Flexible Working And Global Pandemic: In The Case Of Covid-19 Assignment

Delving into the Effects of Flexible Work Schedules During the Pandemic and Reflecting on Research Methods and Outcomes

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Introduction Of Flexible Working And Global Pandemic: In The Case Of Covid-19 Assignment

In today's fast-paced world, it's becoming more difficult for businesses to maintain professionalism and adapt to the changing landscape. In the present task data and information about global pandemic and workplace environment has been illustrated briefly. Different methods of collecting data and analyzing them are also elaborated in the present task. Separate research methods for primary and secondary research and limitations of the research have been specified in the task. Furthermore, a project proposal has also been introduced in the task relevant to the topic. The results and outcomes of the research have also been highlighted. As per the research findings it has been found that employees and individuals are highly satisfied with the flexible workplace environment. A survey result has been shown in the task which specified different questions and their responses from different participants. Effectiveness of different research methods has also been highlighted for different research methods. Alternative research methodology such as correlation predictive study has been broadly specified in the task. Furthermore, self reflection has been presented which specifies the feelings and observation of the researcher during the research process. On the other hand, other areas of the research where improvements are needed have also been shown with the help of an action plan. Research skill, content structuring and im[roving keyword selection are some of the areas that need to be improved which has been depicted clearly with an action plan.

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Research aims and objectives

Aim

The overarching goal of each study is to learn more about the Global Epidemic of Flexible Work Schedules.

Objectives

Employee satisfaction in the workplace will be assessed in light of the worldwide epidemic.

To investigate whether factors are linked with high levels of job satisfaction among COVID-19-affected workers.

Examining how a pandemic of a highly infectious illness would affect workers' motivation to come to work is one of the study's aims.

To examine the impact of digitization during a pandemic in terms of striking a healthy balance between employer and worker happiness.

Research questions

How to evaluate the impact of the global pandemic on employee happiness in the workplace?

How high degree of job fulfillment among COVID-19 affected employees?

How the spread of a highly contagious disease may impact employees' willingness to go to work?

How the use of digital tools can affect the ability to keep both employers and employees satisfied during a pandemic?

Rationale

This research project is chosen due to analyzing the flexible work-from-home culture during the COVID-19 epidemic. The present worldwide pandemic scenario has been studied in depth since it has brought about significant changes in the working lifestyles of individuals in organizations throughout the globe and has had an impact on the job happiness of employees in all firms. The research proposal also chose how the company and its manager's strategy for handling staff amid the COVID-19 epidemic.

Literature review

The purpose of the study was to investigate the state of workers' ability to strike a healthy balance between their professional and personal lives. Fifty remote workers who were employed throughout the worldwide pandemic have provided data for the study. Shifrin and Michel, (2022) highlight that the initial analysis of the data reveals a conflict between the needs of employers and those of people seeking a healthy work-life balance and flexible working arrangements. As such, it is the employees who define the success of a company, and it is in their best interest to work in an atmosphere that makes them happy.

According to studies by Agba et al., (2020), employees' declining output may be traced back to the flexibility and convenience of telecommuting from home. While many people have found work-life balance via remote work, the results underlined the fact that a home-based job is often not practical since many aspects of work could be handled from home.

Over the last several decades, in response to the shifting requirements of the contemporary workforce and the development of digital technology, working methods have grown more desirable due to their flexibility and mobility.

By "flexible working practises" (FWPs), it is mean that workplaces, timetables, and agreements that are not set in stone. Such FWPs have gained popularity in the contemporary workforce because to the media's positive portrayal of them and the proliferation of digital technologies.

Soga et al., (2022) highlights that telecommuting, part-time employment, flextime, teleworking, and freelancing were all pioneering forms of FWP that have now become standard. Research into FWPs has increased significantly over the last two decades, reflecting the interconnected nature of modern economies. The resultant instability in corporate operations has prompted the adoption of novel organisational structures and methods of operation. Soga et al., (2022) have highlighted that working from home during pandemic reduces visibility and social connection, which might impact trust in working teams, as one of the hazards of FWP at the group and organisational levels. The use of digital technology and platforms to facilitate remote work is not without its drawbacks, including social isolation, fears of monitoring, problems with communication and connection, and a general weakening of team spirit. Furthermore, there are detrimental consequences on team work dedication and worker satisfaction as a result of organisations using FW arrangements. These show themselves as elevated levels of work insecurity, high rates of staff turnover due to disengagement, and negative impacts on productivity and advancement within an organisation.

