Solar Panel Modelling Project Assignment Sample

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Introduction

A solar panel is generally considered as the collection of solar cells. Various small cells are allocated over a large area which is generally working together for providing enough useful power. Electricity is produced when lights are hit on the solar cells. A photovoltaic module can be referred to by the solar panel that is generally electrically mounted along with connected on the supporting structure. A PV module is usually a connected as well as packaged assembly regarding the solar cells. These solar panels can be used for supplying and generating electricity in the residential area along with commercial applications. In current times, PV Market is upgrading positively and it has a high trend in the global market. In the generation and distribution of renewable power Photovoltaic energy has an essential role for fulfilling the power shortage of different countries. Modeling and analysis of solar panel generators is an effective phase for mounting the PV system in any system. The performance regarding the PV module shows positive results for meteorological data. It is generally presumed as a tool for evaluating the performance of PV modules.

Background

 SSTL is generally a company that constructs and also conducts small satellites. In the current times, a system of solar power generation and distribution is essential for the homeowners that can reduce the entire cost regarding the ownership related to the solar panels. It can be fulfilled or achieved by the creation and evaluation of a solution by which power generation can be optimized for ensuring the best service by solar cell placement. Various researches have been conveyed for understanding the abilities and potentialities of this solution and if further requirements needed for the benefits of the users then fulfill those needs (Roldán-Mckinley et al. 2019). There are various functional along with non-functional requirements of the system that are evaluated for the implementation of this solar panel system. The main motive of this project is the customer needs a model of software for representing power generating, distribution as well as storage configuration regarding the solar panels on the roofs of the customers so that the rays of the sun can be fully utilized and the total area of the panel can be covered.

Aim and Objectives

The major aim of this project is to create a solar panel modeling system that can collect the clean renewable energy by the solar panel, in sunlight form and converting the light energy into electricity that can be utilized for providing power regarding electrical loads. Solar panels are generally located on the building’s roof where the heat energy of the sun can be absorbed (Wang et al. 2018). The cold water is supplied to the solar panel, then after heating it is transferred to the tank of storage. The objectives are mentioned below:

  • To design and develop a time based system along with a low cost power generating system for utilizing solar energy.
  • To fulfill the customer requirements by constructing solar panels on the customers roofs.
  • To illustrate the methodology for creating this system successfully.
  • To discuss various functional as well as non-functional requirements for constructing this system.
  • For describing various features that can be developed in the system for getting several advantages regarding low cost and proper power efficiency.
  • To properly demonstrate the plan and project scheduling of the system.

Research on Solar panel system

Research on Solar panel system

There are several active solutions that are web based that can be found by penetrating the web for the “solar panel calculator”. SSTL needs a calculation system for solar panels when some insights are offered by these online tools. When implementing the estimates, the system flexibility is limited. Also it is difficult for understanding what calculation is generally happening after getting the values as no transparency is there on how the energy production figures as well as the savings can be calculated.

The company, SSTL, needs to know if the configurations of the solar system are able to keep the houses powered constantly for the entire day in both winter along with summer. The sun is at the maximum height when the days are longest. The customer generally wants a solution that has better value for money. To fulfill the requirements of the customers a system is required to be constructed that is allowed for the client to input various scenarios, depending on the technology. Solar technology generally varies in efficiency; the angle is also important and essential as when the panel is placed perpendicularly with the sun, the maximum power can be generated. At present, two choices of solar panel installation are offered by the organization that can be enhanced in future. The first option is, the position of roof is 7m2 in size and also has roof pitch of 25-degree and the second option is, the position of the roof has a surface area of 10m2 and the angle of roof evaluation is 40 degree (Akoro et al. 2019). The efficiency of the power generation and also the unit area cost can differentiate between the two technologies of the solar panel. There is generally no standardized process present for calculating and storing data that can demonstrate the appropriate estimates in terms of production and value of the energy. 

Solar panels, batteries along with the module of the power distribution are installed by the organization.

