Introduction of Analysing Organization Culture And Behaviour At BBC
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The BBC is an example of an organization whose culture and qualities have undergone a substantial transformation during the last several years. With reference to relevant cultural and motivational theories/models, we looked at a number of different aspects of BBC's corporate culture.
The Smith Review is a window into the BBC's corporate culture, and it is a fascinating read. It is clear, however, from the data that the culture of BBC has undergone significant transformations, and the current culture is unique from the former one. Understanding Handy's Cultural Typology is essential to understanding the organizational culture of a corporation, since this organizational performance model may be considered as one of the cultural standards in the network's cultural structure. In Charles Handy's opinion, there seem to be four fundamental styles of culture that are embraced by most companies (Miner, 2015). These four separate civilizations are:
A small number of employees in a power culture can only enjoy positional power. Those in this position are vested with authority to make important choices. These employees are regarded as the most fortunate in the workplace (Dempsey, 2015). In addition, these authorized authorities are tasked with assigning new job titles and tasks to existing personnel. Employees are not allowed to share their opinions in this work environment.
The term "task culture" refers to an organizational culture oriented on the success of the team. The structure of a team is designed so that it can fulfill its objectives or deal with the most urgent problems (Denhardt and Catlaw, 2014). Participants or workers of the business have the chance to contribute equally in order to fulfill the given duties in an inventive way under this kind of culture.
The value of workers is emphasized in a business that follows the paradigm of a person culture (Cummings and Worley, 2014). Individual profit is more important than the good of the company in such a culture.
"Role culture" is a term used to describe an environment in which workers are given certain tasks to complete inside the company. In this culture, the workers have the freedom to choose what they can accomplish best and embrace challenges based on their chosen job responsibilities. These assigned tasks are based on the individuals' specialty and educational qualifications (Bellamy et al, 2016).
Previously, the BBC had followed a bureaucratic approach, which is related to the power culture, until Dyke took over the institution. Due to this model's focus on efficiency, the company was unable to manage its operations effectively, since rigorous regulations and codes of behavior for workers were imposed on the workforce. Under the rule of this culture, workers lacked sufficient opportunities to voice their opinions and concerns about the company's problems (Barrick et al, 2013). People were compelled to obey the same rule regardless of their own ability since the rules were not tailored to each person. As a result of this cultural paradigm, employees with creative ideas were also unable to voice their thoughts and ideas.
During Dyke's time in command, the BBC introduced a new set of policies and practices. McKinsey's 7 S model and the Rational Goal Model have been used to increase organizational profitability and benefit (Pinder, 2014).
Unlike bureaucratic management, clan control is based on cultural values. When it comes to employee behavior, clan control is a great way to get things done. It works well with values, beliefs, and company culture. Organizational objectives may also be achieved using the rational goal model, which has shown to be a useful tool.
Managerial procedures, such as managing, decision making, and budgeting, have become more efficient because to BBC's adoption of a new management process model. By using a model like this, you may examine the organization's long-term viability and find effective methods of dealing with its problems.
An external power and political environment in the UK has had an impact on corporate culture at BBC. The country's political climate has had an impact on the organization's cultural norms and organizational culture models. In response to Brexit, and in light of the present political climate, the company's culture has been modified.
The BBC's management team has been reshuffled because of changes in the country's political landscape. Helen Broaden infused the company's culture with a new theme in an effort to spur innovation across the enterprise. Jane Root, one of the BBC's top program directors, pioneered the idea of interacting with viewers on a personal level. To be more specific, Jerry Timmings offered and documented improved ideas for improving the interaction between the personnel in the company when it came to the culture of the business. The bureaucratic approach to the organization's structure underwent significant alteration as well. The organization's hierarchical structure subsequently changed into a clan-controlled organization.
Each of the three components, culture, power, and politics, has a different effect on the BBC's conduct. It has had an impact on the organization's entire decision-making approach. It has an impact on how company personnel interact with both consumers and other individuals associated with the company. The company's total output has changed as a result of cultural, power, and political influences. By enabling staff to work in a nicer atmosphere, BBC's usage of electricity has had a positive impact on the company's overall productivity. BBC's organizational behavior has been influenced in both good and bad ways by these elements. A new compensation system that compensates workers depending on how well the firm performs, as well as the selection of some employees to serve as managers, has been made possible by the corporation's reliance on political and power-based means. Because of authorities misusing authority, the company's workers have been subjected to a vicious cycle of power abuse. The BBC's business strategies have been impacted by the country's existing political framework, which the BBC has incorporated into its commercial practices. The company's production has increased as a result of this policy change, but it has also resulted in personnel engaging in unethical acts.
The BBC's past working culture mirrored a power culture, but the current working culture represents a working culture following a series of issues. BBC's transition from a culture of power to a culture of labor has not been smooth. The company's structure and culture have undergone substantial transformations. Significant alterations have been made to the internal structure. In the past, it had a bureaucratic organization. Changes in the company's functional organization were made as well.
