Venturi and Orifice Meters: Measuring Fluid Flow Rates Assignment

Explore the principles, applications, and calculations of Venturi and Orifice meters, essential tools for accurately measuring fluid flow rates in various industries.

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Introduction Of Analytical And Practical Techniques On The Thermofluids Systems: Venturi And Orifice/ Engine Cycles

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The overall flow rate of such gaseous but also liquids is measured by a Venturi and Orifice Meter. This measurement of the volumetric flowing velocity of such a fluid via a tube or conduit has been most frequently utilized in the discipline of fluid dynamics. This apparatus is made up of three or more parts that have been joined via a tube or conduit. A Venturi tube, which serves as the initial element, seems to be a pipe segment with a tapering portion and a constriction throughout the center. The tube becomes less pressurized as little more than a result of such constriction, which lowers internal pressure and raises the overall flow rate of such fluid passing throughout the pipe.

An orifice plate that consists of a flat surface with a hole throughout the middle makes up the second element. One further drop in pressure and a rise in acceleration result from the such hole. Both the Venturi tube and orifice plate are utilized in conjunction to calculate the fluid's maximum flow rate. Many technical implementations, including the construction of such pressure vessels, pumps, and valves, utilize the observed data collected by the instrument.

Experimental Setup in Lab

Students had seen the lab arrangement for this project which also involves flow via a Venturi meter and an Orifice Meter in action.

The main components of such an apparatus, known also as the hydraulic bench, include a pumping switched on/off button, and a water supply input and exit valve, including a piece of volumetric measurement equipment with a meter on top for volumetric measurements.

There are total 3 sections to find out the Venturi meter specification;

  • Converging, in which the smaller diameter is across.
  • The shortest diameter was the throat.
  • The tube's portion of divergence.

Students are going to take measurements using the piezo metric head across tubes having diameters ranging first one to seven anywhere along pipes where piezo metric tubes are attached at the entrance of such meter since students possess piezo metric tubes linked.

Objectives of Each Experiment

  • To look into the flow rate variations among the Venturi and Orifice Meter.
  • To calculate the differential throughout pressure among each meter intake and outlet.
  • To find each machine's coefficient of discharge.
  • To identify each machine's head loss.

Venturi meter (Application, Working Principles)

Application

The flow rate of a fluid moving by conducting a conduit is measured using a Venturi meter. This meter operates by establishing a pressure difference between two places down the conduit using Bernoulli's theorem. Adjustable converging along with diverging segments found in a Venturi meter is inserted into the pipe. Following Bernoulli's theorem, this fluid's movement rises while its pressure falls while it moves towards the convergence portion. A situation of vacuum develops within the Venturi meter's throat primarily as a result of such pressure drop (Atienza et al. 2021). The rate at which water flows is then increased as a result of the surrounding fluid being drawn towards the passageway by the pressure.

A pressure detector placed at the meter's neck then uses that information to calculate the overall flow rate. The variation in pressure across the Venturi meter's entry while the throat, whose value is inversely proportionate towards the flow percentage, is measured by this pressure detector. The circulation speed of such a substance may be precisely measured using a Venturi meter using Bernoulli's theorem and a pressure detector.

To monitor the circulation rate of liquids, gas, and other fluids, Venturi meters were often utilized throughout a variety of sectors, including HVAC along with water treatment. Sensors can monitor flow rates that range from 0.1 to 1000 liters per minute, therefore, are quite precise. Additionally, devices are affordable and simple to set up. Because of a result, Venturi meters are a preferred option for determining liquid flow.

Working Principle

The overall flow rate of such a fluid moving through a conduit is measured using a Venturi meter. It operates by narrowing the tube, which results in a pressure differential among the constriction's 2 sections. That flow rate may then be calculated using such fluid's velocity that would be determined using that pressure differential (Chen et al. 2021). This straightforward tool called a Venturi meter may be utilized to precisely gauge a fluid's volumetric circulation rate. It operates by generating a pressure difference across two places in a pipe, which enables actual flow velocity to have been computed using that pressure differential. Fluid flow may be measured effectively and accurately with the Venturi meter.

Calculation of Venturi meter

Inlet Tube Diameter () = 31.75 mm = 0.03175 m, Outlet Tube Diameter () = 15 mm = 0.015 m.

