Impact Of Employee Motivation On Employee Engagement At M & S In Oxford Assignment

Empowering Engagement: Understanding the Role of Employee Motivation

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The Impact Of Employee Motivation On Employee Engagement At M & S In Oxford Assignment

Chapter 1: Introduction

The modern generation is full of new businesses and this is mainly happening because people are very much innovative and creative at the same time. This is the reason why people look for the perfect workplace where they are respected and also they can work with their dignity. Every individual doesn't only thrive on a good salary but people of this generation are more towards having a better lifestyle that can only be achieved with the help of a good working environment and also where they can find respect in their workplace. It has been found that there are many individuals working in an organisation even though having a handsome salary but still the company is failing to retain their employees this is because of the working environment of the organisation. This is also because of the behaviour of the people who are not able to treat their employees in a good and appropriate way. People of this generation are very much habituated to a good lifestyle. The people of the previous generation only wanted to have a secure job without having any questions about their job satisfaction or working environment. People nowadays are very much independent in nature because there are many options available to them. The people in society now want job satisfaction irrespective of money and standards.

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Every individual of this generation wants to have a proper job and more importantly, they want dignity in the job whatsoever may the salary. The most important thing is mental peace. People in the previous wanted a job just to meet the needs of their daily lives and feed their families but people of this generation are financially independent they want a job just to maintain a certain class in society. Every employer needs to respect the personal life of an employee and also make sure that the work-life balance of the employees is being maintained and respected as well (Al Ahbabi et al., 2018).

There are many big organisations which have a very good pay scale but the employee turnover is very high which can be understood that this is a very serious issue which should be taken care of. Also, employee motivation works in making the employees more engaged in their workplace. In many places, it can be found that employees become very inactive in the workplace and don't take proper responsibility for their work even if they have customers to attend still they tend to take this situation very lightly and sometimes they don’t even bother to make the customer feel comfortable and valuable in the place. This employee engagement with the customers and making them work actively in the workplace can be regulated by providing employee motivation in the workplace (Carnevale and Hatak, 2020). Employee motivation is something which is very necessary for making the employees work more actively and also making them engage in their workplace. Employee motivations such as giving recognition for the good work of an employee, also giving them appraisal for their work and most importantly they should be respected in the workplace and their senior should be able to understand the employees in a better way (Arifin, Nirwanto and Manan, 2019). So, the senior of the workplace should give the employees proper time and hourly breaks for their refreshments which will ensure that the employee is back again with complete attention.

Mark and spencer is a very famous retail brand in the united kingdom and they are famous for their clothing and luxury product line. The company was established in the year 1884 in Leeds, United Kingdom and the company has been established many decades back in the course of time, the company has been able to expand its branches in all the different corners of the globe. The company is mainly based out of England and thus it is very much classy and has good support from the lands of the queen. The company is famous for its collection of clothing line because they themselves manufacture its own clothes and along with that they have created a platform for other brands as well where it can sell its products and the brands were mostly premium luxury brands. This is the reason why the brand got so famous as they were able to offer a huge amount of diverse clothing collections this made it stand out from the crowd and thus it has helped the brand to gain a lot of recognition. The brand also sells many certain fashinable products which are not easily available in the market even if available those are very expensive and cannot be afforded by normal people of society.

The company has its headquarters in the beautiful city of London where the economy is stable most of the time and which is the main point of attraction for all the big businesses (Hogg et al., 2021). The company not only doesn’t sell clothing products but in fact, the company is into selling most of the products that are very much useful for people in their day-to-day lifestyle. The company sells products such as women's accessories like beauty products and watches, jewellery products, handbags and also important essential items for women such as cosmetics which are available in a wide range in the store and also on their website as well. There are also many products available for kids and as well as for home decor items are available which makes the store a complete retailer of different products (Gunn et al., 2019). In their store also different furniture products are also available but the products are completely from a luxury segment and classic products as well. The company sells products on a seasonal basis as in winter they manufacture a special clothing line for winter each year and this gives the customer of the company a very good fashionable look. The brand by doing this retains its customers and also even attracts new customers from the market. The company sells clothing items which are manufactured in their own factories but they also deal in selling products of the different brands as well. Thus the company have evolved in making it a platform for many big luxury brands as well. The brands that sell their products are such as Jack & Jones and also brands like Superdry (Flanders et al., 2020). The company also sells products such as flowers and plants which also helps in attracting customers from different segments thus bringing a huge amount of traffic can help the company to sell many products as compared to any other brand like this. The company has a total 959 number of stores and is expanding in all different parts of the globe. The company has a total of 78,000 employees globally which is a huge number for any organisation.

Research aim

The aim of the research is to investigate if lack of motivation is the cause of the problem of low employee engagement at M & S in oxford and also provide some appropriate recommendations for the same.

Research objectives

  • To evaluate the relationship between work-life balance and motivation
  • To measure the relationship between the reward system and job motivation.
  • To measure the relationship between leadership style and job motivation.
  • To estimate the relationship between job satisfaction and employee motivation.
  • To find out the relationship between employee empowerment and motivation.

Research questions

  • Is there a relationship between the reward system and motivation?
  • Is there a relationship between work-life balance and motivation?
  • Is there a relationship between leadership style and motivation?
  • Is there a relationship between employee empowerment and motivation?

Justification for research objectives and research problems

The employees in many organisations are treated in a very rude way which sometimes also becomes disrespectful to the employees. As there are many new options of job opportunities available for every individual and also there are many new firms where the employees are being according to modern working standards where they can also have their own dignity while working and they are being paid for that accordingly. Employers should be able to understand that an employee also has their own private life and make sure that they respect them as well. The employer should also give the employee an adequate amount of motivation in terms of paying them incentives giving recognition for their good work and thus helping the employees to work actively in the workplace. The employer's leadership style is very much related to the motivation of the employees because when the leadership will be good and positive then the employees will automatically get motivated to work with even more enthusiasm and encouragement which can help in the increased sales of the products because this will also enhance the interaction skills between the employees and the customers. Job satisfaction is something which comes along with employee motivation for the employees. An employee can be completely satisfied with their job when they will be having a good working environment and also they will be treated with proper respect by the employer that when an employer will respect the work-life balance of the employee then only the employee will be satisfied with their jobs and this will also provide good motivation to the employees for making them work even harder in the workplace. Employees should be provided with emporenment in the organisaiton because this will give them a feeling of authority for their own work and thus it will also help them to work better and feel motivated towards their job.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

Overview

Literature review is the crucial part of a research as it presents the researchers’ and critiques opinion on the topic of the research study. The literature review consists of the theoretical and conceptual framework based on the research topic. This portion helps to fulfil the research objectives by entailing the research’s needs. The concept is made of the research objectives to meet the expectation of the research paper. This part has described the motivation concept, reward system and work-life balance and the way it can impact the employees’ life. The way employees feel motivated and included in an organization has been presented in this literature review.

Theoretical Framework

The Concept of Motivation, Reward System and Work-Life Balance in The Organization

Motivation is a process of inducement to fulfil an action. Motivation plays an essential role to increase the performance of the organization. motivation can drive employees to meet organizational objectives. There are some parts to motivation such as motivators, motives and the actual act of motivation. According to Barber, Conlin and Santuzzi (2019) A motive initiates an action of a certain behaviour for the accomplishment of a specific goal. On the other hand, some motivating tools have been used to motivate employees to make them feel energetic. Motivation is the process of completing a task by supporting employees in an organization. Employees play important role in an organization as the organizational task depends on them. Without them, the organization cannot run its work. According to Thamrin and Riyanto (2020) Employees need support to feel energetic so that they can work hard. There are two types of motivation a reward system and feedback. Only feedback cannot motivate employees for a long time because they need extra recognition to continue the work. employees need money and a great position to feel motivated. Increment and promotion can motivate employees to put effort into the organization. on the other hand, they need emotional support to lower their work-related stress.

