, 2020). Additionally, eco-friendly construction can lead to reduced maintenance costs and longer building lifetimes meeting consumer demands. Eco-friendly construction can also promote healthier living environments by using materials that are less harmful to human health. For example, Volatile organic compounds, sometimes known as VOCs, can be detrimental to human health when released from some conventional building materials (Liu et al. 2022). Eco-friendly materials, such as those made from natural products like straw or hemp, are less likely to emit VOCs. Some “construction experts” utilise “cellulose insulation, which is created from recycled newspapers”, to increase the “sustainability of buildings”.

Eco-friendly construction can often come with higher upfront costs. The use of sustainable building materials and renewable energy sources can be more expensive than conventional building materials and energy sources (Østergaard et al. 2020). There can be a lack of awareness and expertise when it comes to eco-friendly construction practices. Many builders and contractors may not be familiar with sustainable building practices and may not have the necessary skills and knowledge to implement them effectively (Gunhan, 2019). The availability of eco-friendly building materials can also be a limitation. Some materials may not be readily available, and it may be more difficult to find suppliers for these materials. This can result in longer lead times for construction projects and increased costs.

Implementing sustainable construction practices is not an easy task, despite the numerous benefits associated with it. It requires proper planning and preparation which takes both time and money. Additionally, one of the major obstacles that organizations face is the perception that sustainable development is more expensive than traditional construction methods (Opoku, Ayarkwa and Agyekum, 2019). However, there is growing awareness of environmental issues, leading to an increase in the adoption of sustainable construction practices, with more companies switching to green building practices. Eco-friendly building techniques include benefits and drawbacks. Although there are upfront costs involved with using sustainable building materials and renewable energy sources, the long-term savings, influence on the environment, and health advantages can be substantial (Manso et al. 2021). But, it's critical to solve the restrictions and difficulties related to environmentally friendly buildings, such as a lack of knowledge and experience and a material shortage.

2.3. Critically examining and determining the environmental impact of traditional construction processes and the contribution of eco-friendly construction in minimising these negative aspects:

Evaluating the impact of traditional construction procedures, it has been found that multiple aspects of these methods affect mother nature and the entire earth negatively which brings humans to create eco-friendly procedures in order to save our world. Aspects such as resource depletion, pollution, energy consumption and waste generation make significant negative impacts on the environment resulting in finding alternative methods of construction in order to save humans and the planet earth from the consequences (Ahmad et al. 2020). On the planet Earth, there is only an unlimited amount of natural resources which is half of the entered resources that always are exploited. According to the world watch institute, 40% of raw stone, sand and gravel are used during construction worldwide and consume 25% of natural wood resources creating a high possibility of a lack of natural resources in the future (Ametepey and Ansah, 2014). The number could not stop increasing if no action was taken to change the way of construction as soon as possible.

Another major outcome of the traditional construction procedure is pollution where at any construction site is generally a significant amount of pollution that includes air pollution, water pollution and others which is irreversible. Pollution from vehicles and equipment causes unimaginable damage to nature and thus puts everyone in a position of finding ways to reduce the negative outcomes. Traditional construction procedures also consume a large amount of energy as these methods require power construction equipment and vehicles. These methods also generate a large amount of waste during construction which includes debris and packaging materials that harm nature immensely.

Contradictory eco-friendly construction methods are created in order to minimise the negative outcomes on the earth where techniques that include using sustainable materials can save not only natural resources but also the entire world. Methods including usage of renewable resources, sustainable site development, application of energy efficient procedures, and waste reduction policies would have a positive impact while traditional methods are failing. Global environmental reasons are the driving force of the future of green building activity referring to the use of eco-friendly construction methods.

According to the sources, the key environmental reasons that are mean drivers for green building activity are reduction of energy consumption which is 66% of the reason, lower greenhouse gas emission which is 58%, improvement of indoor air quality, reduction of water consumption and protection of natural resources is 57%, 55% and 54% accordingly (Statista.com, 2023). Evaluating these statistics it is evident that humans are more aware of the situation that is created due to traditional construction procedures and they opt to use methods that are eco-friendly to save the planet Earth. The key drivers are some of the major consequences of the traditional construction site, and everyone being concerned about the negative outcome is a sign that people are being aware and they want to make the change happen by alternating the procedures that have been continued for years and damaging the environment. The alteration can reduce the use of natural resources, save energy and minimise pollution significantly.

2.4. Critically analysing and advising developers, builders, and architects on the ways to promote and use eco-friendly building techniques to enhance the quality of life on earth:

It is essential to promote and utilise eco-friendly building techniques to make that significant positive change in the world where traditional construction procedures have been harming nature and wasting energy and natural resources for ages. People who are involved in construction, such as civil engineers, architects, builders and developers, are the ones who would be able to promote eco-friendly methods the most (Hafez et al. 2023). People working in construction promoting eco-friendly ways would be good examples to the list of the world, thus they have to take the first step in promoting and using eco-friendly building techniques in order to enhance all of the life on the earth.