This epidemic has ushered in a new era of workplace flexibility and rapid technological adaptation. Business models are also likely to adapt in response to the new technological realities of the post-pandemic workplace. According to Mangla (2021), poor trust, disturbed communication, restricted cooperation, unclear roles, and poor team performance are just some of the difficulties that might arise from working virtually. Because of the epidemic, many institutions, including schools and corporations, have moved their operations online. Learning and working online is becoming more normalised in the present culture. A virtual labour transition occurred across industries almost immediately after the outbreak. Emails, instant messaging, online meetings, and video conferencing have all replaced more traditional forms of employee communication. The New York Times observed that the number of daily application sessions for services like Zoom, Google Classrooms, Microsoft Teams, and others significantly grew in the United States between 2015 and 2020. Mangla (2021) depicts that over a thirty percent rise in global internet traffic in the context of corporate sector has been seen during the pandemic. The digital revolution has made it much simpler for businesses to connect with prospective employees. After a pandemic, people will do more of their jobs virtually than they did previously. For those who aren't used to it, the virtual world presents a number of problems in addition to the benefits it provides for maintaining connections with others and communicating effectively. Misunderstandings and misinterpretation are more likely to occur in a digital setting. A Deloitte research titled "learnings from the COVID-19 pandemic: India perspective" proposes that companies reconsider their employment patterns and prepare their workers for the future by using online education.

Research methodologies

The procedures, methods, or procedures used in the study are all founded on oversimplifications. Assisting the learning result via growth through inductive inquiry. Using this method, the investigator may gather information on how a worldwide epidemic would affect workers (Al-Ababneh, 2020). To achieve a goal, researchers use a variety of approaches, instruments, and procedures. The study's goal is to provide useful data for the audience. Diverse data-gathering tools may be used across a variety of data-exploration strategies.

For both secondary and primary research Saunders Onion model is used to identify the relevant research methods.

In the case of secondary research, interpretivism is used as a research philosophy. With the use of the present research philosophy, the researcher is able to increase knowledge of flexible working that has been incorporated during the pandemic. An inductive approach has been used by the researcher. The inductive approach allows the researcher to develop hypotheses by analyzing the collected data and information from secondary sources (Coy, 2019). An exploratory research design has been considered in the research. It allows the researcher to identify new and additional information related to flexible working in the era of the pandemic. The researcher's knowledge of the topic is also improved with the use of exploratory research design techniques. As a result, it helps investigators identify plausible explanations for the cause related to the problem or the issue. To identify potential root causes, researchers may conduct an investigation. A qualitative research strategy is used in secondary research (Newman and Gough, 2020). Secondary research is based on non-numerical data hence qualitative research strategy is relevant for such kind of research. Thematic analysis is a powerful tool for processing enormous datasets since it enables the researcher to break down and classify the material into manageable resources. Dividing the resources into themes allows the researcher to offer more meaningful content about the research topic (Mishra and Alok, 2022). With the use of thematic analysis, a particular researcher can modify the content which depicts the flexibility of the analysis method. The key features of large sets of secondary data can be understood with the help of thematic analysis. A structured approach to data handling offers a clear and more structured analysis of the elements included in the research topic.

In primary research, positivism is used as a research philosophy in the research. With positivism, philosophical relationships between different variables of the research can be established by the researcher. Positivist research aims to identify correlations or causal linkages that may help explain observed occurrences and pave the way for their future prediction and manipulation. The deductive approach is used in primary researResearch methodologiesch by researchers (Patel and Patel, 2019). The goal of deductive inquiry is to develop a working hypothesis by drawing inferences from existing literature. It's a method that puts the emphasis on planning how to put theories to the test. Specifically, researchers must explain the method in detail before moving on to a more generic description. In the primary research, descriptive design is specifically used by researchers as primary research deals with numerical data. Hence, the descriptive research design can describe numerical data and information gathered from the primary data collection process. Furthermore, primary research includes surveys and interviews hence descriptive design can describe the demographics involved in the survey and interview (Newman and Gough, 2020). Narrative data analysis is one of the relevant data analysis techniques that is used by the researcher in the case of primary research. With the use of narrative data analysis, the experiences, views, and perceptions of individuals can be narrated by the researcher.

