Biopsychosocial Approach to Dyspnea Treatment Assignment Case Study

Exploring Dyspnea Treatment: Assignment Case Study

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Introduction Of Biopsychosocial Approach to Dyspnea Treatment in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Mrs. A is the subject of this case study; she is a seventy-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes and dyspnea. Using the Engel Biopsychosocial Model, this investigation explores the probable link between her diabetes and dyspnea. The study also evaluates the quality of care Mrs. A received for the management of her diabetes, focusing on the treatment of her dyspnea.

  1. How?

Mrs. A's diabetes assessment is analysed using the Engel Biopsychosocial Model, and her care plan is critically evaluated. The study is divided into these three parts. The research also seeks to pinpoint areas for development, such as better methods for treating her diabetes-related dyspnea.

  1. Why?

Evaluation and analysis of treatment administration, particularly the handling of dyspnea symptoms, is crucial for enhancing healthcare quality. Doctors can use this method to evaluate the outcomes of their interventions, pinpoint what works, and fine-tune their practises to better serve their patients. Mrs. A's care plan needs to be reevaluated to make sure she is getting the most out of her treatment, especially for her diabetes and related dyspnea.

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a. Engel Bio-psycho-social Model

The effects of Mrs. A's diabetes, particularly the existence of dyspnea, are assessed and analysed in this case study using the Engel Biopsychosocial Model (Bolton, 2022). George Engel first proposed this model in 1977, and it stresses the need to look at more than just the body to get a whole picture of a patient's health. Mrs. A's lifestyle, medical procedures, and genetic predispositions are all included in the biological component of the model, which focuses on the physical and physiological components of Mrs. A's condition (Benning, 2015). While Mrs. A's diabetes certainly plays a role in her dyspnea, other biological causes, such as respiratory or cardiovascular problems, must also be considered.

The psychological aspect takes into account the role that Mrs. A's state of mind may have in causing her dyspnea. Her interpretation and reaction to dyspnea symptoms may be affected by mental health issues, such as worry, stress, or depression (Aftab and Nielsen, 2021). The emotional toll of managing a condition like diabetes can also make it more difficult to breathe. Mrs. A's access to healthcare, social support, and cultural values are just a few examples of the environmental and social aspects that are taken into account by the model's social component (Lugg, 2022). Mrs. A's experience of dyspnea may be related to her inability to adequately manage her diabetes due to a lack of social support and limited access to healthcare. These societal aspects must be taken into account when assessing her care and making adjustments. By using the Engel Biopsychosocial Model, healthcare providers may make sure Mrs. A's needs are met in more ways than just treating her physical ailments. A holistic strategy for controlling her diabetes and dyspnea can be formulated by weighing the role of biological, psychological, and social factors. Mrs. A's health outcomes, quality of life, and healthcare expenses may all benefit from this integrative strategy.

The Engel Biopsychosocial Model is still useful in contemporary medicine since it takes into account not only biology but also psychological and social aspects of an individual's health. Health care providers can deliver better, more personalised service by considering how these aspects interact with one another( 2022). The model highlights the need for interventions that address not only the physical components of Mrs. A's diabetes but also her psychological well-being and social support system, underlining the significance of treating all three dimensions to attain optimal health outcomes for individuals like her.

b. Biopsychosocial Needs in Managing Dyspnea in type 2 diabetes mellitus

It is important to take into account the patient's biopsychosocial demands when treating their dyspnea caused by type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients suffering from dyspnea (difficulty breathing) should have their physical, mental, and social health evaluated. Dyspnea is a common complication of diabetes, and it can be managed by treating the underlying causes ( 2019). In order to avoid respiratory system problems, glycemic control management may be necessary. Bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and oxygen treatment are just some of the drugs that can be used to lessen inflammation, improve lung function, and make breathing easier. Dyspnea has been linked to a loss in self-care and increased worry on a psychological level. Patients with dyspnea can benefit greatly from cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in terms of anxiety management, self-care enhancement, and general health improvement. Anxiety and breathing problems can be helped by using relaxation techniques including progressive muscle relaxation and guided visualisation. Dyspnea is a common symptom of type 2 diabetes and having social support is crucial for coping with it. Dyspnea patients can better manage their symptoms and stick to their treatment programmes with the support of their loved ones and medical professionals (Iheanacho et al., 2020). Patients can take an active role in their care by learning about dyspnea management and being included in shared decision-making.

