Introduction of Organisational Change Strategies Assignment
Get free written samples by our Top-Notch subject experts and Online Assignment Help team.
The business world is transforming to a greater extent due to which the businesses are undergoing major change. When the company focuses on making different changes in the firm then they face different types of issues and challenges while managing the changes effectively(Haneltet. al.2021). In this report the researcher would be explained the different organisational change strategies which would be used by the businesses for implementing the changes in an effective manner. Along with this the different concepts and theories related to implementation and management of changes would be discussed. For explaining all this the report will consider the case of Mark and Spencer which is going under several changes. Due to the pandemic the case company is undergoing several changes otherwise it would create issues for the company.
Diverse models and frameworks for organisational change
When the company is focusing on going under the changes then it is important for them to apply effective models which can help them in bringing the changes in an effective manner(BerishaQehajaet. al.2017). There are different models that can be used by Marks and Spencer for making the changes effective. Some of the business models for organisational changes are mentioned below such as:
McKinsey 7s Model
McKinsey had proposed an effective model that can help the firm's in making the changes effective. This model focuses on seven different factors or the areas which are required to be taken in concern while undergoing major changes. If M&S would be applying change in all the seven factors in an effective manner then it would help them in making the organisational change effective. The seven different factors on which the company needs to focus are explained below such as:
- Strategy: according to this the company needs to design a roadmap for making the change and applying it effectively in the organisation. Also better strategies are being developed that can help the firm in better change management and can help the firm in getting competitive advantage over others in the industry.
- Structure: the organisational structure can also be changed if it is required for better change management in the organisation.
- System: this focuses on everyday business activities. M&S needs to ensure that all the team members should follow the change and apply the change well in their daily tasks.
- Shared values: all the team members need to work with better cooperation and the organisational culture and ethics needs to support the change for making it effective.
- Skills: when the changes are being implemented then the skills of the employees also need to be developed as per the required skills for the change. The case company would offer training to all the employees for making the changes related to covid-19 more effective for the company(Gökdeniz al. 2017).
- Staff: this area focuses on the employees working in the firm. While working on change management it is important that the company should get better support from the employees and all the team members should effectively towards the change.
- Style: This factor focuses on the leadership style and according to this M&S needs to use effective leadership while undergoing changes for making them more successful.
ADKAR Change management model
ADKAR model is also an effective model which is used for change management. This model helps the leaders in using the right strategies and tools that can help them in making the changes successful for the company. This model focuses on five different factors which are important to be considered during change management. If the case company would be focusing on all the five factors then it will help them in better change management(Aliet. al.2021). The five factors of which M&S have to focus while using this model are explained below such as:
- Awareness: according to this factor the company needs to make the employee aware of the change and the reason behind the changes which are being made by the company.
- Desire: in this stage it is important for the company to make the employees feel that the change is required and is necessary for the organisation. All the employees should understand it and should react positively that the change will help the company in moving towards its goals. Or it can be said that the company needs to create a desire among the employees to make a change.
- Knowledge: in this stage the company needs to focus on giving effective training and knowledge to all the employees related to the change which would be implemented in the firm. Proper training and monitoring would be required in the case of M&S because the company is making several changes in their operations due to the covid-19 pandemic.
- Ability: for identifying the ability of the firm to accept the changes and work according to the changes it is essential that the company focuses on identifying howthings are going after the changes.
- Reinforcement: the company needs to focus on this stage when the things are going well and the employees are working as per the changes. In this stage the company needs to ensure that the employees should not go back to their old methods and techniques of doing work and should stick to the new changes.
Lewin’s Change management model
This is an effective model which is being used for understanding the organisational changes in an effective manner. This model focuses on three different stages while undergoing the changes in the organization(Ageng'o,2018). The three different factors or the stages of change management are mentioned below such as: unfreeze, change and refreeze. If M&S focuses on applying this model then they need to focus on three stages effectively which are explained below such as:
Unfreeze: in this stage the company focuses on preparing the company to accept the change and the leader needs to make sure that all the employees should understand the need for change in the organization. In this stage proper information sharing is done for getting support from all the team members.