Employee motivation may be described as the practice of emulating a company's workers in order to accomplish its objectives. Employee motivation, as used in organizations, may be described as the act of raising the desire, need, or drive to complete a certain project among a group of individuals. Business operations run more smoothly and efficiently as a result.
In the study of motivation, theories of motivation have been divided into two broad categories: content and process.
An individual's capacity to motivate, guide, maintain, or terminate their conduct is the major emphasis of content theory. These theories concentrate on the regions that need motivation by focusing on the requirements of the particular individuals and taking these needs into consideration (ARCHER, 2013). Theories of content emphasize the importance of meeting the specific requirements of workers, which necessitates first understanding such needs.
Management assumptions (Theory X and Theory Y): As part of his Management Assumptions Theory, Douglas McGregor expanded on Abraham Maslow's motivation theory. Management in accordance with this notion assumes workers’ requirements. Managers tend to fall into one of the two groups that have been defined.
Managers that adhere to Theory X, which is founded on the following assumptions, have adopted the prevailing management approach.
- Humans, by their very nature, prefer not to be burdened with extra effort.
- Most individuals need to be managed, directed, or threatened with punishment in order to put out appropriate effort in the workplace.
- As a general rule, the majority of workers prefer to be told what to do rather than take on any responsibility themselves.
Along with the implementation of this technique, McGregor emphasized the genuine demands of the employees that are frequently misread by the managers and in opposition to the previous theory; he suggested another theory that is known as theory Y.
Theory Y is essentially opposite to Theory X and it is based on two assumptions:
- Working is a normal part of life, and it is just like relaxing or playing. It is impossible to increase a workforce's productivity by using punishment and external management.
- In order to achieve their objectives, people are more inclined to exercise self-control and self-direction.
- Third, the capacity of the ordinary employee to learn is dependent on the correct settings.
- The ability of workers is not fully explored in the majority of firms.
Theory Y, according to McGregor, not only fulfills the demands of the company, but also those of its workers. Aside from meeting Maslow's Deficiency requirements, Theory X only has the accreditation to address the development needs of workers, he claimed.
Most process theories concentrate on giving descriptions and analyses of the process that may be followed to energize, maintain, direct and halt. The most common conceptions of process are:
- Reinforcement and goal setting theories
Employees' conduct is fueled by process ideas. BF Skinner's work is often related with reinforcement theories. According to him, the conduct of an individual is impacted by the consequences of his or her actions. Operants in this theory relate to the outcomes (Soltaniet al, 2014).
- Expectancy and equity theories
Focuses on how likely it is that a person will succeed or fail. Because it places an emphasis on human conduct, this theory holds that a person determines whether or not a task can be completed, whether or not the result can be considered an outcome of performance, and whether or not the conclusion is desirable or not (Soltani et al, 2014).
OBM or Organizational Behavioral Management studied conditions the scientific method over the behavioral model's behavioral model as part of process theories. It is generally agreed upon that the deployment of OBM has had a significant beneficial impact on both organizational behavior and employee behavior.
There were several complaints from BBC staff during the Big Conversation in May of 2003 about boss harassment and bullying. According to the workers, the administration of the firm has bullied them rather than managed them. The BBC had competent leaders, but the number of leaders was insufficient to manage such a large corporation, according to talks (Pinder, 2014). Because BBC is such a large business, it is critical to pay attention to the requirements of its workers so that they may be appropriately motivated.
The lack of collaboration in the company was due to the bureaucratic administration, and it needed to be given the attention it deserved. Employees in a bureaucratic environment are unable to work together as a team. Supervisory conduct and concern for employees have been addressed in an effort to boost team spirit, group loyalty, and team spirit.
Individual productivity has a knock-on effect on the bottom line of the business. This has given the staff a chance to build confidence, trust, and communication. Both ideas may be used to motivate workers to attain their own personal objectives (Pinder, 2014). According to content theories, it's critical to figure out what your workers want and need so that you can provide them what they want. Several workers have been harassed and tormented, thus it's critical that the company offer health and safety protections for them. Providing workers with a sense of security about their health and safety may inspire them to do their best work.
Employees might be encouraged to work harder by offering them financial incentives. Incentives and bonuses are often used as incentives to motivate employees. These kind of incentives may be critical in spurring staff to higher levels of performance.
There are a number of ways in which management may encourage employees to operate more successfully as part of a team. Employees' ability to perform at their best is directly linked to their level of motivation. According to the assessments, there was a lack of collaboration in the company, and the team's performance and results had not been sufficient in the past. So it's crucial to incentivize your workers to communicate more and stress the significance of doing so as part of a cohesive unit.