Some of the effective methods that builders can use are using low-impact building materials, adding cool roofs, installation of renewable energy systems, adding rainwater harvesting systems, engaging in molecular conduction practices and installing small appliances to promote eco-friendly constructions. Using cellulose insulation products can leave the minimum impact which comes from reaper first newspapers that help to minimise landfill pollution. In 2018 the output value of insulation material manufacturing in the United States reached nearly about 300 million U.S. dollars which is a sign that people are utilising these eco-friendly materials more than ever (Statista.com, 2023). Another way of using eco-friendly measures during shopping buildings is adding cool roofs that include using a light-coloured or reflexive material on the roof in order to restrict solar heat absorption. HVAC systems such as heating, ventilation and air conditioner are accountable for producing nearly 441 million tons of greenhouse gas every year (C2es.org, 2023). This number can reduce when a cool roof would be the alternative for the HVAC system.

Installation of renewable energy systems including the use of photovoltaic systems can produce emission-free electricity by solar radiation absorption and electron loose knocking. This type of energy system also includes wind and geothermal systems on residential properties in order to minimise the carbon footprints they produce which would ultimately solve the issue of loss of energy. Natural resources such as water are also being depleted due to construction which can be solved with a simple method of adding rainwater harvesting systems that can reduce water wastage.

Another efficient way of promoting eco-friendly construction is engaging in modular construction practices that architects are implementing by using a warehouse-ending practice far from the construction site and professionals are selling those models together on the site. With the growing urbanisation occurring in developing nations, the global market for modular construction is anticipated to expand. In these areas, remodelling existing structures frequently employs modular construction. The global market for modular building is predicted to be worth 175 billion US dollars in 2025 (Statista.com, 2023). The promotion of modular construction practices has the potential of changing the future of traditional construction methods into eco-friendly ones.

3: Methodology

3.1 Research philosophy:

Positivism, as a research philosophy, holds contextual information that is derived from observation that includes reliable measurement. The process of gathering and implementing the analysis of data is the outcome of a positive investigation while a researcher has the responsibility to find the collected data. Positivism reflects the philosophical perspective of gaining knowledge of a social phenomenon that can be observed, measured and documented. Due to the benefit of using empirical evidence for positive research, it is ideal to implement in research.

Positivism takes a few measures in order to gain data that include objectivity, replicability, generalisability, prediction and efficiency. It assumes that there is always an objective to be observed and measured that is not biased by researchers' beliefs which is helpful in objectivity-based fields including this particular paper. The replicability of positivity helps other researchers to verify findings and replicate new databases and build upon previously existing knowledge. Positivism is a method that is based on objective and observable data and is considered to be more generalisable than the subject's interpretative or personal experience gained giving the advantage of the researcher and the readers more open mind while going through the paper. While analysing the future outcomes positively has the upper hand of emphasizing the importance of causal variable interrelationship, making it easier for the researcher to make predictions and it also has high efficiency that involves the use of “quantitive methods” such as experiments making this method better than a “qualitative method” such as interviews or case studies.

Philosophies such as interpretivism research philosophy, pragmatism research philosophy, and realistic research philosophy often don't have the upper hand like positive has while conducting or deducting research analysis. Thus analysing the research on the topic of eco-friendly construction being better than traditional construction, the “positivism research philosophy” will be significantly beneficial. For secondary qualitative methods, "interpretivism" can be useful where it can provide data based on human experience and social context.

3.2 Research approach:

The common type of research approaches is a quantitative research approach, qualitative research approach, inductive research approach deductive research approach and others. In this research paper using deductive research approved can be beneficial as it has several utility aspects to it. In deductive research approaches a hypothesis is first established and then put to the taste through the gathering and examination of facts (Tamminen and Poucher, 2020). An alternative name for the deductive research approach is the "top-down approach" it starts with a general theory and Idea and after that, it works down to particular observations and conclusions. In this method, the researchers start with formality and a hypothesis or theory based on preexisting knowledge or data. After the formulation, they collect the data and analyse it in order to taste whether the hypothesis is supported by the provided evidence.

Within a few steps deductive research approach is executed starting with formality a question related to research or hypothesis based on pre-existing knowledge, theories, or data, following that a research design is developed and methodology is generated in order to taste the hypothesis. After developing the research design and methodology a through data is collected from experiments, surveys or other procedures and the data is analysed to determine whether the hypothesis is supported or not (HR and Aithal, 2022). Finally, a conclusion can be drawn and recommendations can be made based on the analysis and the results.