Change: In this stage the company focuses on developing the strategies for implementing the changes. Also the company focuses on selecting which alternative would be useful for addressing the issue for which the change is being implemented. Along with this the management motivates the employees to accept the changes and work accordingly.
Refreeze: This is the last change in which the employees are working as per the new changes. In this stage the company focuses on ensuring that the employees are comfortable with the changes and are doing well after the changes.
While using any of the change management models it is important for the firm to ensure that it would fit well with the situation. For M&S, the McKinsey model would be the effective one. The change related to the new normal in respect to the covid-19 pandemic would be changing the entire working pattern of the firm. Due to this reason if the company would be focusing on using the McKinsey model then it would help them in making the changes in all the important areas and will help in making the changes effective and successful for the firm(Shelygovet. al.2019). Thus it can be said that this model would be the most appropriate for the case company.
Change solution and creative problem solving techniques
The business around the world is going under major changes due to the pandemic. Accordingly the case company also needs to focus on looking forward at the alternatives that can help them in remaining effective in the pandemic and post pandemic era. When the company focuses on addressing any of the problems then it is crucial for them to focus on using different problem solving techniques that can help them in understanding and addressing the issues in an effective manner. DMAIC is an effective technique which is being used by the businesses for addressing the problems(De Albuquerque Marques, and Matthé, 2017). M&S can also use this technique for solving the problem. In this the company would be using five different stages or steps for solving the issues in an effective manner. Define, measure, analyse and improve and control. This technique will help the company in solving the problem in an effective and systematic manner.
M&S needs to define the problem and measure to the extent at which it is having an ability to affect their business operations and can create issues for them in an effective manner(Arslanba?, et. al.2020). Also the company needs to identify the different alternative solutions on which the company can work for addressing the issues. The technological advancement and digitalisation is one of the strengths of the company. Along with this from the beginning the company is focusing on offering the services through the online mode. In this time if the company would be focusing on increasing their digital sales or the online sales which would help them in offering better services to their customers even in the pandemic. So it can be said that this would be the best solution for the company for responding to the problems faced by them during the pandemic.
Link of change solution with organisational strategy and future direction
When the company finds out any of the solutions to the problem then it is important for them to understand that it should align well with the company objectives. The organisational strategy and the solutions need to align with one another so that the company can move effectively toward their mission and vision(Barrowet. al.2017). One of the factors of the core brand value of M&S is to bring innovation and for this they are working effectively. The company is having a strategy to gain competitive advantage by increasing their sales through online sales. Now according to this expanding their digital operations and increasing their sales through online stores then it would align well with their strategy. From this it can be said that increasing the online sector seems to be the best opportunity and option for the company as it would help them towards a better future. Along with this due to the pandemic the online sales had gained a lot of importance and the businesses across the world are focusing on going online. In this situation if the company would be increasing their online operations then it would help them in delivering high quality products to the customers in a convenient manner.
Change Implementation models
While implementing the changes it is important for the company to focus on using an effective change implementation model. These models can help the company in implementing the changes in an systematic manner that can help in effective change implementation(Giussiet. al. 2017). Two effective change implementation models are suggesting for M&S to accept the changes related to the new normal due to covid-19. The two models are mentioned below such as:
Kotter’s change model
Kotter's change management model is an effective model which is widely used by the firms while implementing the changes in the firm. According to this model the business needs to focus on eight different stages while making a change in the firm. All the different factors which are having a major role to play in change implementation are required to be taken into concern by the firm(Smallet. al.2016). If M& S would be focusing on following all the stages then it will help them in effective change implementation. The different factors of which the company needs to focus on explained below such as:
- Create urgency: in this stage the company needs to focus on creating the urgency that it is required to make the change as soon as possible. This would help the company in initiating the change in an effective manner.
- Form a powerful coalition: in this stage the company needs to focus on creating a team which can work on change management in an efficient way and implement the change successfully. Powerful coalition is significant for creating better information sharing among all the team members in an efficient manner.
- Creating a vision for change: in this stage a clear vision is created related to the change which is being initiated in the firm. This would help the firm in understanding how they need to proceed for moving towards the vision related to the change.
- Communicate the vision: in this stage the organisation needs to focus on communicating the vision clearly to all the team members in an effective manner.
