5CO02 Evidenced-Based Practice Assignment

Evidence-based practice for organizational decision-making and assessing analysis tools to recognize and diagnose current and future issues.

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5CO02 Evidenced-based practice Assignment

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Task One- Report

AC 1.1 Provide evaluation of the concept of evidence-based practice and assess how evidence-based practice approaches can be used to provide insight in supporting sound decision-making and judgments for practitioners across a range of people practices and organisational issues.

According to Hume et al. (2021), evidence-based practice (EBP) is a methodical approach that uses the best available data, practitioner knowledge, and patient or stakeholder values to guide practise-related decisions. In addition to that, in a variety of fields such as healthcare, education, and human resources, EBP has gained popularity. Moreover, the use of EBP demands the use of multiple approaches, including critical thinking, group decision-making and the reasoning model, to enhance correct judgements and decision-making for practitioners across a range of people practises and organisational problems.

As it has stated in the report of Gonzalez et al. (2020), since critical thinking includes analysing information, assessing evidence, and reaching reasoned conclusions, it is a crucial component of EBP. This method enables practitioners to assess research findings critically and apply them effectively to their unique circumstances. In addition to that, critical thinking can also be used in the healthcare industry to assess the efficacy of various treatment choices for specific patients based on their unique requirements and circumstances. Moreover, critical thinking can also be used in human resources to assess the reliability and validity of various selection procedures for locating the best applicants for a position (Nuroh et al., 2020).

According to Shifaza and Hamiduzzaman (2019), another approach to implementing EBP is group decision-making. With this strategy, several stakeholders get together to debate and assess the evidence and reach a consensus on the best information. Moreover, in the field of education, a group of instructors may meet together to debate and assess various instructional practices using data from research and personal experience. A group of managers may get together to assess the efficacy of various leadership development programmes in organisational development using data from research and their views.

As has been seen in the paper of Alhawamdeh and Alsmairat (2019), the rational model is a structured approach to making decisions that include describing the problem, coming up with alternatives, evaluating them against criteria, and selecting the best option based on facts and moral standards. In addition to that, this approach might be used in the healthcare sector to guide the selection of the optimal course of action for a patient based on the information at hand and their values. In interference, using data and organisational goals, the reasoning model may be applied in human resources to guide the selection of the most effective training package.

Each of these tactics has benefits and drawbacks. According to Pinto (2022), critical thinking takes time and sometimes produces unclear findings. Collective decision-making may be impacted by collective dynamics, which might result in less-than-ideal choices (St-Cyr et al., 2023). The rational model might not always be appropriate or workable in complex or dynamic circumstances with little readily available information. Furthermore, when appropriately used, these strategies may aid practitioners facing several organisational challenges and people practises in reaching wise conclusions (Li et al., 2022).

AC 1.2 Provide evaluation of one appropriate analysis tool and one method that might be applied by organisations to recognise and diagnose current and future issues, challenges, and opportunities.

According to Khan and Al-Ghamdi (2022), the SWOT analysis is one analytical method that businesses may use to identify concerns, challenges, and opportunities both now and in the future. Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats are referred to as SWOT. To determine an organisation's strengths and weaknesses, as well as the opportunities and challenges it confronts, this analytical method entails looking at both its internal and external environments. The following is the application of SWOT Analysis:

  • Diagnose Organisational Issue: To determine the underlying causes of organisational issues, apply SWOT analysis. In application of SWOT analysis, it can assist pinpoint areas that require development by looking at an organisation's internal strengths and weaknesses (Mello et al., 2022).
  • Current or Future Issue (Legislation): To ascertain how prospective laws may affect a corporation, a SWOT analysis can be applied. In addition to that application, organisations can foresee and prepare for changes in the regulatory environment by looking at external dangers and opportunities (Tseng and Pilcher, 2022).
  • Challenges (New Competitors): SWOT analysis can also be used to find possible rivals and assess their advantages and disadvantages. In application to this analysis tool, it can assist businesses in creating competitive strategies to fend off burgeoning rivals (Wackowski et al., 2022).
  • Opportunities (Growth): An organisation's growth opportunities can be found through a SWOT analysis. In application to this SWOT analysis tool, a firm can find new markets or product lines to explore by looking at external prospects (Jain, Ajmera and Davim, 2022).