In secondary data, interpretivism philosophy has been used by the researcher. Positivism and pragmatism are some of the philosophies that have been excluded and interpretivism has been taken into consideration. Secondary data and information can be aligned with interpretivism which is one of the reasons the philosophy has been used. The inductive approach has been used as secondary data will be analyzed and the thesis will be developed with the collected information (Mishra, S.B. and Alok, 2022). The deductive and inductive approach has been excluded due to their hypothesis development and then analyzing information based on the hypothesis. Exploratory research design is used instead of explanatory and descriptive research design as with exploratory research the researcher is able to discuss and identify additional elements which are not possible with explanatory and descriptive methods. For secondary research, a qualitative research strategy has been used for interpreting and illustrating the data and evidence (Machado and Davim, 2020).

For primary research, positivism has been considered instead of interpretivism and pragmatism. The research also emphasizes a highly organized approach to explaining the impact of the pandemic on the actions of organizations and the employees. In this way, the positivist stance helped the researcher achieve their goals. The deductive approach has been used instead of the inductive and abductive approaches. The approach has been used to analyze the primary data and develop specific observations from general information. As the researcher seeks to establish a connection between digital technologies and their effect on flexible working, an explanatory research design is used for this study. It is appropriate to utilize an explanatory design when studying a relationship between a cause and its impact (Singh, 2022). Quantitative research has provided rich, comprehensive, and accurate process information based on the participant's rather than the investigator's viewpoints and interpretations, whereas quantitative research yields factual, trustworthy result data that is typically generalizable to some bigger populations.

Qualitative research methods need the use of qualitative data analysis strategies. Quantitative research requires the application of appropriate quantitative data analysis methods.

Due to the mixed nature of the research methodologies used in this investigation, both quantitative and qualitative approaches to data analysis were used. Data is often shown in tables, graphs, and charts using MS Excel as a quantitative technique. Nonetheless, the qualitative data is analyzed using a thematic approach in order to achieve the study's aims.

Limitation

There are several limitations in the collection and analysis of secondary data and evidence. Due to the vast amount of collected data, it has been difficult to segregate the information based on its relevance and authenticity. Due to a lack of access to peer-reviewed journals and articles the researcher has not been able to present peer-reviewed journals which is considered to be a limitation in collecting of secondary data.

Due to political pressures, it has been difficult to collect personal views and ideas on the research topic. This is one of the limitations of primary data collection. Partial views and opinions of the individual have resulted in improper information which has resulted in difficulty in illustrating the topic in a brief and clear manner. Ethics form approval in the collection of primary data has led to delay in the initiation of the research which is considered to be another limitation of the research.

Results and discussion

Results

Q1: What is your designation?

Designation of participant

Figure 1: Designation of participant

(Source: Created by the learner)

From figure 1, it can be analyzed that 30% of employees are working in managerial roles while 12% are associate-level employees. Furthermore, 40% of individuals are working in the position of team leader and 20% are in the supervisor role.

Q2: To what extent do you agree that flexible working creates employee fulfillment during the pandemic?

Fulfillment of employees through flexible working

Figure 2: Fulfillment of employees through flexible working

(Source: Created by the learner)

The above figure 2, illustrates that 30% of employees strongly disagree that flexible working creates fulfillment among employees while 50% disagree about the fact of fulfillment. Furthermore, 45% are neutral about the fact and 34% and 30% strongly agree that flexible working during Covid - 19 has created fulfillment among employees.

Q3: To what extent do you agree or disagree that flexible working has resulted in negative factors?

Negative factors of flexible working

Figure 3: Negative factors of flexible working

(Source: Created by the learner)

Figure 3 demonstrates that 40% and 53% strongly agree and agree that flexible working has also resulted in negative factors for working. On the other hand, 20% are neutral that negative factors have risen due to flexible working. The graph also indicates that 30% disagree with the question of negative factors due to flexible working during Covid - 19 and 32% strongly disagree.

Q4: To what extent do you agree or disagree that flexible working has created a high level of job satisfaction for employees during a pandemic?

 Level of job satisfaction with flexible working

Figure 4: Level of job satisfaction with flexible working

(Source: Created by the learner)

From above figure 4, it can be assumed that the majority of employees strongly agree that flexible working during the pandemic has resulted in high job satisfaction for the workers. According to the figure, 60% of employees have positively supported the question while 30% are neutral about the fact. As per the figure, 20% of individuals disagree that flexible working leads to job satisfaction in the workplace.