The benefits of the deductive research approach are efficiency, clarity, precision, applicability, theory building and others, making the “deductive research approach” a powerful tool for generating and testing hypothesis theories in a rigorous and systematic procedure. The deductive research approach will be more efficient because it allows researchers to work on specific theories rather than starting from scratch and it also gives clarity due to the pre-existing data collection. Based on these factors, the “deductive research approach” will enhance the success rate of this significant research by providing abundant information regarding the benefits as well as drawbacks of eco-friendly construction in promoting environmental well-being accordingly.

3.3 Data collection method:

There will be two types of data collection methods in this particular research paper and those are the “quantitative data collection method” which can be done through surveys and another one is “qualitative data collection method” through extracting information from secondary sources like peer-reviewed journals, articles and so on. Research by quantitative data collection methods includes research techniques involving collecting numerical data that a researcher can analyse using statistical methods (Hürlimann and Hürlimann, 2019). Quantitive data collection methods involve surveys, experiments, observation and studies, secondary data analysis and others. From these procedures, quantity data collection methods can be conducted as it aims to take specific hypotheses or theories. On a positive note, it also associates with the implementation of the positivist research approach that prioritises objectivity, generalisability and empirical evidence.

On the other hand, qualitative data collection methods include techniques of collecting non-numerical data such as images, texts and audio recordings which can be analysed through coding and interpretation. Some of the best ways of collecting qualitative data are interviews, focus groups, ethnography, document analysis and so on. Interviews involve open end questions asked to a small group of people together with information that is in-depth about their perspectives, experiences and attitudes. Focus groups are for small group gatherings where facilitated discussions are made with a moderator who is asking open-end questions. Contrarily, ethnography is putting oneself in a social or cultural setting in order to gain a deep understanding and knowledge (Kirongo, and Odoyo, 2020). Document analysis refers to analysing visual or written documents such as diaries, letters, photographs or videos in order to understand the context behind those. By collecting and analysing data through these procedures it will be productive for researchers to give output in the context of the research paper involving research on "why eco-friendly construction procedures are more popular than the traditional ones in the current generation." Data collection from different scenarios and backgrounds helps with gathering knowledge and applying it to the research while working on it.

3.4 Sampling technique:

In order to ensure that the results are as accurate as possible, “random sampling” will be used to collect data from a sample of the “population”. There are three categories of sampling techniques including “probability sampling technique, non-probability sampling technique and random sampling technique” (Gabriel et al. 2019). The "probability and non-probability sampling technique" will not be chosen for this study of the impact of eco-friendly construction on improving life on earth. This is because probability sampling, as opposed to non-probability sampling, ensures that every subject in the population has an equal chance of being chosen (Bhardwaj, 2019). In addition to these "probability and non-probability" sampling takes a lot of time to be conducted and has a complex nature compared to random sampling techniques. In order to ensure that the results are comparable to those obtained from measuring the entire population, random sampling is used. (Acher, Perrouin and Cordy, 2021). The random sampling technique will be chosen for the study.

3.5 Ethical considerations:

Research on the impact of eco-friendly construction on improving life on earth requires careful consideration of ethical issues. This includes ensuring that research participants are fully informed about the study and have given informed consent to participate. Researchers also need to ensure that any potential risks or harm to participants, the environment, or society as a whole are identified and minimized (Artal and Rubenfeld, 2017). Additionally, researchers should maintain the confidentiality and anonymity of participants and ensure that their privacy is protected and password protected USB is suggested for data storage. Also, it is recommended that GDPR be implemented to make this research ethically correct (Artal and Rubenfeld, 2017). Any conflicts of interest should be disclosed and managed appropriately to maintain the integrity of the research.

Dissertation

Chapter 4: Analysis

4.1 Introduction

This chapter analyses the topic of “eco-friendly construction methods” and their “impact on improving life on Earth”. It analyses the use of “sustainable materials and environmentally conscious strategies” to reduce the negative environmental impacts of buildings. The study also analyses the importance of individuals, companies and governments embracing “sustainable building practices” to reduce their “environmental impact”.

4.2 Thematic analysis for secondary data

4.2.1 Theme 1: The impact of “ecological construction” on the “improvement of life on Earth” is a key topic that has received a lot of attention in recent years

Eco-friendly construction has thus also begun as a means of reducing the overall environmental effect. The use of green building activity has significantly decreased the harmful impact on the environment along with improving the environment for living beings. Based on the report it has been seen that the carbon emission from building construction has significantly reduced by “15% in 2020” (Statista.com, 2023). This information sheds light on the increasing market and adaptability of green buildings across the globe. On the other hand, the road to green construction implementation faces lots of obstacles. Accordingly, this research has provided amended information regarding the significance of eco-friendly construction and its impact on improving life on Earth.