Motivation is an imperative e part of organizational growth. Without motivation, an organization face employee turnover in an organization. According to the view point of Kerdpitak and Jermsittiparsert (2020) Motivation can increase the productivity of the employees and make the organization spunky. Employees need feedback to improve their work and emotional support works as motivation to make employees to efficient. Motivation also helps increase the work culture of an organization. with better rewards and recognition, the organization make the employees feel motivated and included. Sometimes employees lose their motivation due to workload and leave shortages, in such cases organization plans for an organizational tour to make employees feel energetic and stress-free. Incentive and recognition systems also make the employees dedicated towards their work. the organization sometimes set a reward system for achieving the target, in this way employees and the organization both get benefits. Employees can maintain their personal development and increase productivity and it also helps to maintain the workforce.

Work-life balance is also necessary for employees to perform better in an organization. If an organization does not provide a work-life balance to the employees then the employees lose their productivity and workflow. It can be the cause of employee turnover in the workplace. Work-life balance has a positive impact on employee performance. Acquah et al. (2021) opine young employees who balance work and family commitments appear to be the most productive ones. Adequate opportunities can gain employee retention in an organization. Opportunities can make employees comfortable with the workplace and it is also a sign of a healthy work environment. If the employees feel the imbalance between work and life it can increase their stress of the employees and they feel demotivated which is not beneficial for the organisation as well as the employees.

The Relationship Between the Work-Life Balance and Motivation in The Workplace

The balance is achieved when there is harmony between life and work. There is a connection between work-life balance and motivation in the workplace. Work-life balance is considered as an opportunity and this factor always motivates employees to sustain in the workplace for a long time. Work-life balance also lets employees socialise with the community in the organization. Sometimes organization plan for a trip or tour to make employees feel good and energetic. In this way, the situation always remains under control and productivity has improved. If employees are given ample opportunities, then they also become part of the organization and try to fulfil the organizational objectives. The idea of work-life balance deals with the employees’ personal and official life. When a person is given a work-life balance they feel included in the organisation and always try to meet the organizational expectations. Rests and breaks are important in human life to utilise their productivity. It also helps the employees fresh their minds. According to (Abdirahman, 2018) work-life balance is essential when institutes have to manage technical professionals because their high loyalty, concentration and commitments are necessary to achieve the institutional goal. According to Abdirahman, (2018) balance is necessary to motivate people as it is the only thing that can satisfy employees. Apart from the money, job satisfaction is also necessary to gain employee retention in the workplace. Job satisfaction also depends on the work-life balance. If a workplace continuously pressurises employees to work hard without motivation, then the employee loses concentration in the workplace and eventually disrupts their productivity. According to Arifin, Nirwanto and Manan, (2019) when a person balances their work and life they can put a big contribution to their organization, which influences their job performance.

In order to understand the concept of job satisfaction, there are numerous different definitions of job satisfaction developed by different scholars. According to the viewpoint of Ali and Anwar (2021) to measure and defining job satisfaction can be risky because it has been influenced by the employee’s attitude as well as their capability to handle their tasks. Sometimes, employees are given work which they can’t handle, which also increases the challenges in the organization and for the employees simultaneously. Employees need to be healthy and fit to work efficiently as they have to deal with much critical work. If they feel unstable and unfit then it increases the chances of losing productivity. It eventually brings destruction to the company as well as the employees’ work. The workload can decrease the energy of employees therefore, the organization have to give the benefits of maintaining an official and personal life. Ultimately happiness is a priority of an employee and that should never be overlooked. According to Ozkeser (2019) the organizational objective can be achieved through initiation and monitoring and these thing helps to make the behaviour which peoples through decision-making as the motivation as considered a cognitive decision. At workplaces, appraisals have been shown by checking the review. The outcome can provoke an emotional reaction in the employees. That also helps to understand how much satisfaction the employee gets in the workplace. The reaction also helps to understand how unsatisfied the employee becomes.

The Concept of Leadership and Type of Leadership

Leadership is something which is very much necessary for making any business big or turning it into a big firm which is profitable. A leader is someone who is responsible for providing a vision to other employees because they are the ones who possess a clear idea about the aim of the business. The employees who are joining at a later phase of the business are provided with proper idea about the vision of the business because they the leaders are the ones who were thriving hard to make this vision come true and thus with the help of a good leader the employee can be motivated enough to work hard to reach the goal that is being projected as per Ali, and Anwar, (2021). It is also the responsibility of the leader to provide the employees or the members of the team with adequate knowledge and training based on the work that they are going to be assigned so that they doesn’t face any problem while completing the assigned task which will lead them to reach the aim of the company. The leaders are also responsible for providing the members of the team with adequate resources so that the employees are able to do the work with their highest efficiency and this will also help in increasing the productivity of the employees as a whole. As stated by Paais and Pattiruhu, (2020) The responsibility of a leader is also to provide proper continuous influence to the members of the team so that they never lack behind with the motivation at their workplace and never get distracted from their main goal. The leaders are also the most powerful person in any business and thus they have a proper grasp on the environment of the workplace and they can change the direction and flow of work according to the requirement of the goal according to Ozkeser, (2019). The leaders are also responsible for providing a good motivation to the employees because this will help them to achieve the goal much more faster and make the organisation a profitable one. There are different types of leadership and each type of leadership has different effectiveness in the every individual workplace or business depending on the type of the business. This are the some of the types of leadership which are very much effective in the business or any organissation. Democratic leadership is one of the most important type of leadership which is very much effective in making any organisation reach its highest productivity. As stated by Yarow, Jirma and Siringi, (2019) Democratic leadership is something which consists of the leaders and as well as the employees because in this type of leadership the leaders give importance to the opinion of the employees before taking any crucial decision for the organisation. Even though leader makes the final call for the decision but all the employees are also equally involved in making the decision. This type of leadership is most appreciated by the employees because in this type of leadership the employees have a voice of their own. According to Briker, Walter and Cole, (2021), Another most influential type of leadership style is autocratic leadership, this type of leadership is completely opposite to that of democratic leadership. In this type of leadership, the opinion of the employees are not given any value and thus the decision that is being made is completely based on the leader. Transformational leadership is another most important leadership style which helps in changing and improving the functions and capabilities of the organisation or even the society as well. In this type of leadership, the leader always tries to push the limits of the employees by motivating them and making sure that they are working very hard to reach the goal. This type of leaders are very much dedicated towards their work and have a strong believe in changing the society into a better one. The companies which are growing nowadays and becoming unicorn are adopting this leadership style because it has been found to be the most effective in building an organisation into a bigger one. As per Al Khajeh, (2018), Bureaucratic leadership is a leadership which is very much similar to that of the autocratic leadership but it differs in many respects of the leadership. In this type of leadership, it lies on a chain of clear command which means the entire organisation is completely dependent on the leadership of a particular leader. Also a strict rules and regulations is being maintained within the workplace and this is also under the supervision of a specific leader. Even though the organisaiton is completely dependent on the decision of single person but confirmation is being taken from all the different members of the oragnisaiton. This feature of this leadership style makes it different from autocratic leadership as confirmation is being taken from the all subordinates of the organisation. As stated by Purwanto, Bernarto, Asbari, Wijayanti, and Hyun, (2020), Transactional leadership is also a type of leadership in which the leader gives rewards to the employees based on the performance of the employees and also give the employees punishment in order to make some serious changes in the organisaiton. The employees are being provided with good rewards in order to make them feel that they are important to the organisation as well and this makes them work even harder once they notice their value to the business. In this way the performance of the employees can be increased significantly. Also when the employees are not able to do the work within the suitable time period or if the work is not done upto the mark then the employees are being punished to ensure that they doesn’t do the same mistake and by doing this the optimal performance of an employee is perceived.