Q5: To what extent do you agree or disagree that flexible working has developed motivation among employees during Covid -19?

 level of motivation with flexible working

Figure 5: level of motivation with flexible working

(Source: Created by the learner)

According to figure 5, 49% of individuals strongly disagree about the fact that flexible working has created motivation among employees while 23% are neutral about the question. Furthermore, 30% strongly agree that the level of motivation of employees has increased due to flexible working.

Q6: To what extent do you agree or disagree that flexible working has created an innovative environment for employees?

Innovative environment for employees with flexible working

Figure 6: Innovative environment for employees with flexible working

(Source: Created by the learner)

The majority of employees have supported the fact that an innovative environment has been created with a flexible environment. 43% of employees are in favor of the fact while 40% also disagree that an innovative environment has not been established by implementing flexible working.

Q7: To what extent do you agree or disagree that flexible working has implemented technologies for employee engagement?

Technologies in flexible working

Figure 7: Technologies in flexible working

(Source: Created by the learner)

According to the figure, 40% of individuals strongly agree that technology has helped in employee engagement in a flexible working environment. While 26% disagree and 37% strongly disagree that technology has offered minimal assistance in creating employee engagement.

Discussion

The COVID-19 crisis measures also revealed compelling new evidence that providing employees additional freedom in how, where and when they work can be advantageous both for individuals and for companies, for example by enhancing productivity. However, reducing flexibility involves enormous expenses, including greater workforce turnover (Majid and Kouser, 2020). Organizations have to swiftly reconfigure several jobs to fit remote working, as well as construct the required infrastructure, to overcome challenges to the introduction of remote working. Long-term, if the vast majority of workers switch to remote work and develop new remote working practices, this may lessen such penalties for individuals who need to work remotely (Maithya et al., 2019). The research outcomes also demonstrate that flexible working has also resulted in negative factors such as stress and anxiety that have led to demotivation among the workforce while working in a particular organization.

Satisfaction of the employees in a flexible workplace

The outcome of the research has accomplished the research objective 1 as the findings state the level of satisfaction of employees in a flexible workplace. As per the findings of the research, individual workers strongly agree with the fact that flexible working has created a level of satisfaction (Bairagi and Munot, 2019). Along with the majority of individuals supporting the fact a minority of employees disagree that the level of satisfaction has increased with flexible working patterns.

Evaluating fulfillment of workers at work during a pandemic

The findings of primary research have identified that employees and individuals have a negative feeling towards fulfillment at work in the era of the pandemic. It has been shown that the majority of individuals have strongly disagreed that there is no fulfillment while working remotely during the pandemic (Islam et al., 2022). While secondary data has identified that employee engagement activities need to be implemented along with flexible policies for creating fulfillment for employees in flexible working during the pandemic.

Impact on the motivation of employees in the pandemic

The level of motivation of employees and workers has resulted in a decline in motivation according to the findings of the research. Furthermore, objective 2 has also been linked to the result as the results of primary data and evidence have clearly defined the objective. The level of employees who agree is less than the individual who disagrees. Due to a lack of engagement and communication in remote working employees feel demotivated and isolated which leads to a negative impact on their job roles and responsibilities.

Effect of digital technologies on employer and worker satisfaction

Employees accept that technology has created a definite balance between the organization and the individuals. Technology has also helped employees to establish communication among them which is considered to be a positive impact of technologies in the workplace (De Costa et al., 2019). On the other hand, technology has enabled organizations to implement engagement activities for the employees and staff which has helped in creating a positive working environment. According to the findings, the majority of employees have accepted that technology has raised their level of satisfaction and has eased the process of communication despite a flexible working environment.

Effectiveness of the research methods

Interpretivism has helped the researcher in stating a clear idea of the social concepts of the research. The ideas, experiences, and views of the employees and individuals have been identified with the use of interpretivism philosophy. Research and debate under the positivist paradigm adhere to a clear framework that states the effectiveness of the research philosophy. As a result of rigidly adhering to predetermined laws and regulations, positivists argue, there will be little space for mistakes (Yayici, 2021). The focus of the inductive method is on the development of hypotheses that are supported by empirical evidence. Typically, a research topic will be used by an inductive method to focus the investigation. On the other hand, the deductive approach is a productive downward spiral of thinking. The deductive approach has allowed the researcher to consume time which is an effect of the research. With consuming less time the investigation has been able to focus on other areas of the research effectively and efficiently.