“Ecological construction methods” refers to the use of “economical materials”, “energy-saving technologies” and “environmentally conscious strategies” in the design and construction of buildings with as few harmful environmental impacts as possible. In “the UK”, a number of companies have adopted “green building methods” to reduce their “carbon footprint” and promote a more sustainable future (Prasad et al. 2023). One example is the award-winning “Triangle eco-house in Swindon”, which was built using “sustainable materials” and “energy-saving technologies” such as “triple-glazed windows”, a “heat recovery system” and a “biomass boiler” (Owen, 2021). The house also has such “environmental-reducing features” as “rainwater harvesting”, “solar panels” and “a green roof”.

Another example is the “Bloomberg European Headquarters in London”, which was designed with “sustainability” in mind. The building features a range of “eco-friendly strategies” such as a “high-performance ventilation system”, a “rainwater harvesting system”,“energy-efficient lighting” and “heating and cooling systems”. The building also has a “BREEAM Outstanding rating”, which is a global certification that recognizes buildings with excellent sustainability credentials (King, 2019). The UK government has set a target to reach “net-zero carbon emissions by 2050”, which has prompted many companies to embrace eco-friendly construction methods (Theweek.co.uk, 2019). Empirical evidence gathered from the “secondary qualitative data collection method” indicates that around “half of a trillion” U.S. dollars would be invested into the “green building projects” in the timespan of 2026 and 2030 (fig 4.2.1.1) (Statista.com, 2023). This particular environment-sustainable initiative has acquired enough global appreciation for its positive impact on nature. In short, the impact of eco-friendly construction on improving life on earth is significant and it is essential that “individuals”, “companies” and “governments” embrace “sustainable building practices” to reduce their “negative environmental impact”.

It is crucial to implement sustainability within the construction sector to lessen the industry's overall environmental effect since the building sector produces a sizable quantity of carbon emissions. Eco-friendly construction tends to lessen the overall harm that the construction business causes to the environment. Over the past few years, the market for green building constructions has shown significant growth. Based on the report it is anticipated that "47% of businesses" would have more than "60%" of their initiative be "green construction projects" (Statista.com, 2023). There are lots of building technologies used in green buildings however some of the popular technologies are "cross-laminated timber or CLT", "solar cells", "the roof of the structure", "green insulation" and "rainwater harvesting systems to reduce water usage" (Geng et al. 2019). The use of solar cells not only aids in reducing the overall greenhouse gas emissions it also provides electricity which diminishes the need of using gas or electricity.

4.2.2 Theme 2: Eco-friendly construction methods focus on using sustainable materials and environmentally conscious strategies to reduce the negative impact of buildings on the environment

The conditions of living creatures are greatly improved by the use of green building techniques. Environmentally friendly buildings do encounter some difficulties. It has been seen that nearly “40% of the world's CO2 emissions” from “fuel combustion” and “25% of all GHG emissions” are caused, directly or tangentially, by construction (Mckinsey.com, 2021). Apart from this, the procedures used to create sustainable buildings are overly complicated due to being linked with challenging technology and building techniques. On the other hand, investing in green buildings provides a great return on investment due to the low maintenance cost. Apart from this another positive aspect of a building is that it provides water conservation through harvesting rainwater and greywater. This kind of complex design is used in the construction of green buildings. As a result, finding experienced workers becomes a challenge because constructing a sustainable building requires in-depth knowledge about the materials and process (Agyekum et al. 2019). Another negative aspect of eco-friendly construction is that this kind of building requires a specific location as it utilises sunlight as much as possible. Accordingly, improper conditions would lead to creating the opposite effect on the environment because sustainable buildings do not have any ventilation systems thus being in a hot temperature it might cause "greenhouse gas emissions".

The positive effect of “ecological construction” is manifested in the “reduction of carbon emissions”, “improvement of indoor air quality” and “reduction of energy consumption”. For example, the use of “energy-efficient materials” and technologies such as “solar panels”, “green roofs” and “rainwater harvesting” can significantly reduce a building's carbon footprint. In addition, “environmentally friendly building practices” can also improve the “quality of life” by providing healthier living spaces. For example, the use of “non-toxic materials”, “efficient ventilation systems” and natural light can improve “indoor air quality” and reduce the “risk of respiratory diseases” (Sloan Brittain, Wood and Kumar, 2021). On a contrary note, there are also negative aspects of “eco-friendly construction”, such as “higher costs” and “limited availability of sustainable materials”, which can make it challenging for some builders and homeowners to adopt these practices. “The Triple Bottom Line Theory” and the “Theory of Green Construction” serve as the foundation for the theoretical framework used in this study. According to Muñoz-Pascual, Curado and Galende (2019), the “Triple Bottom Line” theory, “economic”, “social” and “environmental factors” all interact to shape sustainable development. This theory has been used to inform the study's research questions and analysis because it offers a framework for assessing how eco-friendly building practices affect the quality of life on Earth.