According to Quesado et al. (2022), organisations can diagnose organisational problems and difficulties by using the Balanced Scorecard method. A strategic management tool known as the Balanced Scorecard aids organisations in coordinating their strategy with their vision and purpose. The performance of an organisation is measured and tracked from four major angles: financial, customer, internal processes, and learning and growth. The following is the application of the Balanced Scorecard method:

  • Diagnose Organisational Issue: By comparing performance against strategic objectives, the Balanced Scorecard Method can also be used to identify organisational problems. In the application of this method, managers can determine which parts of the organisation need to be improved by looking at the performance of various divisions (Abdurrachman et al., 2022).
  • Current or Future Issue (Legislation): A company's exposure to present and potential regulation may be assessed using the Balanced Scorecard Method. In the application of this method, managers may predict and prepare for regulatory environment changes by comparing performance to strategic objectives (Gazi, Atlan and K?l?ç, 2022).
  • Challenges (New Competitors): A company's performance may be compared to that of its rivals using the balanced scorecard methodology. This Method can help Managers of an organisation to pinpoint areas where their company needs to make improvements to compete effectively by looking at performance measures like market share and customer happiness (Tandiawan, 2022).
  • Opportunities (Growth): An organisation can find possibilities for growth by using the balanced scorecard method. Managers can pinpoint areas where the organisation is functioning effectively and where it may take advantage of opportunities by comparing performance to strategic objectives (Mio, Costantini and Panfilo, 2022).

AC 1.3 Explain the main principles of critical thinking and describe how these might apply to individual and work colleagues’ ideas to assist objective and rational debate.

According to Fitriani et al. (2022), critical thinking is the process of making meaning of knowledge via analysis, appraisal, and interpretation. It requires contesting assumptions, considering the truth, and judging the strength of arguments. Critical thinking calls for retaining impartiality, an open mind, and a logical cognitive process when examining material.

The main principles of critical thinking are:

  • Questioning Assumptions: Questioning the presumptions that underlie arguments, ideas, and theories is a key component of critical thinking (Stoten, 2022). Individuals need to be aware as well as consider all facts and avoid accepting anything at face value.
  • Considering Evidence: Critical thinkers must assess the accuracy of the sources and the relevance of the data to the problem at hand (O'Reilly, Devitt, and Hayes, 2022).
  • Assessing Validity of Arguments: According to Cottrell (2023), the supporting facts as well as logic, and premises of arguments is the most important functions of the critical thinking process. To do this, individuals must be able to spot logical fallacies and inaccuracies.
  • Remaining Objective: When analysing material, critical thinkers must maintain objectivity and impartiality. They must stay away from any prejudices and feelings that can colour their judgement (Lupetti and Van Mechelen, 2022).
  • Applying Logical Reasoning: Applying logic to information analysis and decision-making entails critical thinking. To do this, individuals must be able to see linkages between causes and effects, assess the persuasiveness of arguments, and reach reliable judgements (Ridwan, Retnawati and Hadi, 2022).

To apply the following principles to individual's and work colleague's ideas, individuals can encourage objective and rational debate by:

  • Encouraging Open Discussion: Individuals should encourage open dialogue even if they disagree with the views expressed. This allows for the consideration of many different points of view and might enhance decision-making (Flensner and Von der Lippe, 2019).
  • Presenting and Checking Facts and Data: Individuals should back up their assertions with proof and confirm the accuracy and reliability of other people's information (Campbell et al., 2020).
  • Remaining Objective In approach and Presentation: Individuals should maintain objectivity in their strategy and delivery, avoiding personal prejudices and emotions that might skew their judgement (Köchling and Wehner, 2020).
  • Providing Evidence, not Emotion: Instead of relying on their feelings or personal beliefs, individuals should back up their claims with evidence (Ecker et al., 2022).

To apply these principles to the work of others, individuals should:

  • Be aware of Author’s Credibility: Individuals should take their credentials, subject matter knowledge and experience into account when judging an author's credibility (Flanigan, 2022).
  • Check their Claims: Individuals should examine the offered data, determine whether it applies to the topic at hand, and then confirm the writers' claims (Berman and Silver, 2022).
  • Present Fact, Not Opinion: Individuals should give facts rather than opinions while assessing the merits of another person's work. They should put aside whatever biases they may have and remain objective as they assess the viability of arguments (Alexander, 2023).