The Relationship Between Leadership Styles and Job Motivation

Leadership style impacts very much on job motivation because it is the leaders who are responsible for the motivating the employees with all means and thus also providing them benefits with the help of which employees will be motivated to work even harder to make the goal achieve by the company as fast as possible. The democratic leadership is something which enhances the motivation for the employees because in this type of leadership employees are being treated in a more better way. In democratic leadership the employees have a voice of their own and this is the fact that is being appreciated by the employees most because when their opinion is being given a priority then they start feeling that they are also valuable to the company and thus this works as a great motivation for the employees. This leadership style has also been found very much effective in creating job motivation among the employees. Even all leadership style doesn’t provide adequate amount of motivation to the employees and some of those types of leadership styles is autocratic leadership where the decision of the leader is the final one. Transactional leadership is also a type of leadership in which the employees are being provided with the adequate amount of motivation for the employees in order to make them work hard for their goals and make sure that they are able to achieve the goal much faster than expected. Transformational leaders are also the ones who have a great potential in creating a good impression in front of the employees about the vision and thus with the help of giving them the vision will also ensure that they are working really hard to achieve that goal, employee motivation can be provided with the help of transformational leadership style.

The Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Employee Motivation

Job satisfaction ensures the employees’ satisfaction in the workplace. It also depends on the performance and the growth of the person. According to van der Kolk et al. (2019) if a person feels satisfied then it reflects in their work and performance. According to Ciobanu, Androniceanu and Lazaroiu (2019) motivated people will always have job satisfaction because they all are connected vehemently. Job satisfaction depended on the employee’s perceptions because everyone has a different perspective about careers and life. Some people can take the workload however, some people like limited work. In an organization, people come from different places, backgrounds and cultures. Therefore, their attitude and perspective are different from one another. Some people like to work more, therefore, it creates conflicts between employees. There are some theories that help to understand how motivation work.

Taylor’s scientific management theory is also used in organizational motivation. He made the opinion that only oral motivation is not enough to encourage employees and workers to work hard. The theory also presented some scientific steps to motivate employees. According to this theory’s that managers and workers work together to lower the pressure. Autocratic leadership always lead to complexities in the organization. The combination of their work can reduce work stress and employees feel motivated. They also can learn more things from experienced people that’s why it also develops an individual’s personal skills. In this way, the employee can be satisfied in the workplace. The step also includes the job, selection and training of the workers. In an organization, the employees should be selected in a certain way, so that the organization can select the appropriate and eligible candidate for the organization. Kerdpitak and Jermsittiparsert, (2020) opine eligible candidates will be fit for the company through this process and they can deal with the organizational work. Taylor opined that managers should be paid monetary incentives to efficient workers. According to this model, everyone should not be paid the same because it will increase the stress for efficient employees. Incentives, rewards and recognition can motivate employees and satisfy them in the workplace. Incentives and money can allure people to get motivated and they will pay more attention to the work and increase their work efficiency. However, according to some critics, the theory can not be applicable to all existing employees as it can increase the work burden upon the employees. There areThe Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Employee Motivation employees who take considerable time to adapt to something. This method can make employees’ machines meet the incentives as it is inadequate and narrow.

 Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory

Figure 1: Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory

(Source: Rainear and Christensen, 2017)

The paper has presented the Maslow’s motivation model to elaborate the way it can motivate people towards their work to fulfil the fundamental need to luxury. Maslow’s hierarchy model is related to motivation which helps to provide a sheer idea about an individual’s motivation in an organization. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs can be presented in five different ways such as physiological, safety, belonging, love, esteem, and self-actualization. Hunger, thirst, activity, and rest fall under physiological needs, on the other hand, security, and anxiety fall under safety. Love and affection belong to the “belong and love” as it feels employees feel supported and they get emotional support from the team members. Achievement and status belong to the achievement as employees are appreciated for their right deeds and for cracking the challenging tasks. Physiological needs are parts of the hierarchy theory that includes the survival areas such as food, shelter, and air. Employees are fulfilling their fundamental needs through their job. According to the Maslow, after accomplishing the basic or fundamental needs people try to fulfil others. They get motivation after finishing a work. After that, self-actualization helps to understand the desire and the potential using the experiences and competencies.

Herzberg’s theory of motivation is important to get to the root of motivation in the workplace. This theory can be used as a motivation theory to increase the best performance for the team. Mehrad (2020) opines two factors are part of this factor one is the motivator and the other one is the hygiene factor. One factor helps to satisfy the employee such as recognition, growth responsibility, and achievement these are the thing that satisfies employees. Chiat and Panatik (2019) opine Lack of security, low wages are the reason for the dissatisfaction of an employee.

Herzberg’s Motivation Hygiene Theory

Figure 2: Herzberg’s Motivation Hygiene Theory

( Source: Babcicky and Seebauer, 2019)

Literature Gap

Through the literature review, all the important aspects have been covered but there is still some gap related to the topic. the literature was limited to the only theoretical perspective that in turn creates a void in knowledge. The theoretical aspect related to the research topic has been discussed in this section.

Chapter 3. Research Methodology

Overview

Research methodology is the most crucial part of the research study. Where the scholar can select appropriate research methods to operate the research study appropriately. Research methods help to give the research a proper shape. This chapter consists of some important research parts such as the Purpose of the research, scope of the research, research philosophy, research approach, research strategy, data collection process, data analysis, sampling method, research ethics and research boundaries. With maintaining ethical factors this research paper becomes more licit. This chapter presents the way researchers will conduct the research project with maintaining regulatory rules and conditions. The measures have been taken into consideration to examine motivation and how it impacts employees’ satisfaction. The data collection process also focuses on collecting authentic data considering the M&S oxford.

Figure 3: Research Onion

(Source: Saunders et al., 2007)

Purpose of The Research

The explanatory research has been followed in this section. The research aims to evaluate the impact of employee motivation on employee engagement at M&S in Oxford. Several parts of this study measured buyer satisfaction from the managerial perspective. The study also measures the importance of employee motivation and employee engagement. Employees are the key factors that never make the organization sluggish. Employee motivation helps workers to involve with the workplace and ameliorate their performance in the organization. The paper also analyses the gap between organizational motivation and employee engagement as sometimes the organization do not meet the motivational factors of the employees

Scope of The Research

The research will be conducted online therefore there is no physical contact or fieldwork is needed. To measure the level of employee motivation for employee engagement, the SRRVQUAL model has been followed. There are five different dimensions in the SERVQUAK model such as tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy. Here two dimensions are relevant such as responsiveness and empathy as the paper deals with employee motivation and employee engagement. A survey of 30 employees has been done for this paper to develop the appropriate research information for this study.

Research Philosophy

Research philosophy plays important role in the research methodology part. It justifies the research design to provide authentic data and information for the research paper. It deals with a particular way of developing knowledge. There are four types of research methodology such as pragmatism, positivism, realism, and interpretivism (Pandeyand Pandey, 2021). For this paper, the positivism research philosophy has been selected to find authentic data for this paper. The reality is objective and perceived through the positivism research philosophy. This research philosophy includes the survey, experiments and quasi-experiments as positivism can be applied only to these data collection methods. Moral values and moral content are not associated with the acquisition of knowledge in epistemology (Mohajan, 2018). Positivism always falls under one of the main paradigms to understand reality. The positivism concept is directly associated with the idea of objectivism. By using this research philosophy, the researchers can present their point of view in order to assess the social world. This research philosophy always aside subjectivity, rather it always prioritises the matter of objectivity. Through this research philosophy, the researcher always searches for general information and accesses the large data or information available for the topic. It never focuses on the detail of the research therefore; it always interprets the data from a general perspective (Lobe, Morgan and Hoffman, 2020). Researcher self-attitudes are irrelevant to the research paper as it does not affect the scientific way of research. Observation and experiments are part of the positivist philosophy to collect the relevant data from the numerical data. An objective analyst always complies with the positivism approach as it isolates the research from their personal values and does not depend on the work.