Figure 1: Installed power system

(Source: Roldán-Mckinley et al. 2019)

In the above mentioned figure, batteries have been supplied by the solar panels directly, and then the power is supplied to the customer’s house when it is fully charged. There can be issues in the system if there is less charge in the battery that can be a threat when power generation is stopped due to this. Therefore, an essential predictive model is required that can calculate the state of the battery and also if it can access during less sunlight. The installed system is generally planned for being upgraded by adding a transmitter along with a data network to the installation of the solar panel. This up gradation consists of improved and developed control regarding the equipment of power generation via local computer. The capability for the customer along with the installation engineer for logging in to the system by Wi-Fi for monitoring the operation, and also the capability regarding the information of the system sent back to the organization by who the system is installed. For evaluating the feasibility of this approach, the SSTL organization needs to know about the number of log files that can be stored on the hardware of the company as well as the cost regarding the sending text message with the information of the system back to the company for improving installation monitoring.

 These problems and issues can be alleviated with the use of a model of enterprise system related to the solar power distribution and generation system so customers' cost and also the optimal solution can be predicted by this (Wang et al. 2018). The modeling procedure standardization can improve and develop the customer product, enable control along with the entire operations can be monitored.

Methodology

Remote installation is generally modeled by the solar panel management solution as a structure of hierarchical tree. The tree nodes are able to be categorized broadly either as nodes that are representing virtual entities or the nodes that are representing the entities of equipment. The model is extended arbitrarily for matching the requirements of the customers.

Installation monitoring service

The solar panel management system’s monitoring service is depending on the methodology mentioned below. The storage, collection, post processing and visualization regarding the whole history of the information related to the hierarchical model are validated in this service. 

  1. Primary parameters are basically implemented and calculated as the average of time series related to real time data after the applied validation set (Akoro et al. 2019). Average values that are validated daily, monthly as well as yearly can be supported regarding every primary parameter. These parameters are carried out by the controllers that are field deployed for reducing data that are carried to the back-end of the service along with minimizing the requirements of the bandwidth. 
  2. Maximum as well as minimum value parameters are generally assumed, that are calculated in the same way like primary parameters, except the applied operation on the data of real time.
  3. The solar panel model system generally supplies the infrastructure which is essential for carrying out all the calculations of the derived parameters in the back-end of the service for further minimizing the essential bandwidth along with storing data at the remote site. 
  4. Real time monitored data is essential and effective for presenting the real time data to the users which are generally recorded and implemented by the controllers which are field deployed.

Monitoring Service

The major duty of this system is to provide the information to the user in a concise as well as timely manner on the remote sites’ operation. Information is retrieved by the CAM which is essential regarding the data addressing within the monitoring system from the back-end of the service (Roldán-Mckinley et al. 2019). The effective primary data is retrieved by the ALM for calculating the derived values, and also depending on the schedule results are submitted to the back end, by which the data can be stored in the database.

Monitoring service architecture

Controlling Service

The user is allowed by the solar panel system for issuing commands regarding the equipment inside the installation. The implementation of this functionality happens through the notions regarding the settings. Notifications have been sent to the user about whether the action is successfully implemented or not. A command related to the control is issued through GUI towards the back end of the service. The command is stored in the database by the software module and it is forwarded to the CAM, by which information has been retrieved that is essential for addressing regarding the controls inside the site-level monitoring and control system. After that it is connected to the equipment that is field-deployed and the command is propagated. Notification has been sent to the user via the GUI regarding the progress related to the command that has been issued by the user. 

Control Service Architecture

There are also various services in this system that is also important and essential.

The user is informed by the notification service on critical events occurrence. Notifications are sent via SMS or emails. Also a very necessary function is the automatic generation regarding the reports. Web is utilized by this service and reports are delivered to the mobile phones and emails of the users who have subscriptions of the service (Wang et al. 2018). These reports consist of information regarding maintenance, operation along with financial situations related to the entire solar panel system. The users are allowed by the service of data export for storing locally data that are generally stored inside the application. The data that are extracted are in the format of XML file or as graphic representations. The frequency of time regarding data export as well as extraction is basically determined by the users. 

Site Assessment

There are some steps for determining the merits of the site to successfully utilize the system.

  1. Shade analysis

Shading is an issue for the solar panels as maximum power is decreased by these. There are various factors regarding this issue, such as cloudy weather, neighboring trees etc.

Solar pathfinder is used by which the sun direction is given to the solar system.

  1. Sun Hours

Sun hours are essential and effective to know about the required radiance for generating the required output wattage. By this parameter the user can have the idea about the time when maximum sunrise can be received.