AC 1.4 Explain a range of decision-making processes that can be applied to ensure that effective outcomes are achieved.

There are various significant decision-making tools as well as approaches that can also be used to ensure effective results. In addition to that, the following are the three main approaches with the explanation as well as how they can be applied to address the issue of high staff turnover or skills gaps:

  • De Bono Six Hats: As it has been stated in the report of Roberts et al. (2019), this strategy is looking at a topic from various angles while wearing six different hats, each of which represents a different method of thinking. White represents factual knowledge, red represents emotions, black represents critical thought, yellow represents optimistic thinking, green represents creative thinking and blue represents blue hat. (thinking about thinking). In addition to that, one may obtain a deeper knowledge of the problem and create more potent remedies by looking at the problem of excessive employee turnover or skills shortages from each of these angles. For instance, by employing the black hat, one might devise methods to address the problem sore causes after rigorously evaluating them.
  • Best Fit: As it has been seen in the paper of Karam et al. (2020), with this strategy, the optimal fit between an employee's abilities and characteristics and the organisation's needs is determined. One can evaluate the skills and qualities of present workers and compare them to the skills and attributes required to fill essential jobs to use this strategy to solve excessive staff turnover or skills shortages. In addition to that, one may create targeted training and development programmes to assist people in acquiring the skills required to succeed in their professions by identifying areas where there is a skills gap.
  • Future Pacing: As has been noticed in the report of Rakhmonkulov and Usarov (2019), this method involves visualising a future situation first, then working backwards from there to establish the actions necessary to realise it. Determine the measures required to get there by working backwards from a future state in which the organisation has a dependable and qualified team. In interference, to solve significant staff turnover or a talent deficit, trying this particular strategy can be beneficial. In addition to that, this can also entail enhancing staff engagement and retention tactics, providing opportunities for training and development, and improving the hiring process.

Overall, each of these techniques and resources can be used to address the issue of high employee turnover or a lack of qualified workers. By considering the issue from several perspectives, selecting the people and business that are the greatest fits, and picturing a potential outcome, one may create more effective solutions to the issue and ensure effective results.

AC 1.5 Assess a range of different ethical theories and perspectives and explain how an understanding of these can be used to inform and influence moral decision-making.

As has been seen in the report of Holmes (2023), ethics theories offer recommendations for selecting moral behaviour. They may be applied to decision-making in several settings, including the workplace, to educate and sway it. In the following analysis, two ethical systems—utilitarianism and communitarianism—will be compared and contrasted along with their potential effects on judgement.

  • Utilitarianism: According to Agarwal and Pareek (2022), the ethical theory of utilitarianism, the ideal path of action is the one that maximises total pleasure or happiness and minimises overall suffering. Since utilitarianism is a consequentialist philosophy, it is more interested in the results of decisions than in the motivations behind them. Applying utilitarianism in the workplace involves taking into account how a choice will affect all parties involved, including coworkers, clients, shareholders, and the larger society. For instance, a business could decide to spend more money on ecologically friendly practices even if doing so would cost more since doing so will benefit society as a whole and increase pleasure.
  • Communitarianism: As it has been stated in the report of Vuong (2022), a moral philosophy known as communitarianism prioritises the community and the common good over individual liberties and rights. Individuals have a moral obligation to support their community's well-being and act in ways that advance the common good, according to communitarians. Employers can practise communitarianism by putting the demands of their staff, clients, and the community at large ahead of those of their shareholders or particular management. For instance, a business could decide to pay its workers a decent wage even if doing so lowers earnings since doing so will benefit the neighbourhood as a whole.

AC 3.1 Appraise different ways and approaches organisations can take to measure financial and non-financial performance.

According to Melovi? et al. (2021), different metrics are used by organisations to assess both their financial and non-financial performance. The study will analyse one monetary metric, net profit, and one non-monetary metric, customer happiness, in this response and show what they can and cannot be used to assess.

The amount of money that a business produces after covering all of its expenses is indicated by its net profit. It is an essential indicator of the stability and profitability of a company's finances. However, net profit does not provide insight into the company's liquidity or ability to meet short-term obligations (Phalippou, 2020).

