Sustainable Construction And Integrated Project Assignment Sample

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1. Introduction OfSustainable Construction And Integrated Project

This report consists of full planning of hot and cold water installation, above-ground drainage system, thermal comforting system, and electrical installation for an eight-story office building at the city center. The primary objective of this project is to provide a design for the building which is energy efficient and all the other proposals given in the report. There is a need to develop a plan for several attributes of the eight-story building. The first plan is for the plumbing system of hot and cold water for the whole building. The next requirement is the thermal comforting system for the building. This thermal system includes several attributes such as a cooling process, heating process, centralized air conditioning, and ventilation. Along with these, the electrical wiring and the above-ground drainage system also be designed. The whole report is distributed in several segments such as the service details, U-value details, planning of sustainable features, and the drawing of the planning.

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2. Services Details

This section holds all the details about the services that are provided to the building. There are four major services that are to be designed for the building and the diagram of consists the planning of these services. All the details about these services are discussed below.

2.1 Hot and cold water installation:

The first planning is done about the installation of the hot and cold water system of the building. There are several guidelines maintained for the planning of this service. Hot and cold water frameworks in a structure require cautious preparation and adherence to plumbing codes and guidelines. These guidelines need to be maintained to ensure the effectiveness of the full planning.

Determining the required amount of water: The first criterion of this planning is to determine the need for water in the building. The installation process is done over an eight-story office building (Langston and Zhang, 2021). As there are several offices and plenty of people to be engaged in that building, the measurement of the amount of required water is calculated carefully. The volume of the water tank and the diameter of the pipeline depend on the amount of required water. Based on the number of employees, tasks, and appliances that require hot and cold water, the building's water demand is determined.

Determining the materials of pipes: The determining process of the materials of pipe includes several criteria such as (Goh et al. 2020). Codes for the pipeline, water demand, and the budget of the project. The budget is a crucial part of the plan as it is estimated at the early stage of the project.

Water supply framework: The next task of the planning is determining the framework of water supply. The calculations regarding the height of the floors and the distance of the floors from the water tank are done to maintain the right pressure and flow rate of the water. While planning an over-the-ground seepage framework, a few elements should be thought of, including the size of the structure.

The water framework of the whole building holds the usage of water for all purses including the washroom and shower. As the building is used for office purposes there is a high need for water towards every corner of the building during office hours. Apart from the, there is a need to store some amount of water for security purposes in case of an incident of fire. The water connection to the water sprinkler is also planned for the building.

Placing water heater: Placing of the water heater is calculated for all the floors. The design ensures that there is enough space between the two heaters and every user can get warm water at the time of need. The water radiator in an area that is effectively open and meets nearby pipe codes. The energy-efficient water heaters are used for the building as it is mentioned in the design.

Channeling and testing the framework: The next process of the design is to channel the pipeline and find a suitable framework for the piping system. The hot and cold water frameworks ought to be kept separate to forestall cross-pollution. The framework is created as everyone can get the same amount of warm water for their need (Goh et al. 2020). The testing process can ensure the appropriate flow of the water and the tension in the pipeline during the free flow of water. The checking of any leakage, spills, or obstruction, in the flow of water, is done in this phase. The adjustment and the repair are done as per the requirement. Leak detection, water heater flushing, and other routine maintenance tasks are all ways to regularly maintain the system.

2.2 Above-ground drainage (grey and black water):

The design of above-ground drainage water is the sewage system that drains the wastewater from the building. The wastewater then transfers to the public sewage system and the septic tank which is created for the building. This consists of two types of wastewater which are grey and black water. The grey water defines the water from the sinks, showers, and washing machines. The black water defines the wastewater from the toilets. There are separate sewage systems designed for both types of wastewater.

Fittings and traps: The planning made for this building ensures that the pipelines for the wastewater fit with each other comfortably. Otherwise, the chances of water leakage occur and the whole framework of the sewage system is damaged (Erdogan et al. 2019). In order To join the pipes together and change the direction of the flow, fittings like tees bends, and couplings are used. The planning also holds an inspection chamber beside the primary septic tank of the building for regular checking of the connection of the pipelines and for cleaning purposes.

2.3 Maintaining thermal comfort

This is one of the major sections of the whole designing part for the eight-story building. Planning of the thermal system for the building consists of several attributes such as cooling, heating ventilation, and air conditioning system.