Research Approach

An appropriate research approach is needed to execute the research paper. The research approach has three parts such as inductive deductive and abductive. Some different meanings can be gathered in the research approach. for this study, the deductive research approach has been selected to find the right approach for the research paper. The deductive approach has a concern with the hypothesis based on the existing theory and the deductive approach also helps to design the research strategy to test the hypothesis (Mishra and Alok, 2022). The deductive always collect particular data to come to general solutions. The deductive approach preferred the abundance of sources to come to particular solutions. This approach includes less risk as it always follows the scientific method and existing theory. It also considers a short time to complete the research paper. Deductive method always follows the path of logic therefore, invalid information can be averted in accomplishing the paper. It always collects the data from the existing theory, formulates the hypothesis based on the existing data after the analysis has been done and justifies the hypothesis. Therefore, this deductive research approach has been selected for this paper to present the paper in a short time without the risk of invalidity

Research Strategy

Research strategy is a crucial part of the research methodology. There are two types of research strategy such as qualitative and quantitative research strategy (Cr, 2020). There are several search strategies to collect relevant data from primary research sources to answer the research questions and the empirical research study. The survey is the main concern of this study as t has been considered the appropriate method to collect the data from a large volume in a very short period of time. This study is also concerned with the survey questionnaire to be the appropriate strategy to be considered for fulfilling the purpose of the study. A quantitative strategy cannot collect open-ended data; therefore, it is also necessary for the researcher to get data which is content and composed (Newman and Gough, 2020). Quantitative research controls an independent variable to measure its effect on a dependent variable. Identification of behaviour in its natural settings is also accessible in the quantitative research strategy (Zangirolami-Raimundo et al., 2018). As the paper has considered the deductive method to collect vast data to come to a general conclusion, the numerical data and quantitative strategy are appropriate to meet the authentication of this paper. There are two types of research methodology such as explanatory and exploratory design (Zhang, 2022). For this particular study. The explanatory design has been chosen as it can be appropriate. Research design helps in the data collection method. The paper has taken the deductive method therefore, the explanatory approach would be appropriate for this research paper. It also explores the factors when the information and time are limited. It also helps to increase the understanding of a given topic and the reason behind the happening of a particular phenomenon.

Data Collection Method

The data collection method is the most important part of the research methodology to collect proper data for the research paper. Without the proper data collection method, the paper will be invalid. There are two types of methods to collect data for a research paper such as secondary data collection method and primary data collection method (D?wigo? and D?wigo?-Barosz, 2018). The primary data collection methods include the interview and survey which can give practical information. Primary data is always based on obtaining data from the individual. On the other hand, the secondary data collection methods include magazines, books, articles, websites, journals and other secondary sources. Secondary data always indicates the existing data from different sources. The SERVQUAL model questionnaire has been adopted to answer the research questions and to achieve the research objectives of this paper. In a pilot survey, the questions were pre-tested and the changes also have been made accordingly. 15 questions have been set to circulate the questions among the employees of M&S oxford. The paper has not focused on subjective research therefore, the questions will be close-ended. A survey always helps to get information which is limited and requisite and logical. There are 22 questions under the SERVQUAL model based on tangibility, reliability, responsiveness assurance and empathy. The requirements were that respondents have to deal with the agreements and disagreements with their preferences. It helps to understand the process of the majority of the people. There are different questions for the different sections. There is also a scale to gauge the answer ranging from strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree and strongly disagree. This scale also helps to measure the intensity of their viewpoint. Objective data always remains strong because sometimes subjective thoughts depend upon the understanding which can lead to the invalidity of the paper. 30 employees of the company have been chosen to respond to the survey. 15 questions have been set to collect the relevant data for this research paper.

The online survey is helpful as it can provide relevant information within a less budget. It is also not very much time-consuming. In a short time, the online mode of the survey is useful for collecting the relevant data for this paper. The fieldwork survey has not been considered here. The survey questions also have been set on the topic related to motivation and the way they can feel included with the organizations. A survey helps the researchers to get limited information as it is important to summarise the collected data. in this way the researcher also understands the way employees feel energetic to work in the workplace maintaining their productivity. In this way, relevant and authentic data has been collected for this research paper through the data collection method. The existing employees can provide great ideas about the way employee motivation work in engaging the employees with an organization.

Sample Population

There are primary four types of sampling strategy such as random sampling, stratified sampling, cluster sampling and systematic sampling. A stratified sample population was used to ensure that the samples is made up of males and females of the organization. Existing workers were not allowed to participate in the survey. The size of the sample population was 30, through 25 employees responded to the survey 30. The other 5 were not willing to participate in the survey.

Primary Data Analysis

The researcher has set 22 questions based on the topic related to employee motivation and employee engagement. There are some people who have multiple times therefore, 4 answers have been rejected from the collected data. The first table has described the mean of the paper and the questions that have been set. The analysis of the primary data involved both descriptive and inferential statistics. The statistical package for social sciences was used to ensure reliability and eliminate the risk of stereotypical biases in the interpretation of the results.

Reliability

Reliability feres to the organization’s ability to perform the promised service accurately and dependably. Reliability is necessary to achieve a single goal. A manager can’t do all the work therefore, he relies on the other employees so that they can collectively execute the organizational work to achieve a single goal. Reliability is an important part of the SERVQUAL model and questionnaires.

Responsiveness

Responsiveness is necessary as a company always deal with the customers and their involvement help to increase the profitability of the company. M&S is a renowned company therefore, the reputation of the company also matters for the brand image and credibility.

Empathy

Empathy refers to good services and good products. If the customers are happy then the retention of the customers always increases in a significant way. Empathy is caring and individualized attention paid to the consumers.

Research Boundaries

The research boundaries are important to execute the research paper within the time. The information and data can be found from huge sources but the paper can not consider entire data. To reduce the huge data, the researcher has to follow the research boundaries. The researcher has to select the relevant data so that the paper can provide the authentic information for the research study. The offline surveys have not been conducted to save time. The researcher has to finish the work on time therefore, they must utilise the relevant data. It also saves the research budget because it does not need any field exploration costs.

Ethical Consideration

Ethical consideration is important to avert unethical practices in the research paper. all the authentic information has been taken for this research paper. All the recorded data has been secured for maintaining privacy. The Paper has considered the secondary research method, therefore, it is necessary to find valid data for this particular paper. The paper has not considered the data which is very old as time has changed, therefore, the existing information has also changed due to the organization’s change policy to upgrade the company. Therefore, the paper has used the current information to collect the relevant data for this paper. The researcher has taken the consent of the participants and without the consent, it will be an unethical practice. Confidentiality is important to protect the participant’s information. In this way, scientific integrity has been maintained. The participants also know the benefits, and risks of the study so that they can participate knowing all the facts. The recorded data has not been shared because it can hamper the privacy of the participants. Their name is also hidden in this paper because they are considered anonymous. Voluntary participants are necessary for accomplishing the paper. Only the employees of the company are requested to participate in the survey. Other people are not allowed to participate in the survey section. Double participation of one person is not allowed in this survey. There is no discrimination in this survey, as all employees, male and female are given equal importance to the survey.

Chapter 4. Findings & Discussion

The chapter provides an analysis of the primary data and secondary data to give some support to the research paper. These factors help to fulfil the research questions and objectives. The result of the survey has presented in a table.