A non-financial indicator called customer satisfaction measures how happy consumers are with a company's goods or services. Typically, questionnaires, feedback forms, or online reviews are used to quantify it. For businesses to sustain client loyalty and retention, boost revenue, and enhance their brand, high customer satisfaction is essential. Customer pleasure does not, however, by itself reveal the financial performance of the business (Tulcanaza-Prieto et al., 2020).

For instance, a business may examine its financial success using net profit and its ability to satisfy consumers using customer satisfaction surveys. A business can find areas for improvement and create plans to increase overall performance by combining several indicators.

AC 3.2 Explain how people practices add value in an organisation and identify a range of methods that might be used to measure the impact of a range of people practises

According to Anwar and Abdullah (2021), organisations need people to practise properly managing their workforce and boosting productivity. Important ideas concerning people's practices include impact and value. Impact and value both relate to how a people's practice affects an organisation, whereas benefits are the advantages a people's practice offers the organisation.

As has been stated in the report of Chanana (2021), programs that encourage employee engagement and talent development are two examples of how people's practices may benefit a company. In addition to that, initiatives to cultivate talent may benefit firms by producing competent workers who will boost output, improve employee engagement, and lower turnover. Programs for increasing employee engagement may boost morale and job satisfaction, which can boost output, lower absenteeism, and boost staff retention rates (Riyanto, Endri and Herlisha, 2021).

Organisations can use a variety of techniques, such as ROI and cost-benefit analysis, to evaluate the effects of people's practices. Cost-benefit analysis helps organisations decide if a people's practice is financially sustainable and adds value to the organisation by weighing the costs of that practice against its advantages. It is possible to estimate the financial advantages of a people's practice by evaluating the return on investment (ROI) (Hu et al., 2020).

Task 2

AC 2.1 With reference to a people practice issue, interpret analytical data using appropriate analysis tools and methods.

Identifying and controlling people's practises problems within an organisation necessitates the evaluation of analytical data through the use of appropriate analysis tools. The data from Tables 1 and 2 will be analysed using appropriate analysis techniques to get insights about people's practising issues.

Table 1 contains information on employee absences that may be analysed using a variety of analytical tools such as Excel functions and statistical measurements. Trend analysis, for example, may be used to uncover trends and variations in absence rates across departments. According to the trend study, the HR department had the most days lost due to absence, while the Marketing department had the fewest. This data can assist organisations in identifying departments that require further attention to minimise absence levels and developing plans to address this issue (Daw and Hatfield, 2018). Furthermore, utilising percentages to analyse absence by type reveals that sickness is the most prevalent reason for absence, accounting for 80% of overall absences.

According to San Juan et al. (2021), this emphasises the importance of organisations focusing on employee health and well-being. A comparison of the absence rate between male and female employees can be performed to analyse absence by gender. According to the findings in the table, female employees had a somewhat greater incidence of absence than male employees, suggesting that female employees may require more assistance in managing their health and wellness. Furthermore, utilising proper analytical tools such as Excel formula to calculate the total days missed due to absence (5,450) and the yearly expenses of absence ($1,287,800) this data is based on the total of the 37-hour week gives useful insights into the financial impact of employee absence. This data may be used to devise measures to mitigate the financial impact of absence.

AC 2.2 Present the findings for stakeholders from people practice activities and initiatives

Table 1 shows employee absence data, and analysis utilising relevant tools such as Excel functions and statistical measures revealed significant tendencies across departments. The HR department lost the most days due to absenteeism, while the Marketing department lost the least. According to the examination of absence by type, sickness was the most prevalent reason for absence, followed by personal reasons. The absence rates did not differ significantly across genders. Using proper analysis tools such as Excel formula to calculate the total days lost owing to absence and the related expenses, the organisation lost a total of 5,450 days due to absence, costing the organisation $1,287,800 based on a 37-hour week.

Table 2 shows employee feedback scores on their manager's people practise, and research utilising relevant methods including statistical measurements and data visualisation approaches revealed numerous critical findings. The manager was adept at establishing clear work objectives, recognising good performance, and effectively communicating. However, there is space for development in areas such as promoting work-life balance, offering helpful advice, and enforcing regulations fairly and consistently.

AC 2.3 Make justified recommendations based on evaluation of the benefits, risks and financial implications of potential solutions

Following an examination of Tables 1 and 2, two firm suggestions may be made to solve people's practise concerns inside the organisation. The first suggestion is to put in place an absence management plan. According to Table 1, the HR department had the most days lost due to absence, which can have a substantial influence on the organisation's the production and employee well-being. As a result, establishing an absence management plan may be an effective way to minimise absence levels while also promoting employee well-being.