A main sewage pipe is connected to the pipeline of wastewater which is provided by the government. The small pipes for both grey and black water from every room connect with the swage pipe of the building (Montalbán-Domingo et al. 2019). As the main pipe is connected to the outer source of the pipeline, all the wastewater directly goes to the drainage system which is provided by the local government. The transportation of sewage and wastewater away from the building is the responsibility of these pipes

Heating and cooling system: The building insulation system is the main responsible for this phenomenon. The insulation system is the first thing that is designed to initiate the temperature of the inside of the room. Maintaining a comfortable indoor temperature is easier when the building has adequate insulation. The purpose of the air distribution system should be to maintain a constant temperature throughout the building. This design can help restrict the transfer of temperature from inside to outside.

Ventilation system: The ventilation system of the building holds a crucial role in the planning part for the building. There is a special attribute called HVAC which is included in the design part. Building thermal comfort system design. The design of a building's thermal comfort system requires consideration of a number of factors (Erdogan et al. 2019). The HVAC means the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system which are the major attributes in terms of the thermal comfort system.

The number of people in the building is important for the thermal system. In order to maintain a comfortable indoor environment, it is essential to distribute the air properly. That is why this planning is done by considering the approximate number of people that is to present on any normal day. The design also holds the recess of regular maintenance as this can provide the system with it highest efficiency. The HVAC system must be regularly maintained to ensure its optimal operation.

Air conditioning: The designing of the air conditioning system is done by centralizing all the floors. A centralized air conditioning system is considered for this building. There are several benefits of this design (Tahmasebinia, F., ME 2020). The first is cost consumption, as it reduces the number of air conditioning machines for every room on the floor. The next criterion is the distribution of the air. Through a centralized air conditioning system, the same amount of cold air is provided in almost every corner of the building. Due to this reason, the criteria of energy conservation are also met. An effective thermal comfort system can aid in cost and energy savings. A centralized air conditioning stem is set to be done at the roof of the building which controls the air condition system of the whole building.

2.4 The Electrical Installation

There are several criteria that are considered for the installation process of the electrical wiring for the building. The main connection of the electrical wire is taken from the nearest transformer to the site (Stanitsas et al. 2021). After that, a centralized electrical hub is installed in the basement of the building which is the control center of the electrical system of the building. Design of a Building's Electrical Installation Creating an electrical installation for a building is a complicated process that is to be done very carefully with the presence of experts.

Identifying the electrical load: The first task of designing the electrical connection is finding the location of the electrical load. Conduct testing to ensure that the electrical equipment and wiring system are functioning as intended. This phenomenon mainly depends on the equipment that is used for the building of the electrical connection. Deciding the absolute electrical burden expected for the structure is a crucial part of this design process. As it is mentioned earlier the electrical hub or the control center for the electrical connection is to be installed in the basement of the building.

Construction of the wiring system: The next task is constructing the wiring system which is initiated from the central hub. In this part, the planning of the electrical circuit, panel, and wiring is done. The wiring system of the building starts from this hub and goes to each floor of the building (Liu et al. 2019). The operations related to the electricity of the building are done from here. In case of any emergency regarding fire or electrical incident, the electric connection for the whole building can be shut down from this hub to reduce the chances of accidents.

Safety measures: The final part of the electrical installation is the safety planning which is a very crucial part. Finding out the electrical safety measures for the occupants of the building is the motive of this planning (Dosumu and Aigbavboa, 2021). The design involves selecting the appropriate surge protection, circuit protection, and grounding system. Safety measures are also taken for emergency incidents that could occur due to electrical hazards. Foster electrical designs for the structure that show the area and design of all electrical hardware.

3. U- Value details

The detail of the U-value defines the thermal transmittance of the building which is the measure of heat loss through the element of the building such as walls, windows, doors, and roofs. The determination process of the U-value depends on the variables like the environment, the structure's utilization, and the energy productivity principles and codes. The designing process for the U-value of the building consists of several processes discussed below.

Determining the building elements: The elements play a vital role in the heat transformation from the room of the building. There are some materials that can transfer heat quicker than other materials (Jin et al. 2019). Polyisocyanurate insulation material is considered for this building to keep the U-value of the building low. It addresses how much intensity that goes through one square meter of material for each degree Celsius distinction in temperature (Cai and Waldmann, 2019). As this insulation process can resist the heat flow on the floor, and this insulation process is fitted in the budget.