The utilisation of the “secondary quantitative method” has assisted to identify a report cited by the “World Green Building Council”, the construction and operation of buildings account for approximately “39% of global carbon emissions” (Worldgbc.org, 2023). Due to this, several companies have adopted “eco-friendly construction practices” to “improve life on Earth”. One example is “The Co-operative Group”, which has invested in “sustainable construction materials”, “energy-efficient technologies” and “eco-friendly strategies” to reduce its carbon footprint. Another example is the “King's Cross redevelopment project in London”, which incorporates eco-friendly features such as “green roofs”, “rainwater harvesting” and “low-carbon energy systems” (Zhang, Marshall and Manley, 2019). In short, it is crucial for “builders”, “homeowners” and “governments” to embrace “eco-friendly construction” practices and overcome these challenges to ensure a more sustainable future.

4.2.3 Theme 3: Conventional construction practices can have negative impacts on the environment, including deforestation, pollution and depletion of natural resources

Mother Nature is negatively impacted much more by traditional techniques of conventional construction. Conventional construction uses non-renewable materials for the construction of buildings. This leads to more "greenhouse gas emissions" along with the shortage of "non-renewable" energy. According to the report it has been seen that the use of machinery transportation and production of building materials account for "33% of greenhouse gas emission" and "40% of global energy consumption" in the conventional construction and building operation process (Sizirici et al. 2021). As a result, constructors are moving towards eco-friendly building practices which not only reduces greenhouse gas emission but also improves everyone's overall lifestyle. Apart from this, conventional construction methods also cause deforestation in order to make space for new buildings. Deforestation leads to soil erosion which is another negative impact of using conventional construction. These effects can be mitigated by implementing sustainable buildings without destroying natural resources.

A number of UK companies have adopted “green construction methods” to mitigate the “negative environmental impact” of “traditional construction techniques”. “BAM Construct UK”, for instance, has incorporated ecological strategies such as “recycled materials”, “energy-efficient lighting” and “water-saving devices” into its construction projects. Similarly, using the “secondary qualitative data collection method” it has been seen that the “Eden Project in Cornwall” used sustainable materials and ecological practices such as “rainwater harvesting” and “natural ventilation and renewable energy” to build its iconic domes (Sanchez-Alvarez, 2022). Using environmentally friendly construction practices can significantly benefit the environment by “reducing carbon dioxide emissions”, “conserving natural resources” and “improving air and water quality”. Sustainable materials such as bamboo, hemp and straw can minimise the carbon footprint of building materials. In addition, adopting green building practices such as solar panels and wind turbines can help reduce energy consumption by relying on renewable energy sources.

In short, assessing the effects of “conventional construction methods” on the ecosystem is crucial in “promoting eco-friendly construction practices” that can improve life on Earth. “The UK” has made significant strides in embracing eco-friendly construction practices, as demonstrated by the “Eden Project and BAM Construct UK” examples (Khan et al. 2021). Adopting “eco-friendly construction practices” can help to reduce the adverse effects of conventional construction methods on the environment and promote a more sustainable future.

4.2.4 Theme 4: Architects play a crucial role in promoting and implementing eco-friendly building techniques

Promoting the concept benefits as well as the impact of eco-friendly construction is much needed in order to reduce the environmental impact. Traditional construction methods are using nonrenewable resources along with increasing pollution over many years. As a result in order to prevent these negative impacts it is crucial to prove knowledge about sustainability construction to the common people so that they can also invest in it. As it not only aids in reducing the environmental impact it also improves the overall well-being of the people who live in sustainable buildings. The construction industry workers such as contractors, architects and real estate agents are more able to promote the effects of eco-friendly constructions in comparison with other professionals (Emmanuel Eze, Ugulu and Egwunatum, 2021). Understanding the concepts and benefits of professional people also enhances participation.

They can “incorporate sustainable materials”, “energy-efficient technologies” and “ecological strategies” into their building designs to reduce the negative environmental impact of buildings. For instance, the “London-based architectural firm Architype” specialises in sustainable and environmentally friendly building design. One of their projects, “The Enterprise Centre”, is a “carbon-neutral building” that uses “sustainable materials” and “energy-efficient technologies”. “Real estate agents” who emphasise the benefits of environmentally friendly housing to potential buyers can also play an important role in promoting green construction (Ullah and Sepasgozar, 2020). For example, estate agents may promote a property's energy-efficient features, such as “double glazing” and “insulation and energy-efficient appliances”.