To implement an absence management strategy, the organisation can take steps such as providing employees with health and wellness programmes, implementing flexible work arrangements, developing policies and procedures for effectively managing absence, providing managers with training and support, and conducting regular reviews of absence data to identify patterns and trends. These strategies can aid in lowering absenteeism, improving employee health and well-being, increasing productivity and job satisfaction, and enhancing organisational reputation and employee engagement (Shanafelt et al., 2019). However, there may be certain dangers to implementing an absence management approach, such as potential legal ramifications if absence management rules are not maintained properly. There may also be indirect expenses connected with implementing an absence management plan, such as the cost of establishing health and wellness programmes or offering flexible work arrangements.

As suggested by Mohanty et al. (2019), is to create a managerial training programme. Table 2 analysis revealed that, while the manager was skilled at setting clear work targets, recognising good performance, and effectively communicating, there was room for improvement in areas such as supporting work-life balance, providing supportive advice, and applying policies fairly and consistently. As a result, implementing a management training programme may be an effective answer for improving people's practises and manager performance. Modules such as work-life balance, helpful guidance, and policy implementation may be included in the training programme. Providing managers with the skills and knowledge to help their team members achieve work-life balance, offer supportive advice on personal or work-related issues, and understand the organisation's policies and procedures and how to apply them fairly and consistently can help improve people practises and employee satisfaction, enhance the organisational reputation and employee engagement, and improve work productivity and performance (Irfan et al., 2023).

However, there are inherent hazards to implementing a managerial training programme. There may be expenses connected with planning and delivering the programme, for example, and there is a possibility that the management may be resistant to the training programme, resulting in resistance and unsuccessful implementation. To handle the possible hazards connected with these suggestions, it is critical to thoroughly analyse each recommendation's reasoning, advantages, risks, and financial consequences. Implementing an absence management plan, for example, can result in lower absence levels and costs, greater employee health and well-being, higher productivity and job satisfaction, and improved organisational reputation and employee engagement (Abolnasser et al., 2023). However, there may be unintended consequences to implementing an absence management approach, such as the expense of introducing health and wellness programmes or offering flexible work arrangements.

Similarly, implementing a managerial training programme may lead to better people practises and employee contentment, a stronger organisational reputation and staff engagement, and increased work productivity and performance (Malhotra and Pachauri, 2023). However, there may be expenses connected with planning and delivering the programme, and there is a danger that the manager may be resistant to the training programme, resulting in resistance and unsuccessful implementation.

References

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Task 2

Abolnasser, M.S.A., Abdou, A.H., Hassan, T.H. and Salem, A.E., 2023. Transformational Leadership, Employee Engagement, Job Satisfaction, and Psychological Well-Being among Hotel Employees after the Height of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Serial Mediation Model. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 20(4), p.3609.

Daw, J.R. and Hatfield, L.A., 2018. Matching and regression to the mean in difference?in?differences analysis. Health services research, 53(6), pp.4138-4156.

Irfan, M., Khalid, R.A., Kaka Khel, S.S.U.H., Maqsoom, A. and Sherani, I.K., 2023. Impact of work–life balance with the role of organizational support and job burnout on project performance. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 30(1), pp.154-171.

Malhotra, Y. and Pachauri, V., 2023. Employee Engagement in ESG Practices: A Way to Sustainability. Digital Disruption and Environmental, Social & Governance, p.34.

Mohanty, P.C., Dash, M., Dash, M. and Das, S., 2019. A study on factors influencing training effectiveness. Revista Espacios, 40, pp.7-15.

San Juan, N.V., Aceituno, D., Djellouli, N., Sumray, K., Regenold, N., Syversen, A., Symmons, S.M., Dowrick, A., Mitchinson, L., Singleton, G. and Vindrola-Padros, C., 2021. Mental health and well-being of healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK: contrasting guidelines with experiences in practice. BJPsych Open, 7(1), p.e15.

Shanafelt, T., Trockel, M., Ripp, J., Murphy, M.L., Sandborg, C. and Bohman, B., 2019. Building a program on well-being: key design considerations to meet the unique needs of each organization. Academic Medicine, 94(2), pp.156-161.

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