Exploratory research has been useful for laying the groundwork for study, which has then led to even further research (Mukherjee, 2019). It helps the researcher decide early on whether the issue is worthwhile and warrants further study which is the effectiveness of the research. A well-executed exploratory study may provide useful information for research planning, sample selection, and data gathering. There is a corresponding obligation on the part of the researcher to conduct a thorough investigation of the problem at hand and to provide only trustworthy findings. With explanatory research, the trends and recent patterns of flexible working have been identified in the research. This has helped the researcher to identify findings and accomplish the research objectives and questions. The researcher has faced minimal challenges in structuring the secondary data due to the use of thematic analysis. It also helps researchers to identify the amount of literature gathered for each issue and phenomenon (Sharma, 2023). Narrative analysis has helped in narrating and understanding the ideas and concerns of the individual during the survey process. By encouraging participants to share their experiences, narrative analysis helps researchers understand the dynamic interplay of several social elements and organizational changes.

Alternate research methodologies

Correlation predictive study is one of the alternatives of research methodologies that could be used in the research. It is the investigation of connections between phenomena (variables) and their interpretation (Rafsanjani et al., 2022). The amount to which a change in a dependent variable may be accounted for by shifts in one or more independent variables is a key concept in research of this kind. In order to make forecasts, the found connections are utilized. The researcher can also conduct an investigation and discussion with the organization and institution to collect data and use them in preparation for the content of the research. The research has helped in learning about the methodologies and various analytical tools and techniques that could be used to generate effective results and outcomes (Aityan, 2022). With the research, it has been learned that primary data gives a more precise view of the topic and phenomenon on which the research has been focused.

Reflection and engagement in the research process

The "Gibbs reflective cycle model" is a useful tool for bringing recent and important events into focus. Six key steps, including emotion, description, analysis, conclusion, action plan, and assessment are the elements that are important to this model's success. This model is very applicable for contemplating a wide range of circumstances (Torres, R.A. and Nyaga, 2021). This framework is especially useful for novices since it encourages them to start with the basics.

Description:The effects of the global pandemic on corporate processes and workplace management is the subject of recent research. The research aimed to examine how the global pandemic has led to the restructuring of workplace policies and processes for employees and workers. The research has been set with different objectives such as: a) to assess the satisfaction of the employees in the workplace in the pandemic era; b) to assess the impact of digital technologies in business management, communication, storage, and distribution in the global pandemic; c) to identify satisfaction level of the employees in the workplace during the pandemic and d) to analyze the motivation of workers during the pandemic

Feelings:The emotions of the authors and researchers are described in this phase of Gibbs' reflective cycle. As I started this study, my main goal as the researcher was to finish it on schedule (Yaacob et al., 2021). As such, I used a strict methodology to finish the research. At the start, I provided an overview of the study's goals, objectives, and justification. Having established my goals, I next did a literature study, developed techniques, gathered data, displayed and analyzed the data, and explained my findings.

Evaluation:At this phase of Gibbs' reflective cycle, the researcher/learner shares both positive and negative experiences. My professional experiences as a researcher in this study included both positive and negative moments. This research provided me with many valuable experiences. What I learned from this study was how to structure a research proposal, including how to articulate a problem statement, a rationale, and a set of goals (McCallum and Milner, 2021). Also, I picked up some skills in primary data research that will be useful in the future. I had a great time interviewing the subjects. Yet, I struggled to make head or tail of several research concepts, such as research philosophy and study design. I was also dismayed to see that several survey respondents clearly were not pleased to offer the requested information.

Analysis:This analysis is part of Gibbs' reflective cycle. I was able to get a lot out of my research since I initially produced draughts of each chapter. My manager then provided me with insightful criticism. The manager said I did a good job of keeping things current. Due to the study's adherence to scientific and methodical methodology, it provides reliable results. The survey has been considered as a part of the primary data collection process and their responses were sufficient for the study's purposes (Yaacob et al., 2021). This research has been judged to be valid and trustworthy.

Conclusion:This section of Gibb's reflective cycle discusses what more about the research should be improved. There are several ways in which this research might be enhanced. From the outset, the researcher could go on to learn how to create even better research methods. As a second point, the research might use the additional time for data collection and analysis. Finally, surveying a broader population would improve the reliability of the results. Although the researcher conducting the study had the option of using either a qualitative or quantitative approach, the present study chose both analysis methods. Books and scholarly publications are examples of the more reliable sources that might have been used for data collection.