Other motivating principles employed by BBC include Maslow's Hierarchy of needs, the two-factor theory, and a few more. Because of this, teams have been able to become more effective. When these components are present, the workplace atmosphere is very inspiring for workers, enabling them to provide their best effort in the firm. Better results from the team as a whole are a testament to the cohesiveness of the group. The BBC has clearly benefited from the application of these ideas in order to motivate its personnel to perform more effectively.
BBC has used a behavioral model and OBM or Organizational Behavior Modification in order to increase the productivity of its staff. Organizations use the behavioral model to increase communication between managers and subordinates so that they may better understand the demands of their workers. To improve individual performance, it is essential to assess the workers' motivating requirements. Organizational productivity may be boosted by improving individual performance.
It is OBM's goal to improve the organizational code of conduct so that it meets the demands of its workers. OBM has played a significant role in improving the working conditions at BBC while also changing the culture of bureaucratic authority.
Increased motivation for the accomplishment of organizational objectives
The success of a business may be aided by an increased degree of employee motivation. The success of the BBC may be ensured if its personnel are driven in the proper way. An engaged worker is more productive, which benefits the business as a whole. One of the fundamental components of an organization's success is having happy workers, and motivation plays a significant part in this.
Organizational success depends heavily on the level of employee involvement. It is a sign of a high degree of employee engagement when staff members show a greater dedication to the company's aims than they do to their own careers and personal interests. Additionally, changing the workplace culture model has a positive effect on worker engagement. Using a new cultural paradigm that is more employee-friendly and puts a greater importance on the responsibilities done by employees, individuals feel more connected to the firm and more like a part of it (Lazaroiu, 2015). The conduct of workers may be significantly influenced by improving management visibility, recognizing outstanding performance, and collaborating with the authoritarian body in a consistent manner. When teams work together and operational procedures are simplified, this has a tremendous beneficial influence on the corporate culture. Because of their involvement and employee happiness, the productivity of the workers is also increased (Lazaroiu, 2015). As a result, they are more committed to their job, which leads to greater productivity for the business as a whole.
For one, BBC seeks to bring in individuals from diverse cultures to work together in the same office. In order to attain these and other corporate objectives of BBC, numerous motivational theories like the usage of two component theory or Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs might be used. The corporation will be able to supply its workers with a variety of methods for fostering greater collaboration and coordination among its various employees thanks to these theories.
Functional, project-based, problem-solving, and virtual groups are all sorts of groups found at the BBC. Following is an explanation of their significance.
Functional team: The term "functional team" refers to a group of workers who have a shared functional competence and operate together. Employees and management alike have common goals at BBC, and this is reflected in the company's mission statement. The operational capability of a functional team may be easily seen since experts with common cutoff points and data are constructed by limitations performed. Thus, each authority may operate independently, with affiliation serving as the driving force behind cross correspondence across the various functional areas.
Problem solving team: The teams at BBC are all working toward the same end objective, but the tasks assigned to the members of each team are distinct from one another. It's the job of these individuals to fix the different difficulties that are occurring in the company's activities and operations.
Project team: A project team may be described as a collection of employees from several BBC departments and roles who work together on a variety of different projects. These members are then assigned a variety of responsibilities to do. In order to meet the demands of the company, these duties are part of the same project. BBC management has once again divided the staff into several sub-teams depending on the project's requirements. These teams are only in place for a brief period until new ones replace them. After completing the project, the organization threatens to leave.
Virtual team: The BBC is made up of several teams, all of which are scattered around the organization. As a collection of people who work for the same company, these teams might be described as such. There are a number of projects in which the company's personnel are spread out around the globe, yet they all work together on the same project. The members of this team use a variety of methods to connect with each other, including email, facsimile, and conferencing services. It has done this way in order to work with others in the same group.
Teams like this are critical to the BBC because they enable the firm to get better ideas and a higher standard of work since its workers are able to work effectively even under adverse conditions. The BBC uses a variety of team structures to ensure that the team is successfully grouped. It aids in the growth of the company in terms of profits and other factors.
The numerous team theories accessible in the commercial sector may be used to explain an efficient team in BBC. Tuckman's Theory of Group Development is one such theory (Lehmann-Willenbrock, 2017). This hypothesis is based on a number of different phases. The Tuckman theory's steps for building a group are outlined in the following sections.
Forming: It is common practice at the BBC to employ the Tuckman theory to construct the first group of team members, since this is the first stage in the development of Tuckman's theory. In both theory and practice, this is the earliest stage of team development. It is common for workers to work hard to discover their place in the business during this period or stage. Based on the group's size and evaluation of their requirements and desires, this workplace placement is determined.
Storming: BBC has begun implementing the second step of Tuckman's theory in its daily operations. Participants in this round attempt to form a cohesive BBC squad by competing against one another. Members and leaders of a given team also compete on a number of topics related to the team's organizational structure and working practices.