For calculating the Area the Formula is,

For Inlet Tube Area,

  • = * = 0.000791
  • = * = 0.000177

The meter Coefficient Formula is,

  • K =
  • K=
  • K= 0.000181

Plot the Q vs in the Excel and the m is calculated as, m= 0.0353 [Referred to Appendix 2]

Now, students find the value of,

  • *0.0353= 0.44

Orifice Meter (Application, Working Principles)

Application

An Orifice Meter seems to be a tool was using to gauge the amount of fluid flowing throughout a hole, or orifice. To determine the velocity during which liquid is passing through the aperture, this Orifice Meter measures the differential pressure throughout the orifice. Such kind of flow meter is employed in a variety of settings, along with the oil and gas sector, to quantify circulation in pipelines, processing facilities, but also storage vessels.

Orifice Meters are utilized across many professional situations wherein precision but also accuracy seem to be crucial because they are very precise but also dependable. Sensors could be utilized to monitor heat and pressures in addition to the flow speeds of such gases, liquids, and steam.

Orifice Meters are utilized in a variety of certain other enterprises in contrast to the oil and gas sector, including water supply systems, sewage systems, and chemical processing facilities. For such monitoring of liquids in tanks, containers, and pipelines, sensors are indeed utilized inside the food and beverage business.

Orifice Meters are frequently utilized for such fluid velocity in various commercial situations since they are quite simple but also inexpensive equipment. Sensors can be employed in dangerous environments where conventional flow meters would not be appropriate since devices are effective in a broad spectrum of operational heat and pressure.

Working Principle

An Orifice Meter is a kind of discharge meter that assesses the volumetric flow velocity of such fluids moving throughout a conduit. It is founded upon the Bernoulli equation’s fundamental tenet that such a fluid's temperature is inversely related to its velocity. The thin plate with such a hole through the center, known as an orifice plate, is connected to a tube for an Orifice Meter to function (Chen et al. 2022). Because of the impediment, the fluid moves more slowly as it goes through the plate's gap. As a result, there is an increase in pressure upon that downhill component of such a flat plate and just a decrease in pressure upon that upstream face that is proportionate toward the fluid’s mass circulation rate. Inside the following step, a dynamic pressure sensor measures the variance pressure.

The flow of water, gas, and steam can be measured with an Orifice Meter, among other things. It is extensively utilized throughout the extraction and transportation of such fuel throughout the oil but also gas industries. Additionally, it is utilized in commercial procedures like the production of energy and the processing of chemicals.

Owing to their dependability, efficiency, but also affordable installation costs, Orifice Meters are frequently utilized in production. It’s exceptionally simple to adjust and operate. The Orifice Meter has a huge spectrum of flow measurement capabilities, from some very minimal to extremely high. It may be put in current tubes and it’s additionally economical. Because the breath but rather gaseous can impair the measurement's reliability, the Orifice Meter is not appropriate for detecting the discharge of substances containing significant amounts of such absorbed atmosphere or gaseous.

Calculation of Orifice Meter

Inlet Tube Diameter () = 31.75 mm = 0.03175 m, Outlet Tube Diameter () = 20 mm = 0.02 m.

For calculating the Area the Formula is,

For Inlet Tube Area,

  • = * = 0.000791
  • = * = 0.000314

The meter Coefficient Formula is,

  • K =
  • K=
  • K= 0.000342

Plot the Q vs in the Excel and the m is calculated as, m= 0.043004 [Referred to Appendix 2]

Figure 5: Q vs Plot for Orifice

(Source: Self-Created in MS Excel)

Now, students find the value of,

  • *043004= 0.053

Conclusion and Discussion

To examine the overall coefficient of discharge between an Orifice Meter and also a Venturi meter, a lab experiment called the Venturi and Orifice test has been carried out. Following capturing the data, it was discovered that the Orifice Meter’s coefficient of discharge equaled 0.726 and the Venturi meter’s coefficient of discharge remained at 0.873. According to the investigation's findings, the Venturi meter seems to be the preferred tool for determining the flow velocity in such a tube.