Table 1 Result of the Survey

No Questions SA5 A4 NS3 D2 SD1 total
1 Do you feel the workload is high at M&S Oxford? 15 5 1 1 3 25 Mean= 15x5 +5x4 +1x3 +1x2+3x1 75+20+3+2+3= 103=1.03
2 Do you feel incentives and recognition can motivate employees in the workplace? 10 5 5 3 2 25 Mean= 10x5+5x4+5x3+3x2+2x1 50+20+15+6+2= 93 0.93
3 Do you agree that your company should increase the opportunities related to the work? 20 1 1 1 2 25 100+4+3+2+1=110 1.10
4 Do you have all the freedom to take decisions in the performance of your duties? 3 2 5 10 5 25 15+8+15+20+5=63 0.63
5 Do you are committed to your organisation because you have the freedom of action? 10 10 1 2 2 25 50+40+3+4+2=99 0.99
6 Do You feel empowered after getting motivation? 20 1 1 1 2 25 100+4+3+2+2=111 1.11
7 Do you have a strong desire to deliver the highest performance due to recognition? 20 1 1 1 2 25 1.11
8 Do you have no desire to quit because of the level of authority you have in the organisation? 10 10 1 2 2 25 99=0.99=1.00
9 Do you think your level of commitment is the result of having full responsibility for your work 0 20 0 1 4 25 86=8.8
10 Do you agree that organizational motivation can increase employee engagement in an organization? 15 5 1 2 2 25 75+20+3+4+2=104 1.04
11 You want to be a life -long employee of M&S for the level of empowerment you enjoy 10 5 5 3 2 25 Mean= 10x5+5x4+5x3+3x2+2x1 50+20+15+6+2= 93 0.93
12 Do you agree that positive feedback and appreciation can inspire employees to work hard without incentives? 5 5 15 0 0 25 Mean= 25+20+45+0+0=90 0.90
13
No Questions SA5 A4 NS3 D2 SD1 total
1 Do you feel the workload is high at M&S Oxford? 15 5 1 1 3 25 Mean= 15x5 +5x4 +1x3 +1x2+3x1 75+20+3+2+3= 103=1.03
2 Do you feel incentives and recognition can motivate employees in the workplace? 10 5 5 3 2 25 Mean= 10x5+5x4+5x3+3x2+2x1 50+20+15+6+2= 93 0.93
3 Do you agree that your company should increase the opportunities related to the work? 20 1 1 1 2 25 100+4+3+2+1=110 1.10
4 Do you have all the freedom to take decisions in the performance of your duties? 3 2 5 10 5 25 15+8+15+20+5=63 0.63
5 Do you are committed to your organisation because you have the freedom of action? 10 10 1 2 2 25 50+40+3+4+2=99 0.99
6 Do You feel empowered after getting motivation? 20 1 1 1 2 25 100+4+3+2+2=111 1.11
7 Do you have a strong desire to deliver the highest performance due to recognition? 20 1 1 1 2 25 1.11
8 Do you have no desire to quit because of the level of authority you have in the organisation? 10 10 1 2 2 25 99=0.99=1.00
9 Do you think your level of commitment is the result of having full responsibility for your work 0 20 0 1 4 25 86=8.8
10 Do you agree that organizational motivation can increase employee engagement in an organization? 15 5 1 2 2 25 75+20+3+4+2=104 1.04
11 You want to be a life -long employee of M&S for the level of empowerment you enjoy 10 5 5 3 2 25 Mean= 10x5+5x4+5x3+3x2+2x1 50+20+15+6+2= 93 0.93
12 Do you agree that positive feedback and appreciation can inspire employees to work hard without incentives? 5 5 15 0 0 25 Mean= 25+20+45+0+0=90 0.90
13 Are you satisfied with your job because you get motivated by the managers? 5 8 10 1 1 25 25+32+30+2+1= 90
14 Do you feel that work-life balance motivates you to sustain yourself in the organization for a long time? 20 1 1 1 2 25 100+4+3+2+2=111 1.11
15 Do you think an effective leadership style can increase employee engagement with the work through motivation? 8 5 10 1 1 25 40+20+30+2+1=93 0.93
16 Do you think money is considered a motivational tool to remain motivated in the organization? 20 0 1 2 2 25 100+3+4+2=109 1.09
17 Are you emotionally attached to the company? 10 5 5 3 2 25 0.93
18 Do you feel empowered by the motivation provided by senior management? 5 8 10 1 1 25 25+24+30+2+1= 82 8.2
19 Do you feel effective leadership can create a great team? 20 1 1 1 2 25 1.11
20 Do you consider communication can be a motivational tool? 10 5 5 3 2 25 0.93
21 Your level of commitment is due to having absolute control over your work 5 5 5 5 5 25 25+20+15+10+5= 75 0.75
22 Do you think that empowerment, recognition and position overweigh the idea of emotional motivation? 2 2 1
No Questions SA5 A4 NS3 D2 SD1 total
1 Do you feel the workload is high at M&S Oxford? 15 5 1 1 3 25 Mean= 15x5 +5x4 +1x3 +1x2+3x1 75+20+3+2+3= 103=1.03
2 Do you feel incentives and recognition can motivate employees in the workplace? 10 5 5 3 2 25 Mean= 10x5+5x4+5x3+3x2+2x1 50+20+15+6+2= 93 0.93
3 Do you agree that your company should increase the opportunities related to the work? 20 1 1 1 2 25 100+4+3+2+1=110 1.10
4 Do you have all the freedom to take decisions in the performance of your duties? 3 2 5 10 5 25 15+8+15+20+5=63 0.63
5 Do you are committed to your organisation because you have the freedom of action? 10 10 1 2 2 25 50+40+3+4+2=99 0.99
6 Do You feel empowered after getting motivation? 20 1 1 1 2 25 100+4+3+2+2=111 1.11
7 Do you have a strong desire to deliver the highest performance due to recognition? 20 1 1 1 2 25 1.11
8 Do you have no desire to quit because of the level of authority you have in the organisation? 10 10 1 2 2 25 99=0.99=1.00
9 Do you think your level of commitment is the result of having full responsibility for your work 0 20 0 1 4 25 86=8.8
10 Do you agree that organizational motivation can increase employee engagement in an organization? 15 5 1 2 2 25 75+20+3+4+2=104 1.04
11 You want to be a life -long employee of M&S for the level of empowerment you enjoy 10 5 5 3 2 25 Mean= 10x5+5x4+5x3+3x2+2x1 50+20+15+6+2= 93 0.93
12 Do you agree that positive feedback and appreciation can inspire employees to work hard without incentives? 5 5 15 0 0 25 Mean= 25+20+45+0+0=90 0.90
13 Are you satisfied with your job because you get motivated by the managers? 5 8 10 1 1 25 25+32+30+2+1= 90
14 Do you feel that work-life balance motivates you to sustain yourself in the organization for a long time? 20 1 1 1 2 25 100+4+3+2+2=111 1.11
15 Do you think an effective leadership style can increase employee engagement with the work through motivation? 8 5 10 1 1 25 40+20+30+2+1=93 0.93
16 Do you think money is considered a motivational tool to remain motivated in the organization? 20 0 1 2 2 25 100+3+4+2=109 1.09
17 Are you emotionally attached to the company? 10 5 5 3 2 25 0.93
18 Do you feel empowered by the motivation provided by senior management? 5 8 10 1 1 25 25+24+30+2+1= 82 8.2
19 Do you feel effective leadership can create a great team? 20 1 1 1 2 25 1.11
20 Do you consider communication can be a motivational tool? 10 5 5 3 2 25 0.93
21 Your level of commitment is due to having absolute control over your work 5 5 5 5 5 25 25+20+15+10+5= 75 0.75
22
No Questions SA5 A4 NS3 D2 SD1 total
1 Do you feel the workload is high at M&S Oxford? 15 5 1 1 3 25 Mean= 15x5 +5x4 +1x3 +1x2+3x1 75+20+3+2+3= 103=1.03
2 Do you feel incentives and recognition can motivate employees in the workplace? 10 5 5 3 2 25 Mean= 10x5+5x4+5x3+3x2+2x1 50+20+15+6+2= 93 0.93
3 Do you agree that your company should increase the opportunities related to the work? 20 1 1 1 2 25 100+4+3+2+1=110 1.10
4 Do you have all the freedom to take decisions in the performance of your duties? 3 2 5 10 5 25 15+8+15+20+5=63 0.63
5 Do you are committed to your organisation because you have the freedom of action? 10 10 1 2 2 25 50+40+3+4+2=99 0.99
6 Do You feel empowered after getting motivation? 20 1 1 1 2 25 100+4+3+2+2=111 1.11
7 Do you have a strong desire to deliver the highest performance due to recognition? 20 1 1 1 2 25 1.11
8 Do you have no desire to quit because of the level of authority you have in the organisation? 10 10 1 2 2 25 99=0.99=1.00
9 Do you think your level of commitment is the result of having full responsibility for your work 0 20 0 1 4 25 86=8.8
10 Do you agree that organizational motivation can increase employee engagement in an organization? 15 5 1 2 2 25 75+20+3+4+2=104 1.04
11 You want to be a life -long employee of M&S for the level of empowerment you enjoy 10 5 5 3 2 25 Mean= 10x5+5x4+5x3+3x2+2x1 50+20+15+6+2= 93 0.93
12 Do you agree that positive feedback and appreciation can inspire employees to work hard without incentives? 5 5 15 0 0 25 Mean= 25+20+45+0+0=90 0.90
13 Are you satisfied with your job because you get motivated by the managers? 5 8 10 1 1 25 25+32+30+2+1= 90
14 Do you feel that work-life balance motivates you to sustain yourself in the organization for a long time? 20 1 1 1 2 25 100+4+3+2+2=111 1.11
15 Do you think an effective leadership style can increase employee engagement with the work through motivation? 8 5 10 1 1 25 40+20+30+2+1=93 0.93
16 Do you think money is considered a motivational tool to remain motivated in the organization? 20 0 1 2 2 25 100+3+4+2=109 1.09
17 Are you emotionally attached to the company? 10 5 5 3 2 25 0.93
18 Do you feel empowered by the motivation provided by senior management? 5 8 10 1 1 25 25+24+30+2+1= 82 8.2
19 Do you feel effective leadership can create a great team? 20 1 1 1 2 25 1.11
20 Do you consider communication can be a motivational tool? 10 5 5 3 2 25 0.93
21 Your level of commitment is due to having absolute control over your work 5 5 5 5 5 25 25+20+15+10+5= 75 0.75
22 Do you think that empowerment, recognition and position overweigh the idea of emotional motivation? 2 2 1 5 15 25 10+8+3+10+15=46 0.46
Do you think that empowerment, recognition and position overweigh the idea of emotional motivation? 2 2 1 5 15 25 10+8+3+10+15=46 0.46
5 15 25 10+8+3+10+15=46 0.46
Are you satisfied with your job because you get motivated by the managers? 5 8 10 1 1 25 25+32+30+2+1= 90
14 Do you feel that work-life balance motivates you to sustain yourself in the organization for a long time? 20 1 1 1 2 25 100+4+3+2+2=111 1.11
15 Do you think an effective leadership style can increase employee engagement with the work through motivation? 8 5 10 1 1 25 40+20+30+2+1=93 0.93
16 Do you think money is considered a motivational tool to remain motivated in the organization? 20 0 1 2 2 25 100+3+4+2=109 1.09
17 Are you emotionally attached to the company? 10 5 5 3 2 25 0.93
18 Do you feel empowered by the motivation provided by senior management? 5 8 10 1 1 25 25+24+30+2+1= 82 8.2
19 Do you feel effective leadership can create a great team? 20 1 1 1 2 25 1.11
20 Do you consider communication can be a motivational tool? 10 5 5 3 2 25 0.93
21 Your level of commitment is due to having absolute control over your work 5 5 5 5 5 25 25+20+15+10+5= 75 0.75
22 Do you think that empowerment, recognition and position overweigh the idea of emotional motivation? 2 2 1 5 15 25 10+8+3+10+15=46 0.46