Contractors can implement “eco-friendly building techniques” by using “sustainable materials” and “adopting eco-friendly strategies” such as rainwater harvesting, green roofs and renewable energy sources. For instance, “Willmott Dixon”, a “UK-based construction company”, has adopted eco-friendly building practices by reducing its carbon footprint, using sustainable materials and incorporating “renewable energy sources” in its construction projects. In 2018, the primary challenge for constructing green buildings in the global market was higher initial costs, which accounted for 49% of the obstacle (Statista.com, 2023). In order to mitigate these obstacles and promote and implement eco-friendly building techniques architects, real estate agents and contractors should collaborate and adopt sustainable practices that are cost-effective and can provide long-term benefits to both the environment and the economy.

Chapter 5: Discussion

The study highlights the “importance of implementing environmentally friendly construction” methods in order to reduce the negative impact of the construction industry on the environment. According to a study by Prasad et al. (2023), several technologies and strategies are used in green buildings, such as cross-laminated timber, solar cells, green insulation and rainwater harvesting systems. The review also notes that the market for green building constructions has shown significant growth in recent years. The study also focuses on the impact of “ecological construction” on “improving life on Earth” and discusses specific examples of eco-friendly buildings, such as the “Triangle eco-house in Swindon” and the “Bloomberg European Headquarters in London” (King, 2019). The study also notes the importance of individuals, companies and governments embracing sustainable building practices to reduce their negative environmental impact. The study has demonstrated the importance of “environmentally friendly construction methods” and their “potential to improve life on Earth”, by comparing and contrasting the views appropriately. The study provides a comprehensive overview of “green building constructions”, “identifying technologies” and strategies used in “eco-friendly buildings”, highlighting examples of eco-friendly buildings and discussing their impact on improving life on Earth.

More to a similar context, it can be stated that “CLT” is a product made of engineered wood that has excellent structural qualities and minimal environmental impact. It is used by builders as a replacement for steel and concrete. “Green insulations” are made from recycled glass thus it aids in reducing the environmental impact (Ademilade, Clinton and Aghimien, 2020). Accordingly, it also diminishes the need of investing in expensive heating and cooling technologies which are made from “non-renewable materials”. “Sustainable building strategies” are mainly concerned with creating “sustainable sites”, “increasing water” and “energy efficiency”, “lowering waste and emissions”, “using eco-friendly building materials” and “enhancing interior environmental quality” more effectively than “traditional designs”. Consequently, it can be seen that the market for environmentally friendly buildings is expanding quickly as more and more people begin to consider the problems of climate change.

This study also explores the positive and negative aspects of “environmentally friendly building practices”. The study also highlights that “sustainable building construction” has been successful in reducing “greenhouse gas emissions” and increasing the use of “renewable energy”. According to Sloan Brittain, Wood and Kumar (2021), the initial investment in “environmentally friendly buildings” is often higher than that of traditional construction. This can make it challenging for builders or project managers to carry out the entire project. Additionally, constructing an “eco-friendly building” takes longer than traditional buildings and finding experienced workers can also be difficult due to the in-depth knowledge required. On the other hand, the study also emphasises that “eco-friendly construction methods” focus on using “sustainable materials” and “environmentally conscious strategies” to reduce the negative impact of buildings on the environment. These methods can significantly reduce a building's “carbon footprint”, “improve indoor air quality” and reduce energy consumption (Zhang, Marshall and Manley, 2019). Additionally, environmentally friendly building practices can improve the quality of life by providing healthier living spaces. However, there are also negative aspects, such as “higher costs and limited” availability of sustainable materials, which can make it challenging for some builders and homeowners to adopt these practices.

The study also highlights that the “construction and operation of buildings” account for a significant percentage of “global carbon emissions”. Hence, it is essential for “builders”, “homeowners” and “governments to embrace eco-friendly” construction practices and overcome the challenges to ensure a more sustainable future. The examples of “The Co-operative Group” and the “King's Cross redevelopment project in London” demonstrate how companies are investing in “sustainable construction materials”, “energy-efficient technologies” and “eco-friendly strategies” to reduce their “carbon footprint” (Sanchez-Alvarez, 2022). This study has provided valuable insights into the “advantages and disadvantages” of “environmentally friendly building practices”, emphasising the need for “sustainable construction methods”, by taking into account all of the views cited by different authors. Sustainable building construction created a significant impact on reducing the green gas emission along with increasing the use of renewable energy. On the other hand, environmentally friendly buildings, however, have both advantages and disadvantages. It has been seen that even though green building construction is known as a cost-effective method however the initial investment in this construction is higher than any traditional construction (Hu and Skibniewski, 2021). As a result, many of the builders or project managers become unable to carry out the entire project. On the other hand, one of the most significant positive aspects of green building is that it aids in improving overall health. Living in environmentally conscious buildings improves one's health because there is less chance of exposure to air and water pollution.