The Venturi meter was a device used to gauge the overall flow rate of such a tube. It is made up of a neck, a divergent part, and also a convergence segment. This fluid's movement rises because it goes down the throat of its own meter's construction, producing overall pressure losses throughout the device. That flow velocity would then be determined using the pressure losses.

Another tool for determining the flow rate in such a pipeline seems to be the orifice meter. It is made from a hollow orifice plate that is inserted into the tubing. A pressure decrease results from the fluid's increased movement as it travels throughout the orifice plate. This flow velocity would then be determined using the pressure losses.

The test’s findings show that perhaps the Venturi meter seems to have a greater discharge coefficient than using Orifice Meter. This shows that perhaps the Venturi meter is much more precise than the Orifice Meter when determining the velocity of circulation within a tube. This can be attributed to the Venturi meter’s construction, which permits higher pressure losses than conventional Orifice Meter, which would be to blame.

Moreover, this Venturi meter performs better that an Orifice Meter. The above is to ensure that overall flow velocity can be measured more precisely using the Venturi meter, which possesses a larger coefficient of discharge. As a result, the Venturi meter seems to be the preferred tool for determining the flow velocity via a tube.

To conclude this experiment, the Venturi meter seems to be the preferred instrument for determining the overall velocity of circulation through a pipe, according to the findings of such laboratory experiments comparing the Venturi and also orifice. This would be brought on by both its increased efficiency and its increased coefficient of discharge, both of which make it highly precise but also efficient. Thus, using a Venturi meter ought to remain the tool of preference whenever determining the flow velocity via a tube.

References

Journals

Atienza, A.H., Erinco, I.K., Martinez, M.B. and Visande, V.J., 2021, May. Dual grinding and mixing machine for vermicompost and worm biomass production. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 765, No. 1, p. 012067). IOP Publishing.

Chen, W., Li, J., Li, Y., Zhang, M. and Peng, L., 2021. Flowrate estimation of horizontal gas–water slug flow based on venturi tube and conductance sensor. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 70, pp.1-10.

Chen, Y., Chinello, G., Tait, P. and Jia, J., 2022. A new correlation to determine the Lockhart-Martinelli parameter from vertical differential pressure for horizontal venturi tube over-reading correction. Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 88, p.102266.

Das, A. and Mukherjee, V., 2020. Quantum-enhanced finite-time Otto cycle. Physical Review Research, 2(3), p.033083.

Goffin, A., Larkin, I., Tartaro, A., Schweinsberg, A., Valenzuela, A., Rosenthal, E.W. and Milchberg, H.M., 2023. Optical guiding in 50-meter-scale air waveguides. Physical Review X, 13(1), p.011006.

Kloc, M., Cejnar, P. and Schaller, G., 2019. The collective performance of a finite-time quantum Otto cycle. Physical Review E, 100(4), p.042126.

Martins, N.M., Covas, D.I., Meniconi, S., Capponi, C. and Brunone, B., 2021. Characterization of low-Reynolds number flow through an orifice: CFD results vs. laboratory data. Journal of Hydroinformatics, 23(4), pp.709-723.

Per?i?, M., Vladimir, N. and Fan, A., 2020. Life-cycle cost assessment of alternative marine fuels to reduce the carbon footprint in short-sea shipping: A case study of Croatia. Applied Energy, 279, p.115848.

Shi, H., Li, M., Liu, Q. and Nikrityuk, P., 2020. Experimental and numerical study of cavitating particulate flows in a venturi tube. Chemical Engineering Science, 219, p.115598.

Shi, S., Chen, L., Ge, Y. and Feng, H., 2021. Performance optimizations with single-, bi-, tri-, and quadruped-objective for irreversible diesel cycle. Entropy, 23(7), p.826.

Thompson, K., 2022, August. Venturi Meter: Design, Simulate, and Test. In 2022 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition.

Ticu, I. and Gogu, E., 2021. A TOOL FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THERMAL EFFICIENCY OF IDEAL DIESEL CYCLES, PROVIDED TO FUTURE MARINE ENGINEERS. Journal of Marine Technology and Environment Year, 2.

Zhou, D., Zhang, G., Prasad, M. and Wang, P., 2019. The effects of temperature on supercritical CO2 induced fracture: An experimental study. Fuel, 247, pp.126-134.

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