Action plan

The above plan will help me in improving the areas where I have a weak grasp.

Area of focus Process Measure Time frame
Research skill Writing articles and reports on different topics Attending online assessment 6 months
Structuring content Reading the online article and research papers Writing online assessments and asking for feedback from professors 12 months
Improving keywords selection Analyzing dissertation papers Online assessments 10 months

Conclusion

It can be concluded that the use of both primary and secondary data has allowed the researcher to gain insightful and effective information regarding the topic. Real life observation and responses have been gathered by the researcher to analyze the research topic. It has been found that an alternate research methodology could have helped the researcher more effectively and efficiently. The connection between different variables of the research could be established clearly and concisely with the help of correlation predictive methodology. It has been found that there are certain limitations which have led to delay in the initiation of the research topic. The researcher's inability to offer peer-reviewed publications is seen as a barrier in the collection of secondary data because of the same lack of access. The findings also highlights that the inability to clearly and concisely illustrate the issue is a direct outcome of the individual's biased viewpoints and inaccurate data. Another disadvantage of the study is the time lost waiting for ethics form clearance before beginning to gather primary data.

References

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Aityan, S.K., (2022). Business Research Methodology: Research Process and Methods. Springer Nature.

Al-Ababneh, M.M., (2020). Linking ontology, epistemology, and research methodology. Science & Philosophy, 8(1), pp.75-91.

Bairagi, V. and Munot, M.V. eds., (2019. Research methodology: A practical and scientific approach. CRC Press.

Coy, M.J., (2019). Research methodologies: Increasing understanding of the world. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 9(1), pp.71-77.

De Costa, P.I., Crowther, D. and Maloney, J. eds., (2019). Investigating world Englishes: Research methodology and practical applications. Routledge.

Islam, M.R., Khan, N.A. and Baikady, R. eds., (2022). Principles of Social Research Methodology. Springer.

Machado, C. and Davim, J.P. eds., (2020). Research methodology in management and industrial engineering.

Maithya, P.M., Mukolwe, N.A. and Waka, M., (2019). Research methodology: concepts, procedures and practices.

Majid, I. and Kouser, S., (2020). Book review: DN Sansanwal, Research Methodology and Applied Statistics.

Mangla, N., (2021). Working in a pandemic and post-pandemic period–Cultural intelligence is the key. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 21(1), pp.53-69.

McCallum, S. and Milner, M.M., (2021). The effectiveness of formative assessment: student views and staff reflections. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 46(1), pp.1-16.

Mishra, S.B. and Alok, S., (2022). Handbook of research methodology.

Mishra, S.B. and Alok, S., (2022). Handbook of research methodology.

Mukherjee, S.P., (2019). A guide to research methodology: An overview of research problems, tasks and methods.

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Patel, M. and Patel, N., (2019). Exploring Research Methodology. International Journal of Research and Review, 6(3), pp.48-55.

Rafsanjani, M.A., Fitrayati, D., Andriansyah, E.H., Ghofur, M.A. and Prakoso, A.F., (2022). Development of Research Methodology Textbook Based-On Contextual Teaching and Learning. International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding, 8(12), pp.618-626.

Sharma, N., (2023). Book review: Socio-Legal Research: Theory and Methodology, PP Mitra.

Shifrin, N.V. and Michel, J.S., (2022). Flexible work arrangements and employee health: A meta-analytic review. Work & Stress, 36(1), pp.60-85.

Singh, K.K., (2022). Research Methodology in Social Science. KK Publications.

Soga, L.R., Bolade-Ogunfodun, Y., Mariani, M., Nasr, R. and Laker, B., (2022). Unmasking the other face of flexible working practices: A systematic literature review. Journal of Business Research, 142, pp.648-662.

Torres, R.A. and Nyaga, D., (2021). Critical research methodologies: ethics and responsibilities. Brill.

Yaacob, A., MohdAsraf, R., Hussain, R.M.R. and Ismail, S.N., (2021). Empowering Learners' Reflective Thinking through Collaborative Reflective Learning. International Journal of Instruction, 14(1), pp.709-726.

Yaacob, A., MohdAsraf, R., Hussain, R.M.R. and Ismail, S.N., (2021). Empowering Learners' Reflective Thinking through Collaborative Reflective Learning. International Journal of Instruction, 14(1), pp.709-726.

Yayici, E., (2021). Business Analysis Methodology Book.

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