Conventional building techniques occasionally involve the use of large machinery and equipment that releases pollutants into nearby water sources that endanger the lives of aquatic life. The use of recycled or renewable building materials, as well as trash reduction and recycling during construction, are all encouraged by eco-friendly building practices. This aids in lowering the sizable amount of waste generated by buildings and keeps it out of landfills and waterways (Cabrera, 2021). Conventional construction methods use a lot of water during construction which results in a massive amount of water waste. On the contrary, sustainable building practices incorporate technologies such as "rainwater harvesting system", "grey water recycling" and "low flow toilets and shower heads". More water is saved thanks to this technology, which also properly recycles it.

The study also provides an overview of the negative impacts of “conventional construction methods” on the ecosystem and emphasises the need for “eco-friendly building practices” to mitigate these effects. According to Khan et al. (2021), the use of “non-renewable materials”, “machinery transportation” and the production of “building materials” contribute significantly to “greenhouse gas emissions” and “global energy consumption”, leading to adverse effects on the environment. “Deforestation” and “soil erosion and water waste” are also identified as negative impacts of “conventional construction methods”. In contrast, “eco-friendly building practices” such as the use of “recycled or renewable materials”, “trash reduction”,“recycling during construction”, “rainwater harvesting” and “low-flow toilets” and showerheads may reduce “waste generation”, “conserve natural resources” and “improve air and water quality”. The analysis highlights the adoption of “green construction methods” by “UK companies” such as “BAM Construct UK and the Eden Project in Cornwall”, which have “incorporated ecological strategies” and “sustainable materials” into their “construction projects” (Kamali, Hewage and Sadiq, 2019). The adoption of “eco-friendly construction practices” can significantly benefit the environment by “reducing carbon dioxide emissions”, “conserving natural resources” and “improving air and water quality”. The use of “bamboo”, “hemp” and “straw” as building materials, as well as “solar panels and wind turbines”, can further reduce the carbon footprint and reliance on non-renewable energy sources.

This study emphasises the need to "promote environmentally friendly construction techniques" to reduce the "negative environmental impact" of construction. "Architects","real estate"and "contractors" are central to the promotion and implementation of “sustainable building practices”. The review shows that promoting the concept and benefits of “green building” is necessary to reduce “environmental impacts” and improve the “overall well-being” of people living in sustainable buildings (Ullah and Sepasgozar, 2020). Building professionals such as “architects”, “contractors” and “real estate agents” are better able to promote the impact of green building. The study also highlights that architects can play an important role in “incorporating sustainable materials”, “energy-efficient technologies” and “ecological strategies” in their building designs. Estate agents can introduce potential buyers to the benefits of “eco-friendly living” by highlighting energy-efficient features such as “double glazing” and “insulation and energy-efficient appliances” (Cenci et al. 2022). Contractors can implement “green building techniques” by using sustainable materials and adopting green strategies such as rainwater harvesting, green roofs and renewable energy sources. However, the main challenge of green building in the global market is higher initial costs. It can be obtained by comparing and contrasting the views that architects, “real estate agents” and contractors must collaborate and adopt sustainable practices that are “cost-effective” and “provide long-term benefits” to both the environment and the economy by mitigating these obstacles.

Another way of promoting sustainable building concepts is through implementing "cool roofs". This provides a transparent or light colour-reflective material on the roof in order to get protection from heat absorption. Apart from this many government policies or environmental initiatives also encourage the use of eco-friendly construction methods. Sustainable building construction uses recycled building materials such as steel, bamboo and reclaimed wood (Habibi, 2019). Apart from there this construction method also use “CLT” which aids in reducing the use of steel or concrete which causes a lot of air pollution. Accordingly, green buildings also implement water conservation methods such as "rainwater harvesting" and 'greywater recycling". This method helps in reducing the overall emission of greenhouse gasses. It also improves the overall lifestyle of living creatures by providing them with a healthy environment where they can breathe fresh air even without going far from the city.