Norming: According to Tuckman's idea, the team members collect data on the current state of the procedures and rules that are being developed in this stage.
Performing: Synchrony among the BBC team members is maintained at this point in the theory, as the team members begin working on their responsibilities and forming a bond with one other (Gabelica et al, 2016).
Employee productivity will rise because of this theory's implementation, thanks to the positive effects on leadership roles, enhanced teamwork, and personal growth that it has on the company's workforce. These alterations in the workforce will have a greater impact on the company's ability to function cohesively as a unit.
Using Tuckman's theory effectively will help the BBC establish a successful team since team members will get instruction in the right form. Thus, the theory will be effective because team members will identify difficulties, and managers or leadership of the team will steer them in accordance with the theory process, resulting in a higher BBC performance.
Improved efficiency and effectiveness of BBC teams with the use of path goal theory
Using route goal theory in the BBC implies that the team's performance is critical to the organization's success. Because of the BBC's reliance on a route goal theory grounded on employee behavior and the corporate setting, this has happened. The aims of the organizations may be achieved with the aid of this philosophy in the workplace. Information like this aims to increase employee motivation, empower them, and improves their work-life balance so that they can be more productive and help the company develop (Konradt et al, 2015).
An organization's objectives may be achieved using path goal theory, which is a theory that specifies the style and conduct of an organization's leader in order to reach those goals. Leaders are chosen based on their ability to best meet the requirements of their teams via a selection process. Goal setting theory may be used in conjunction with this theory to achieve success.
Using situational leadership in order to understand the team's performance and progress is a great way to get insight into the nature of the team's goals and maturity level. It is clear that a study of leadership theory is required to fully appreciate the importance of situational leadership. The four leadership styles are the foundation of the situational leadership philosophy. The following are examples of these styles:
- Telling: In this type of leadership, the leader informs others what must be done and why.
- Selling: This kind of selling involves leaders delivering thoughts and messages to their subordinates for them to assess and then introducing that process into the group.
- Participating: Leaders that let their followers to participate actively in the decision-making process help them to better express their ideas and opinions.
- Delegating: In this method, leaders are not engaged in decision-making but instead let their subordinates make the final call.
A team's ability to accomplish the company's objectives depends on its leaders' ability to apply this leadership style effectively. That is because situational leadership includes a variety of leadership styles that may be used to assess how well a team is functioning together. Leaders will be better able to understand their employees' particular personalities and how those quirks impact the company's operations by using this leadership style to communicate with their teams in a way that takes into account how the team is currently functioning (Ruch et al, 2018). There will be a greater grasp of the methods that can be used to address the challenges that are present in both the organization and the team by using this leadership philosophy.
Main barriers to effective performance within BBC
When it comes to employee performance at the BBC, good teamwork theory and ongoing collaboration are two of the biggest roadblocks. It is critical for every business to maintain the integrity of problems pertaining to workers and their interactions with the firm. However, the BBC's performance is negatively impacted by managers incompetence (Martin et al, 2017). The culture of a firm, the company's culture, the company's poor communication, and incorrect client feedback are a few other obstacles to overcome. The multiple challenges faced by BBC's teams because of the company's diverse workforce will have an impact on their performance.
The effective information system, which may have a considerable influence, is a further aspect of the notion and theory of organizational culture. The organization's existence is influenced by a variety of factors, including social structure, ideals, and a shared interest. A network framework is a company's exterior interactions with customers, suppliers, and other stakeholders. It might be either casual or formal. Organizations' attitudes and convictions were influenced by these social systems. Social class and human preferences influence the activity. The core values of a company are ethics (Geppert and Dörrenbächer, 2014). Ryanair adheres to social and ethical standards in all aspects of its business, including its employees' convictions, integrity, and professionalism, as well as the rigidity of its customers' demands. Bonuses have also been included to the company's code of ethics for exceptional ethical behavior. Employees' and organizations' shared awareness is the primary advantage of the shared benefit. Behaviour is influenced by one's level of interest in one's job. In the case of Ryanair, the company confronted a large number of issues relating to a common understanding across employees and organizations. There may be both good and bad outcomes as a result of mutual interest (Pettigrew, 2014).
This discussion has proved the importance of understanding and influencing the behavior and motivation of employees in the workplace. For example, BBC, which encouraged pleasant behaviour among teams and employees, provided a healthy organizational culture. Organizational power and politics have a significant impact on the conduct of others and the performance of both individuals and organizations. Theories of motivation like Theory X and Y and Porter-Larlow models are used to define the kind of motivation that the company employs, as well. The Company's excellent teamwork has been acknowledged, but certain features of inadequate teamwork have also been found. Using numerous motivating ideologies, it is obvious that the company's objectives may be achieved via the inspiration of its employees to accomplish their best job.
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