Due to the Polyisocyanurate insulation material used in the walls of the bullying, the U-value stays for the walls between 0.3 to 0.15, and the U-value of the ground floors stays within 0.22. It is proven that the use of normal timber or concrete for the wall cannot maintain the U-value of the building s under the standard regulation. Due to this reason, this particular insulation system is designed for this building to maintain thermal comfort within the rooms (El-Sayegh et al. 2021). The U-value of this building is determined by the thickness of the material and the thermal conductivity of the walls and roofs. The calculated results of the U-value satisfy the standard code considered for the location.

4. Sustainable feature

This section holds detailed descriptions of the options that are considered for the sustainable approach to building (Goel et al. 2019). The approaches are included in the designing and constructing part of the building to make it environment-friendly.

Energy efficiency:

A sustainable approach is taken for the building to reduce the amount of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission. This can be accomplished by incorporating renewable energy systems like solar panels or wind turbines. There is several techniques exist to reduce this energy consumption.

The first technique is the installation of the solar panel on the top of the roof. The solar panel can directly convert solar energy into electricity which is provided to the electrical devices of the building. Solar shading that is installed in the building can reduce cost of the electricity and also have a positive impact on the environment.

Water Efficiency:

Sustainable buildings also can be water efficient by acquiring several modern techniques. The low-flow toilets are very efficient that can provide water efficiency (Babalola et al. 2019). Another crucial method is rainwater harvesting which is done by saving the rainwater for future use. The rainwater can be used by filtering for many purposes such as toilets, showers, and other uses of the building.

Green Spaces:

Including some green spaces like gardens and green roofs can reduce carbon footprints and improve the quality of air. Building materials that are environmentally friendly and resource-efficient throughout their lifespan are considered sustainable (Razkenari et al. 2020). As the building is located at the center of the city, including these green spaces can reduce the amount of urban heat and can provide natural habitats. The green spaces of sustainable building approach while also providing occupants with a healthy and comfortable living.

Energy Consumption Appliances:

The electrical appliances that are used in the building are energy efficient and consume very less electricity such as LED lights.

These lights can reduce the cost of energy consumption and are also eco-friendly (Armenia et al. 2019). By minimizing the use of non-LED lights and carbon materials that may have a negative impact on the environment. Energy efficient lights can impact the final expenditure of electric cost as it is one of the most used electrical appliances within the whole building.

5. Drawings and figures

The first drawing that is made for the project is the floor plan established on the given site. The floor plan of the building is located on the site and the other surrounding area is also described.

The given figure is the diagram of the key floor plan that is created for the first task of this project. As per the given border of the site, the floor of the building is drawn according to the boundary of the area (Stanitsas and Kirytopoulos, 2022). There are three office rooms, one conference room, one meeting room and one cafeteria planned for the floor. All the rooms are located on both sides of the corridor. On the west side of the corridor, the space for a lift is also designed as the structure is an eight-story office building. The dimension of the building is provided and the drawings are made according to the given dimension.

The given figure is showing the vertical views of the services planned for the building such as the water pipeline and the electrical connections. As can be seen in the figure that the water tank is located on the roof of the building the water pipeline goes from the tank. There is a sub pipeline which is connected to the main pipe and goes to each floor of the building. An electrical hub or an electrical junction is installed in the base of the building mentioned in the image. It is the control box for all the electrical connections (Hossain and Nadeem, 2019). The main wires go straight to the roof of the building and the small wires connect the whole building. The sub wires are connected to the main junction and also connected with rooms of the office building.

6. Conclusion

This part holds brief information about the discussion held throughout the report. The site plan of a building is given and the project is about designing efficient planning for the building. The proposal includes several attributes such as service details, U-value details, Sustainable features, and a drawing that illustrates the pipeline of water and electrical wiring connections. The sustainable features consist of several new techniques which are implemented in this building. These features are environmentally friendly and also reduce the budget and energy consumption. The next part is very important as it holds the drawing of the key floor plan and the vertical services risers. There are two drawing one of them showing the floor plan of the office building that has been created over the given site. The other one shows the planning of the electrical wiring and pipeline of water. Through the drawings, it can be clearly understood how the electrical connection reaches every floor of the building. Planning the water supply system is much important to provide the right pressure and flow rates are maintained. All the important information is given in the report to help the students that will be performed in the coming future.



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