Results of the Survey Questions

From the result of the survey questions in table number 1, a brief idea about employee motivation has been found. The employee of the M&S company feels the workload is comparatively high as customer retention and reputation is also high. There is 15 employee who strongly agrees with the fact that the workload is high and the number of disagreements is low. On the other hand, employees also feel that the incentives and recognition encourage and motivate employees to work hard to increase their self-productivity as well as the company. Here 10 people strongly agree with this fact and 5 people were neutral and 3 people disagree with this fact. Most of the employees agree with the fact that the company y should increase the work-opportunity in the workplace to increase employee engagement. Only 5 people disagree with that facts and they think the company provides enough opportunities. The employees do not think that they don’t have the freedom to take decisions as most of the managers take decisions in the organizational performance but they follow democratic leadership.10 people also disagree with the fact and they think that the company provides enough freedom to execute their work. Motivation also helps to empower people and the majority of the employee agrees with the fact that motivation empowers employees. 20 people also strongly agree that they can deliver the highest performance due to the recognition and there is very little disagreement with this factor. Commitment is necessary for full responsibility for the work and there is an agreement with this fact and 4 people strongly disagree with this fact. 15 people strongly agree with the fact that organizational motivation can help to maintain employee engagement. There are two people who disagree with the fact that it is relevant. 10 employees strongly agree that they can be a lifelong employees of this company whereas 3 people disagree and 2 employees strongly disagree with this fact. Feedback and appreciation can inspire employees but without incentive, it is considered meaningless 15 employees are neutral on this fact whereas 5 employees agree with this fact and there is Zero disagreement with this fact. 8 employees show their satisfaction in the job when managers motivated them. 10 people were neutral about this question. The rate of disagreement was very low. 20 people strongly agree with the fact that work-life balance motivates the employee to sustain in the organization for a long time whereas 2 people strongly disagree and 1 employee agrees. Leadership style also helps the employees to increase productivity in an organization 5 employees agree on this fact and 1 employee disagrees with this fact. Money can be considered as the motivational tool 20 employees strongly agree with this question and 2 employees disagree with these ideas. Emotional support is also necessary for an organization and 10 employees strongly agree with this fact whereas 3 employees disagree with this question. 10 employees agree that communication is the main factor that can motivate employees to increase engagement and there is a low rate of disagreement with this fact 3 employees disagree and 2 employees strongly disagree. Commitment to a company always depends on control over work and in this section there is an equal division in the agreement. Emotional support has been prioritised more than empowerment and recognition. 20 employees strongly agree that emotional support is important.