- Remove obstacles: in this stage the firm needs to focus on identifying all the potential obstacles and need to remove them properly. If all the obstacles would be removed then it will help the company in implementing the change successfully(Hussain, al. 2018).
- Creating short term wins: short term targets are required to be developed by the team for achieving success. This is important for keeping all the team members motivated during the entire change implementation process.
- Build on the change: in this stage the change needs to be implemented in such a way that it would get sustained for a longer period of time.
- Anchor the changes in the corporate culture: in this stage the management needs to focus on making the change a part of the organisation culture. This would help them in ensuring that all the team members should adopt the changes in an effective manner.
This is an easy to use model which is generally used by the businesses in making continuous improvement in their business operations and working processes. In this model there are four different steps on which the company needs to focus all the stages(Zipfelet. al. 2019). The four stages are explained below such as:
- Plan: in this stage the firm needs to focus on planning all the things related to the change which is required to be implemented in the firm.
- Do: in this stage the plan needs to be implemented in an effective manner.
- Check: in this stage the effectiveness of the implementation change is being monitored. Along with this it is being compared with the expected outcomes from the change.
- Act: in this stage in which the company needs to make the implementation changes as a baseline for the company for achieving success in their respective industries.
Both the above mentioned models are widely used by the firms while making a change. But as per the case scenario M&S should focus on using the kottler's change model as this would help them in implementing the changes in an effective manner. This model is preferred over any other model as this will provide a more systematic approach to the case company while implementing the changes in the firm. M&S would ensure that all the stages are followed properly as they are having an major role to play in implementing the change
Change Implementation model and organisational change desired
When the company has decided to make a change in the firm then it is important for the entire firm to support the change. M&S needs to focus on supporting the change implementation model. For this the company has to focus on developing effective communication and information sharing among all the team members working for change management and implementation(Lewis,2019). For getting the desired organisational change it is significant to implement the change management and the change implementation in an effective manner. All the stages of the Kotter's change implementation model needs to be followed appropriately by M&S then they would be able to get the desired outcomes thode can help the company in getting benefitted through the change. Along with this it would help the case company in managing the pandemic in an effective manner.
Use of analytical tools to monitor the progress and effect of change in the organisation
When the company has initiated the change and has implemented it in an effective manner with the help of effective change management models the monitoring is also important. For M&S it is significant to understand how the change processes are effective in helping the company in overcoming the adverse effect of the pandemic. When the change is being applied in the firm then it is having a major impact on all the different areas of the firm(Kimand Choi, 2020). Quality is an important factor which needs to be taken into consideration by making any of the changes in the firm.
While offering the products more through the online mode the company needs to ensure that the quality of the products should not be compromised. Along with this if the change is made in the firm then it is having a significant impact on the employees. The case company needs to make sure that all the employees are working effectively with the new changes made in the firm. Especially for managing this during the pandemic the company needs to focus on motivating the employees regularly so that they can accept the changes effectively. The engagement level of the employees with the company need not to be affected so that the changes can be made more effective. For measuring the effectiveness of the change on the firm it is important to use analytical tools. Key performance indicators and 360 degree feedback are the effective tools that can be used by the case company for exploring the effect of the change on the company(Boustaniet. al.2020).
Monitoring and measurement technique for measuring and tracking the changes
Key performance indicators are the effective tools which are being used by the company for monitoring the performance or the effectiveness of the new plan or change which is being initiated by the company(Habibiet. al.2019). There are five performance indicators which can be used by the case company such as profit margin, customer satisfaction, client retention rate, number of customers visiting the online store and website traffic. All these factors would be effective in helping the company in identification of the effectiveness of the new change implemented by the firm.
Impact reporting is also an effective tool which can be used by the company for identifying the impact of the change on the organisations. This report helps the company in representing what is the influence of the change on the firm and the employees. Along with this it helps the company in identifying what are the outcomes of the change and improvements made by the changes which are being initiated by the company. The 360 degree feedback method is also an effective tool for exploring the performance of the company. After implementing the change M&S should focus on collecting the feedback from all the stakeholders related to the actions taken by them during the pandemic for managing its negative impact on their business. This feedback method would also help them in better future planning and continuous improvement. Thus, it can be said that it would be an effective method to use for the case company. All the three explained tools and techniques for measuring the performance and tracking the changes would be used by the firm.