Treatment plans for people with type 2 diabetes and dyspnea can be more holistic if they take into account the bio psychosocial factors at play. The best dyspnea management, anxiety reduction, and quality of life improvements may result from a multifaceted approach that integrates pharmacological therapies, psychological support, and social aid. Treatment efficacy can be evaluated and tweaks made with patient input and regular monitoring.

Management of Dyspnea in type 2 diabetes mellitus Patients

A comprehensive bio psychosocial strategy that takes into account patients' medical, psychological, and social needs is necessary for the therapy of dyspnea in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus ( 2018) Pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical approaches can be used, with an emphasis on patient-specific treatment strategies.

According to the Engel (1977) the biological reasons of dyspnea in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus are often treated with pharmacological therapy such bronchodilators and corticosteroids. These drugs work to lessen swelling in the airways and enhance breathing. Consequences and treatment progress must be tracked and evaluated regularly (Parris 2019). In managing dyspnea, non-pharmacological therapies are crucial. Instructing patients on how to breathe correctly can increase their oxygen intake and decrease their exertion while breathing. Improving respiratory function and relieving dyspnea can be accomplished by encouraging frequent physical exercise within their limits.

Dyspnea-related mental health issues can be ameliorated with the help of cognitive-behavioural therapy. Getting counselling or joining a support group can help with emotional needs and improve quality of life. Patients are more likely to follow treatment plans when they are involved in making those plans. Care for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus can be improved by taking a holistic approach that takes into account the biological, psychological, and social components of dyspnea management. Dyspnea in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus must be managed using a multidisciplinary approach involving healthcare providers, patients, and their families.

Working together like this makes it so that each patient receives care that is both comprehensive and tailored to their specific requirements. In order to assess the efficacy of therapies and make any necessary revisions to the treatment plan, regular monitoring and follow-up are essential ( 2017). Healthcare practitioners can enhance their patients' well-being and quality of life by managing their dyspnea from a medical, psychological, and social perspective. In order to help patients effectively manage their dyspnea symptoms and improve their respiratory health as a whole, it is important to use a personalised and all-encompassing approach that emphasises education, physical activity, psychological support, and social involvement.

c. Psychological and Social Needs in Managing Dyspnea in type 2 diabetes mellitus

Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who are experiencing dyspnea should have their social needs met as part of their treatment plan. A patient's emotional health and ability to control their dyspnea may benefit from the encouragement of loved ones and those in similar situations. Healthcare professionals can help patients with social needs by encouraging them to talk to family and friends and join diabetic support groups. Dyspnea is a common complication of diabetes, and these groups can help by providing emotional support, encouragement, and helpful advice. Meeting others who are experiencing similar challenges can help you feel less isolated and more prepared to handle them. Healthcare providers can also inform patients about community resources including diabetes education courses and local support groups (Collins et al. 2019). The resources and support networks offered on these platforms are invaluable to people living with type 2 diabetes. Medical professionals caring for patients with type 2 diabetes and respiratory difficulties should use a biopsychosocial perspective. Treatments for dyspnea can be divided into the physiological, such as medicine and lifestyle adjustments, and the psychological and social, such as tending to patients' emotional health and building up a support network. Including social support and understanding the patient's social needs can help healthcare providers better treat dyspnea in people with type 2 diabetes. Taking a holistic approach that considers biological, psychological, and social aspects is crucial for optimising care and improving the overall well-being of these patients. Dyspnea is a common complication of type 2 diabetes, and its care needs close attention to the patient's response to treatment.


When treating type 2 diabetes mellitus, it is crucial to take the patient's biopsychosocial dyspnea into account. Dyspnea treatment options include medication, non-medication, psychological, and social work. Because of the complex interplay of biological, psychological, and social factors in the aetiology and progression of medical disorders, the Engel (1977) Biopsychosocial Model should be used in healthcare settings. Mrs. A has type 2 diabetes and dyspnea; therefore, she needs a thorough examination. People with type 2 diabetes mellitus have specific requirements that must be met when treating their dyspnea. Dyspnea treatment guidelines recommend both pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical options. Health care providers can do a better job of managing patients' health and dyspnea by focusing on the biological elements of the disease, such as medication adjustments, lifestyle changes, and psychological and social support. Successful management of dyspnea requires monitoring, evaluation, and adjustment depending on patient input. Healthcare practitioners can improve patients' quality of life by treating the medical, psychological, and social factors that contribute to their dyspnea.


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