4.3 Table 2 Results of Coded Items According to Dimensions

Coded items DIMENSIONS AND QUESTIONS Agree Disagree
MOTIVATION
M10 Do you agree that organizational motivation can increase employee engagement in an organization? 70% 10%
M22 Do you think that empowerment, recognition and position overweigh the idea of emotional motivation? 21% 70%
M20 Do you consider communication can be a motivational tool? 59% 22%
M6 Do You feel empowered after getting motivation? 62% 26%
M13 Are you satisfied with your job because you get motivated by the managers? 89% 10%
M16 Do you think money is considered a motivational tool to remain motivated in the organization? 66% 12%
JOB SATISFACTION
JS 1 Do you feel the workload is high at M&S oxford? 75% 12%
JS 2 Do you feel incentives and recognition can motivate employees in the workplace? 80% 12%
JS3 Do you agree that your company should increase the opportunities related to the work? 83% 9%
JS14 Do you feel that work-life balance motivates you to sustain in the organization for a long time? 76% 10%
LABOUR TURNOVER
LT12 Do you agree that positive feedback and appreciation can inspire employees to work hard without incentives? 50% 1%
LT17 Are you emotionally attached to the company? 64% 23%
LT11 You want to be a life -long employee of the company for the level of empowerment you enjoy 67% 17%
LT15 Do you think an effective leadership style can increase employee engagement with the work through motivation? 26% 10%
DECISION MAKING
DM4 You have all the freedom to take decisions in the performance of your duties 11% 33%
DM19 Do you feel effective leadership can create a great team? 80% 11%
DM15 Do you think an effective leadership style can increase employee engagement with the work through motivation? 33% 13%
DM18 Do you feel empowered by the motivation provided by senior management? 15% 10%
COMMITMENT
C21 Your level of commitment is due to having absolute control over your work 20% 20%
C9 Do you think your level of commitment is the result of having full responsibility for your work? 80% 10%
C7 Do you have a strong desire to deliver the highest performance due to recognition? 46% 42%
C8 Do you have no desire to quit because of the level of authority you have in the organisation? 40% 10%
C5 Do you are committed to your organisation because you have the freedom of action? 40% 10%

Employee Motivation

To measure employee motivation, six items have been used. The items are M6, M10, M13, M16, M20 and M22. These questions have been asked by employees to understand how motivation works to increase the engagement of the employee. Where Employees are asked if they feel empowered after getting motivation from the organization where 62% agree with the factors on the other and 26% disagree with the fact. Organizational motivation plays important role in making the employee engaged with the company and this question has been asked to the employees where most of them almost 70% agree with the fact but 10% disagree with fact. Sometimes position, empowerment can overweigh the ideas of emotional motivation where 21% agree with the fact but 70% disagree with this fact. It means that employees need emotional motivation in an organization. Employees agree with the fact that communication is an effective motivational tool, 59% agree with this and 22% disagree with this factor.

Job satisfaction

The workload is high in M&S oxford 75% of employees voted in its favour and 12% voted goes against the questions and employees disagree with these questions. Job satisfaction includes four items such as JS1, JS2, JS3, and JS14. Job satisfaction is necessary for employees to sustain themselves in the organization for a long time. Incentives and recognition can satisfy employees in the workplace and motivates them towards working hard 80% agree with the facts and 12% disagree with these questions. Employees of the M&S company want to increase the work opportunities so that they can sustain in the company. The majority votes go in favour of the agreement and the rate is 83% and 9% disagree with this fact. The majority of the employees also voted for the work-life balance and 76% of votes go in favour of agreement whereas 10% disagreed with the questions and the rest of the employees remains neutral on these questions.

Labour Turnover

There are four items in the Labour turnover such as LT12, LT17, LT11, and LT15. 50% of employees agree with the fact that positive feedback can inspire employees to work without incentives and 1% disagree with this fact. 64% of employees are emotionally attached to the company whereas 23% are not attached to the company. 67% of employees voted for the questions where they were asked to be lifelong employees of the company for the level of empowerment they enjoy. Leadership style also helps to support the employees to increase their competencies and in this way employee turnover also increases. Sometimes effective leadership also keep the employees with the organization and 26% voted in the favour of this fact whereas 10% has sheer disagreement and the rest of the employees show no interest and become neutral.

Decision Making

There are four items in the decision-making portion such as DM4, DM19, DM15, and DM18. Employees were asked whether have the freedom to take the decision or not and 11% agreed with the fact that they have the right to do whatever they want. 33% disagree with the fact and some go for being neutral. Effective leaders can make a great team through good decision-making skills. Where 80% of the employees show agreement and 11% disagree with this question. Leaders can motivate employees through good leading styles 33% of the employees agree and 13% disagreed. Senior management also provides adequate motivation to feel the employees empowered 15% of the employees agreed with this fact whereas 10% disagreed and the rest of the employees become neutral. leadership also keep the employees with the organization and 26% voted in the favour of this fact whereas 10% has sheer disagreement and the rest of the employees show no interest and become neutral.

Commitment

Commitment also consists of five items such as C5, C7, C8, C9, and C21. 20% of the employees agreed that the level of commitment depends on absolute control over the work. 80% of the employees agree that responsibilities depend on the comment of the work and 10% disagree with this fact and the rest of the employees become neutral. 46% of employees have a strong desire to deliver the highest performance due to recognition whereas 42% of employees disagree with this question. 40% of employees desire to quit their job in the company due to the authority and 10% of employees disagree with this fact. 40% of the employees think they are committed because they have the freedom of action whereas 10% of the employees go in the favour of disagreement.

Chapter 5: Conclusion and Recommendation

Conclusion

Employee motivation is crucial for encouraging people to work more effectively and to get invested in their jobs. Employee incentives such as recognising an employee's outstanding work, providing them with an evaluation of their performance, and most importantly, ensuring that they are appreciated in the workplace and that their superiors can comprehend them better, are essential. In this regard, from the research evaluation, it has been seen that in the organisational process of M&S in Oxford the management has maintained the proper motivational approaches that have helped the employees to generate an extreme level of the workforce. M & S Oxford has established several reward and incentive systems for the staff so that they may successfully meet the goal with some incentives. It instals a feeling of energy among the staff members without making them feel worn out. The incentive system is crucial in keeping workers committed to their job performance. Positive feedback motivates workers and encourages them to put in their best effort. Employees must prioritise maintaining a healthy work environment because it fosters a culture of learning. The workers won't have the energy to complete the task if the environment is poisonous and unsupportive.

According to the research's results, opportunities make workers feel more motivated since they enable them to take ownership of organisational tasks as the employer already looks out for their needs. The job of human resource managers is crucial throughout the training phase since it gives workers more energy to handle organisational duties. M&S employs democratic leadership because it offers staff members the flexibility to express ideas and opinions based on their experiences. Employees in the workplace come from various educational backgrounds, therefore their cognitive processes also vary. While some workers excel in creativity, others excel in technical expertise. The firm grows in new ways thanks to diversity. A company needs leadership because it is a motivating, encouraging, and influential force that raises employee engagement. Leadership is required to sustain human resources since they must be utilised efficiently in a company to maintain productivity.

Different leadership philosophies are important in encouraging and supporting team members. Extrinsic motivation is when workers are driven by things outside of themselves, such as rewards, praise, and incentives. It alludes to workers being driven by self-interest to improve their performance or pleasure. According to the research's conclusions, flexibility may aid a business in improving employee retention, but there is a limit to how much pressure can be put on employees. Employees in the COVID-19 position, for instance, have complete work freedom and the option to work from home. Nevertheless, they are worn out, and the firm has a high rate of staff turnover as a result of the burden. The company must always consider strategies to improve staff retention.

Communication is crucial in the job for comprehending tasks and responsibilities that have been acquired by M&S Oxford. As a result of the range and variety of job ideas, workplace conflicts are also quite apparent. Consequently, communication is required to reduce organisational disputes. The misunderstanding may sometimes exacerbate conflict, hence reducing organisational and employee performance. Time management has long been considered since it may assist a business in gaining a competitive edge.

Job satisfaction is seen as an unquantifiable statistic because it is a positive and emotional reaction from employees about the workplace's suitability. Employees are now required to maintain their job happiness in all work environments. If they are dissatisfied, they cannot use their intelligence effectively to maintain organisational performance. Work-life balance is always beneficial to an employee's physical and emotional health. It decreases stress and increases their energy so they can perform more effectively and productively. The demanding nature of work consistently motivates individuals to reach new heights. Therefore, recognition and positive feedback play an essential role in motivating workers to improve their performance and recognise their efforts. Every employee has received explicit communication from M & S Oxford on the company's policies. A corporation where workers are allowed autonomy must have supervision. Relationships in the workplace influence how peers interact with one another and support effective communication. In order to keep workers for a long time, salaries should always be fair, acceptable, and competitive. Organizations should retain employment rights so that workers may undertake the fulfilling job. In order to offer workers mental fortitude, job stability is crucial.