Strategies to minimize the impact of adverse effects of change in organisation
When change is implemented in the firm then there are different factors which can create issues in better change implementation. All the risk factors related to this are required to be identified and managed in an effective manner. Risks can affect the overall change management and it's outcomes for the firm as well. So it is significant to avoid all the risk factors. One of the common risks which can be faced by the case company is related to the employee engagement(Galli,2018). If the employees of the company are having a negative attitude towards the change then it will be a great barrier for the company.
For avoiding such situation the company needs to get full support from the employees. Along with this effective rewards can also be given to the employee who supports the change in the firm. This can help M&S in motivating the employees to take part in change management and help the company in transforming in an effective manner. Apart from this poor communication among all the team members can also be an important factor that can have an adverse effect of the change in the firm(Neill,2018). For avoiding this it is significant for the organisation to focus on minimising the impact of this risk. For this M&S needs to develop effective communication among all the team members and should conduct regular meetings which can help them in implementing the changes effectively(Lewisand Sahay,2019).
Lack of proper training can also become an issue for change management. To avoid this the company should develop an effective training program for the employees so that they can manage the online store effectively. Also the lack of leadership can also have an adverse effect on the change management in the firm(Hechleret. al.2020). For solving this issue the company would be using a transformed leadership style which would help the leader in bringing the change in an effective manner and will avoid such issues as well. It can be said that it is significant for the firm to use effective strategies that can help them in reducing the negative impact of the change on the organisation.
Process required to review the impact of change in organisation
After making a change it is important for the company to explore the influence of the firm on the organisation. The changes can create both risks and opportunities for the company due to which it is important for the firm to evaluate(Stoycheva,2018). The company is going more digital and is expanding their online business. From the beginning M&S was focusing on innovation only and this change would add value to M&S. Along with this the change is having a great ability to help the company in offering the most convenient services to their customers in the pandemic times. In the post pandemic era also the UK customers and the customers from all over the world would prefer online shopping and this will help the case company in offering better service to them. From this it can be said that it would help the case company in gaining competitive advantage over others which is significant for leading the firm towards success. Also this change is having great potential to help the company in overcoming the losses which are being faced by the company during the pandemic. Thus, it can be said that the changes are having great potential to create better opportunities for the case company in future as well.
Although there are different risks factors which are being faced by the companies. For an instance if the company does not uses better changes management techniques and models then it can create issues for the company(Sroufe,2017). For this it is important for the company to focus on having an effective risk management in the firm that can the company in managing the risks related to the change management in an effective manner.For identifying the impact of change in the organization it is important to review the impact of change. On the basis of the pros and cons of the change as per the market situation it can be said that the changes would help the company in satisfying all the stakeholders.If we perform the risk and benefit analysis related to the changes which are being made in the company then the benefits are more as compared to the risks. The company is already doing well so expanding it does not create much risk for the company. From this it can be said that the company needs to focus on getting the best results from the change implemented in the firm.
Results of the change impact review
As per the review of the change it can be said that the change would create great opportunities for the case company in gaining competitive advantage over other. Along with this the company is already doing well through their online sites and increasing it would be the best thing during the pandemic. Also this is having an great ability to help the company in recovering through the losses which have faced due to the pandemic.As per the risk and benefit analysis also the benefits are more as compared to the risks. Thus it can be said that the changes made in the M&S would led the company towards their organisational goals.
In the above mentioned report the different theories and models for change management are explained in an effective manner. For better explanation a case of M&S has been discussed which is undergoing major changes due to the pandemic. As per the different models and theories explained effectively in the report it can be said that it is essential for the firms to use a systematic plan for managing change effectively. While undergoing the changes it is important for the firms to make use of a better change management model and change implementation model which can help them in undergoing through the changes properly. Along with this these models can help the firm in getting positive results of the change.
Moreover it is essential for the firm to involve all the employees in the change management then only they can bring a successful change in the firm. Thus it can be recommended that if the company would be using effective methods for managing the change then it can help the company in overcoming the problems and leading the firm towards its aims and objectives.
Ageng'o, S., 2018.The Impact of Change Management on Organizational Success.