Chapter 6: Conclusion

6.1 Conclusion

In conclusion, this study used a deductive research approach to investigate the effect of eco-friendly architecture on enhancing life on Earth. A thematic analysis was used for secondary data collection. The literature review emphasised the significance of eco-friendly building practices in minimising harmful effects on the environment as well as the critical role that architects play in advocating and putting these practices into practice. This study has provided a thorough examination of the effect of eco-friendly construction on enhancing life on Earth by applying both the “Triple Bottom Line theory” and the “Theory of Green Construction”. “The Theory of Green Construction” has provided a foundation for assessing the efficacy of eco-friendly construction practices in achieving “sustainability goals”, while the Triple Bottom Line theory has allowed researchers to examine the economic, social and environmental impacts of eco-friendly construction. Together, these two ideas served as the guiding principles for the research questions, methodology and analysis in this work, yielding a rigorous and thorough assessment of the contribution of environmentally friendly buildings to enhancing life on Earth. This significant research has maintained the required confidentiality of the collected information throughout its procedure. In addition to that, the data collected through research methodological tools have been kept unchanged and unmodified to secure its authenticity most proficiently. The research has been successful in executing its procedure by complying with the “UK Data Protection Act” in terms of avoiding any lawsuit cases being encountered. The “UK Data Protection Act” was passed in the financial year 1998 (Legislation.gov.uk, 2023). In order to maintain the privacy of the information, the researcher has stored the obtained data in a secured database appropriately. Overall, the findings of this study have contributed to the understanding of the impact of “eco-friendly construction” on improving life on Earth and have implications for the promotion and implementation of eco-friendly building techniques.

6.2 Linking with Objectives

  • To find and analyse the state of environmentally friendly building techniques at the moment, including the tools and methods employed and the degree to which they are being embraced on a worldwide scale

An examination of the status of green building practices today shows that these methods are becoming more and more popular on a worldwide basis. Solar panels, ecological materials and effective heating and cooling systems are just a few examples of the tools and techniques included in these practices. However, based on geographic location and economic growth, the extent to which these practices are being adopted differs considerably.

  • To investigate the benefits and drawbacks of environmentally responsible building practices for enhancing life on earth

Critical evaluation of ecologically friendly construction methods reveals many advantages for enhancing living on earth. These practices support local communities financially and socially by promoting “sustainable growth”, “reducing carbon emissions” and “conserving resources”. These practices do have some disadvantages, though, such as higher starting costs, possible restrictions in some climes and difficulties with retrofitting existing structures.

  • To identify the effects of conventional construction techniques on the ecosystem and how eco-friendly building techniques help to mitigate these effects

“Conventional building” methods have a significant detrimental influence on the environment, including deforestation, soil loss and pollution, according to research on the subject. Instead, eco-friendly construction methods encourage the use of natural resources, minimise pollution, use fewer dangerous substances and help to alleviate these effects.

  • To recommend different methods of implementing eco-friendly construction practices for architects, builders and developers which can help in improving life on earth

According to the research, adopting a variety of eco-friendly building techniques is advised for architects, builders and developers to enhance living on earth. Utilizing “environmentally friendly building materials”, setting up effective heating and cooling systems, encouraging the use of renewable energy sources and integrating green areas into building architecture are a few examples of these practices. Programs for education and training should also be created to assist pros in acquiring the abilities and information required to apply these strategies successfully.

6.3 Recommendations

6.3.1 Recommendation 1: Adoption of primary data collection method

Future studies must incorporate original data-gathering techniques like the “primary data collection method” to acquire the information directly from sources and lessen the possibility of biased or incomplete data. The validity and trustworthiness of the study results would thus be improved.

6.3.2 Recommendation 2: Implementation of the theory of green construction

“The Theory of Green Construction”, on the other hand, places a strong emphasis on the application of environmentally responsible and sustainable techniques in the construction sector. This theory served as a framework for the selection of the study's variables, which included the types of eco-friendly construction methods and practices being employed as well as attitudes toward them (Pham et al. 2022). “The Theory of Green Construction”, which offers a framework for assessing the efficacy of eco-friendly construction techniques in enhancing life on Earth, has also been used to assist the interpretation of the data in this study. The application of the “theory of green construction” has the potential to enhance the “environmental sustainability” of building projects and can be further explored in a future study. This can be done by creating and implementing more environmentally responsible products and procedures, which would lessen the damaging effects of a traditional building on the environment.

6.4 Future scope

The research has delivered abundant information regarding the current condition of the “eco-friendly construction industry” associated with their business activities, strategies as well as methods in terms of acquiring global recognition appropriately. Apart from that, this particular study has been able to accomplish its objectives regarding the positive as well as negative impacts led by the “green construction industry” in promoting environment-well being. This study has also discussed the effect generated via “conventional construction methods” on the ecosystem as well as their role in minimising the negative repercussions accordingly. It has suggested some of the effective “eco-friendly building strategies” for enhancing life’s quality on earth in a significant manner. All of this information seems to be helpful for further research in identifying the feasible solutions to mitigate the barriers obstructing the business activities of “eco-friendly construction” accordingly.

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