The first principle, clarity, states that a purpose must be obvious and explicit. The second element, challenge, is essential to maintaining a realistic balance since simple objectives are demotivating and don't meet the organization's need for risky and demanding ambitions. To maintain commitment, employees should be aware of the objective from the beginning. Organizations should provide feedback at every stage of the process. By doing so, you'll be able to keep things on track and offer them the chance to do a better job. The organisation should divide the process into smaller objectives and evaluate them often to assist achieve the smaller phases.

M & S began spending time and resources in training in order to eliminate low employee productivity and an undesirable business culture. It is essential to provide them with learning chances in order for them to understand the organization's needs and accomplish the intended objective. A training session is needed for an employee to obtain the necessary organising skills so that the employee may use all of the acquired learning abilities to complete the assignment. The productivity of employees is dependent on their competencies, mental state, abilities, and experiences.

Self-actualization is the drive to transform one's self-perception into reality. Human wants are limitless, and one need cannot be met before another one appears. M&S Oxford always organises an official event such as a party or excursion so that staff members may socialise with one another. Employees may sometimes form strong bonds with one another via social outings and party arrangements, which helps them learn more. In this method, a company may inspire workers by taking into account various organisational elements. If workers' mental health is poor, they cannot contribute to the organization's success. Therefore, a healthy work environment is required to foster a positive work culture among workers.

The paper has also presented a survey based on the SERVQUAL model and which is effective to present authentic statistical information. The detailed survey result has also been presented in this paper. There are different opinions have been considered in this paper to present the survey results. On the other hand, neutral information has been cancelled as they are not sure about the questions. The paper also uses the appropriate research philosophy, and strategy to collect the relevant data for this paper. The paper has presented all the statistical details of the survey. Some recommendations have been added to improve the research paper as well as the organization.

Recommendation

The research has been conducted in only on the M&S company oxford therefore the results and findings apply to the particular branch alone to evaluate the situation in other branches. The survey helps the employees to give their best response and through which the researcher can collect authentic and relevant data in a scientific way. This method is very logical as it deals with close-ended information. They are required to express their perception of organizational motivation and employee engagement. The uncertainty factors were eliminated as they are not sure about the questions and which never bothers the employees. There are some recommendations that the researcher can follow to improve the research paper while collecting data for the relevant topic. The recommendation is needed to improve the research paper as well as the researcher also recommends some valid points that can improve the organization while operating. The researcher should consider the interview as it can give more authentic information about the paper as the researcher only consider the internal stakeholder for conducting the paper. This survey can give us logical information as it follows statistical methods. The secondary data has been prioritised very less therefore, the main data or information have been collected from the survey.

The recommendation is needed to improve the condition of employee motivation to increase employee engagement. The company should plan for the office tour to reduce the work stress as it helps the employee to perform better and achieve the tour policy. Social involvement boosts employees’ energy and social acquaintance is necessary for a workplace so that they can support others while working in a team. As per the survey, it has been found that work opportunity is not enough for the employees, therefore, M&S oxford should offer a more flexible work schedule to increase the work opportunities. Employees never feel the work burden in the organization if they are offered enough work flexibility. Transparency should be increased for the employees as it helps to develop employee empowerment. The company should give enough space to grow and learn Therefore, training sessions should be effective so that employees can learn and grow simultaneously and when they imply those learning to practical work, they can meet the organizational objectives. The organization also should increase the compensation and benefits to attract employees and increase employee retention. Employees should give more freedom to develop their skills so that they can utilise their creativity and induce some great ideas for organizational growth. The work culture should be healthy as employees have to spend long working hours in the workplace and positive work culture can motivate them to work hard in an organization. Diversity should be promoted so that everyone feels included with the team and it boosts their energy to learn from the experience member and develop personal skills. The company should increase both verbal and nonverbal communication so that they can understand the situation in an organization. It also helps to mitigate the arising conflict in the workplace. Monitoring should be increased so that the managers can track the employees’ growth and motivate the employees accordingly.

Future Research scope

The research study has conducted both qualitative and quantitative research strategies through surveys and secondary. The survey has been conducted among 30 employees of the M&S company. The paper has not considered a little bit usage of the secondary data collection method in this paper. This process will help the researcher to get more useful information for the study. As the secondary data has abundant published information and the researcher will get valuable data about the research topic. The paper will conduct the interview session among the managers to get more relevant data for this paper. As it can provide the open ended answer for the researcher and the subjective thoughts.

Reflection

The research paper has only included the M&K oxford branches therefore all the information is based on this topic.to reflect on the entire research project it is necessary to start with the topic which is convenient for you. I am pretty much comfortable with the topic as employee motivation and employee engagement is a very common topics. Every company has to face this as time grows. During the covid-19 times, only motivation worked to support the employees therefore after the pandemic situation this still has relevance in the organisation and in the future also it will have importance. Without motivation, an organization can not run its organizational operation. I first submitted the introduction and literature review part after that, I have instructed to do the first of the research. This is my second-time submission as I have been instructed to do the only survey but in my first attempt, my major focus was the interview section therefore I have to redo the task again. It is also a great experience to present the paper and learn through the process. My research method such as research philosophy and approach was not right therefore, I did everything again to meet the expectation of the research objective appropriately. I made mistakes while doing the research but through making mistakes I avert future mistakes and I have gained knowledge. I got to know that a research problem can be defined in various ways that different groups of people can use to collect the sources from primary and secondary data from the management, employees and other sources. It is also based on the topic I am choosing and what strategy and methodology I am utilising to create the paper.

The second stage of the research process was the identification of the research objectives. It is necessary to create the research objectives based on the aim of this paper and the research topic. Otherwise, the paper can be invalid. I made the research objectives so the paper can meet the research aim. After that research objectives are necessary to meet the research questions. The research objectives also help to create the literature review section. As the literature review is based on the research objectives. I have searched the authentic information about the way employee motivation helps to increase employee engagement in an organization. There are several scholarly papers on this topic and I have presented different aspects of the topic. I have to finish the paper within a very limited time therefore I have planned for the survey to collect the important information for this research paper. The paper has five objectives which are capable enough to fulfil the research topic. My supervisor is great and always supports me to fulfil my project with authentic and valid information. I have rectified my file several times as my supervisor always keeps checking the paper and points out my mistakes so that I can avert those mistakes the next time. The first objective helps me to evaluate the relationship between work-life balance and motivation. Work-life balance is necessary to become free from stress and I have searched what the scholars opine about this topic and the way motivation can maintain the work-life balance in an organization. Recognition and reward system boost employees’ confidence we know that therefore, it is also the research objective of the paper. job motivation also has a connection with leadership style. I have presented every research objective of this paper regarding employee motivation and engagement.

I got to know that employees have been given power in the organization and they love their position which makes them sustain in the organization for a long time as they never lose their position. I got to know the company also includes some incentives and rewards and some job opportunities to attach the employees with the organization. Flexibility is important as it helps the employees to reduce stress as they can get into their comfortable zone while working it also satisfies employees and also attached them to the company and the work environment. Companies sometimes plan for the tour and the office party to increase social involvement it also helps employees to develop strong bonding with other employees. Being social is important as it always reduces stress and employees can share their interpersonal skills and gain knowledge from others as employees belong to different educational backgrounds and cultures, therefore, everyone has different knowledge and skills which helps the company to come up with distinctive and creative aspects in the organization. While doing my research methodology, I have gained a thorough knowledge of the research philosophy and which philosophy leads to other data collection methods. At first, I was not aware of the fact that it can be applicable to others. Through learning and developing, the paper has presented the appropriate information for the research paper.

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