  1. Tilt angle

The angle of tilt is generally the settings regarding the panel that is required for having maximum radiance (Akoro et al. 2019). It is generally applied for having adjustable frames of panels as there is changing in the sun hours in different seasons.

  • Panel Sizing

Once the entire load that has to be energized with the use PV system is calculated and implemented, the area regarding the solar panels is required for generating much of the power. It is generally considered as an inherent property related to any panel for having internal losses. Another essential toll which can be utilized is PV WATTS that helps for calculating the panel sizing by putting various parameters like tilt angle, sun hour along with energy consumption.

  • Battery Sizing

Various strategies are assessed by the PV batteries from different financial perspectives. The maintenance regarding the rechargeable as well as photovoltaic activities along with expenditure systems is basically set at 1.4% with speculative cost. The cost system regarding the PV and battery system is comparable and related to their respective size.

  • Charge Controller

The charge controller is mainly essential for the solar panel system as it consists of a battery. The major capability of the charge controller is to monitor the charging as well as discharging regarding the battery. The battery is prevented by it from being entirely charged and discharged. This is effective as overcharging can be an issue to the solar panel system and also without charge the system will be unable to generate or distribute power to the household (Chandramouli et al. 2019). There are mainly two types of charge controllers which are available in current times, one is PWM and the other is MPPT.

There are various scenarios that are utilized in the model for analyzing the needs of the client. The times are noon, mid-winter and mid-summer.

Assumed Maximum power generation in noon time is: 02/07/18. The elevation angle of the Sun above the horizon = 60 degrees.

Assumed minimum power generation in Noon time is: 29/12/18. The elevation angle of the Sun above the horizon = 15 degrees. The solar panel and roof specifications are mentioned below:

System Modeling

A web based application is essential to be constructed for mainly monitoring and controlling the solar panel modeling system. The front end of the system is designed with the use of HTML and CSS which are considered as the key elements for constructing the web content. JavaScript has been selected for making the web application much more dynamic and hence it can deal with various calculations related to the data inputs. Also with the use of JavaScript, DOM can be manipulated and contents can be selected easily from the sources of HTML by which the user is allowed to access the functions that are needed by the customers.

PHP will be utilized as the server-side language for integrating with MySQL with the use of XAMPP software and also this software is used for the implementation of the project. As there is a request for the login system by an admin of SSTL for retrieving data regarding the solar system and also a database is required for authenticating used credentials (Roldán-Mckinley et al. 2019). Hence it is included here for passing the data from front end towards back end for providing the solution a stack that is fully developed. For this, MySQL is selected as the proper database as structured storage is required and also it is open source as well as free.

Analysis of the system

There are some requirements that have been defined for the customers that need to be validated inside the system. The requirements are divided into two parts, one is Functional requirements and the other is non-functional requirements.

Functional Requirements

Functional requirements are generally considered as the software functions which must be implemented by the developers in the system and the users can utilize this function for completing the tasks. The specific functional requirements for the users are mentioned below:

Requirements

Description

Validation Method

Displaying value of generated power

The value of the generated power is displayed by the solar set up of the customer. Customer installation generally by the SSTL must be less than 55 pence per watt.

Unit testing on codes for verifying the generation of the power is correct. Then it will be tested by the clients for testing whether it meets their expectations. Customer requirements can be used as test data. 

Displaying maximum solar power generation

Displaying the requirement by a solar panel set up. Roof installation should be generated less than 180W every day.

Same as above.

The model should output if a specified household power control can be met.

The requirements of the customers generally illustrate the requirements of the power consumption of the households nearly 300W electronics every day (Akoro et al. 2019). The system has to be capable of evaluating the solar panels as well as battery modules are able to provide for wattage.

Unit testing for identifying if the function properly rectifies the power output is greater than the household usage. It can be validated by the client through acceptance testing. 

Non Functional requirements

Non functional requirements are generally not from the specified functions that can be accessed and also utilized by the users. These requirements include product requirements, external requirements along with organizational requirements.

 Features

After developing the system the below mentioned features can be found. These features help to implement and access the system.