Ali, M.A., Mahmood, A., Zafar, U. and Nazim, M., 2021.The Power of ADKAR Change Model in Innovative Technology Acceptance under the Moderating Effect of Culture and Open Innovation.LogForum 17 (4), 485-502.
ARSLANBA?, S., C?ZREL?O?ULLARI, M.N. and K?L?L?, R., 2020.COOPERATION STRATEGIES OF BUSINESSES IN THE COVID 19 CRISIS. EFFECTS OF THE COVID, 19, p.41.
Barrow, J.M., Annamaraju, P. and Toney-Butler, T.J., 2017. Change management.
BerishaQehaja, A., Kutllovci, E. and Shiroka Pula, J., 2017. Strategic management tools and techniques: A comparative analysis of empirical studies. Croatian Economic Survey, 19(1), pp.67-99.
Boustani, M., Azar, J. and Solid, C.A., 2020. Agile implementation: a model for implementing evidence-based healthcare solutions into real-world practice to achieve sustainable change. Morgan James Publishing.
De Albuquerque Marques, P.A. and Matthé, R., 2017. Six Sigma DMAIC project to improve the performance of an aluminum die casting operation in Portugal. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management.
Galli, B.J., 2018. Change management models: A comparative analysis and concerns. IEEE Engineering Management Review, 46(3), pp.124-132.
Giussi, M.V., Baum, A., Plazzotta, F., Muguerza, P. and González Bernaldo de Quirós, F., 2017. Change management strategies: transforming a difficult implementation into a successful one. In MEDINFO 2017: Precision Healthcare through Informatics (pp. 813-817). IOS Press.
Gökdeniz, I., Kartal, C. and Kömürcü, K., 2017. Strategic assessment based on 7S McKinsey model for a business by using analytic network process (ANP). International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 7(6), pp.342-353.
Habibi, M., Kermanshachi, S. and Rouhanizadeh, B., 2019. Identifying and measuring engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) key performance indicators and management strategies. Infrastructures, 4(2), p.14.
Hanelt, A., Bohnsack, R., Marz, D. and AntunesMarante, C., 2021. A systematic review of the literature on digital transformation: insights and implications for strategy and organizational change. Journal of Management Studies, 58(5), pp.1159-1197.
Hechler, E., Oberhofer, M. and Schaeck, T., 2020.AI and Change Management.In Deploying AI in the Enterprise (pp. 235-252).Apress, Berkeley, CA.
Hussain, S.T., Lei, S., Akram, T., Haider, M.J., Hussain, S.H. and Ali, M., 2018. Kurt Lewin's change model: A critical review of the role of leadership and employee involvement in organizational change. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge, 3(3), pp.123-127.
Kim, J. and Choi, S.O., 2020. The intensity of organizational change and the perception of organizational innovativeness; with discussion on open innovation. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, 6(3), p.66.
Lewis, L. and Sahay, S., 2019. Change and change management. In Movements in Organizational Communication Research (pp. 214-232).Routledge.
Lewis, L., 2019. Organizational change (pp. 406-423).Routledge.
Neill, M.S., 2018. Change management communication: Barriers, strategies & messaging. Public Relations Journal, 12(1), pp.1-26.
Shelygov, A.V., Filonova, A.S. and Gorlova, O.E., 2019. Basic models of managing organizational changes in modern companies. ????????? ? ???????????????????, (5), pp.1297-1302.
Small, A., Gist, D., Souza, D., Dalton, J., Magny-Normilus, C. and David, D., 2016.Using Kotter's change model for implementing bedside handoff: a quality improvement project. Journal of nursing care quality, 31(4), pp.304-309.
Sroufe, R., 2017. Integration and organizational change towards sustainability. Journal of Cleaner Production, 162, pp.315-329.
Stoycheva, M., 2018, July. Change management: Blended learning adoption in a large network of european universities. In ICEL 2018 13th International Conference on e-Learning (p. 77).Academic Conferences and publishing limited.
Zipfel, N., van der Nat, P.B., Rensing, B.J., Daeter, E.J., Westert, G.P. and Groenewoud, A.S., 2019. The implementation of change model adds value to value-based healthcare: a qualitative study. BMC health services research, 19(1), pp.1-12.