  1. Postcode is entered by the user- this can enable the system for determining the sunrise along with the sunset depending on the location of the users. After that the roof direction is selected by the user.
  2. The solar panels height can be adjusted by the user which is based on the direction of the roof. If much sunlight is not allowed by the roof direction on the solar panel, the height of the solar panel can be adjusted by the user.
  3. Panel of admin for the users depending on the user specification, by this the user is enabled for making entries along with tailor the system for own requirements.
  4. Interface of guest user login- a guest will be created by the user through the admin panel, and privileges are assigned to the guest. The task could be performed by the guest like putting off and putting on the system.
  5. The user can calculate the entire power- by this feature the users are allowed for making entries to the software’s, entries have been submitted by which the satire system power can be generated as the output.
  6. A power restriction can be set by the user- the user is allowed by this feature for setting a power restriction (Chandramouli et al. 2019). If this feature is not inserted into the system, there could be an overload issue in the system, hence the life span can be reduced and system durability also can be affected.
  7. Shade provided by the roof- by this the user can know how much shade the roof is providing. This is mainly depending on the building position inside the particular area.
  8. The use percentage of the system- by this the user is able to calculate the percentage of the used power. By this the user can know when the system is utilized optimally.
  9. Price rate can be shown by the power output- by this feature the user can know the precise rate regarding the electricity by clicking on the submit button.
  10. The user will be capable of computing the electricity cost- by this the user can compute the electricity cost by making entries on the form. When the form is submitted, the cost regarding the electricity can be computed and also displayed by the system.

Discussion

Benefits from the system

The benefits and advantages for constructing a new solar panel model are mentioned below:

  1. Customers are informed regarding expected production of the energy every day- for this they can actually know how much energy has been used for their household.
  2. Capability of investigating the best location as well as angle on the roof, by this the customer is enabled for optimizing the amount of energy that can be gained from the solar panel.
  3. The customer can know from the software how it will access in winter and summer- by this proper battery can be kept for successful running the system if there will be less sun.
  4. The model can also indicate if the battery has less charge, the electricity flow can be stopped and also running of the appliances can be stopped.
  5. The current new modeling system is much more transparent.
  6. Appropriate estimates can improve and develop the services of the clients by making the estimates much more reliable (Chandramouli et al. 2019). It can increase the number of interested people who will use the sources of renewable energy by which environmental benefits can be provided.

Strengths and Weaknesses of the system

In this system, for evaluating and understanding the benefits and potential issues regarding the proposed system, a java web application is made with the use of MVC model. Java programming language is used for creating classes and functions (Roldán-Mckinley et al. 2019). The file format is in JSP form and compiled into the HTML for the users.

Strengths

  1. The functions along with the logic can be handled by the JavaScript on the client side that is faster for the user.
  2. Data can be passed by JavaScript to various server side languages with the use of AJAX calls which don't need a refreshed page.
  3. The web Application can access to any web browser and the user is not required for having installed java like the Java MVC model.
  4. PHP is considered as cost effective as well as it combines accurately with MySQL.
  5. PHP is also easily understandable.
  6. PHP is usually a fast processing language. It generally takes the benefits of the memory, which can reduce the workload along with the loading time. As a result, the processing speed can be influenced substantially, which helps both the developers as well as their clients.
  7. Creating sites from a database is much easier with PHP.

Weaknesses

  1. There can be performance issues with JavaScript if the system is bloated with it.
  2. PHP was basically designed and developed for the non-programmers and for this there will be problems for more experienced developers.
  3. Data can be passed from the functions between PHP and JavaScript during the interaction with the database. The interaction can only be possible with the Java Class.

Conclusion

In current times, solar energy is much more essential for daily life of people. It can be used for environmental benefits and also for preventing pollution. Solar panel Technology is considered for absorbing the solar hits and transforming it to electricity, so that the power can be generated and distributed for the benefits of the households and other organizations. In this report, A solar panel modeling system is developed as per the requirements of the customers for fulfilling their needs. Also a web based application system is designed and implemented for monitoring and controlling the solar panel model. The front end is designed here using CSS, HTML and JavaScript. Various mathematical equations have been discussed which are essential for properly fulfilling the customer’s needs. Also after constructing the system, various features have been developed which are briefly explained here. Solar panel model is very effective for the future development of power installation and power generation.

References

Journals

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