Analysis Of Insurance Service Centre Case Study Sample

Analysis Of Insurance Service Centre Case Study

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Topic 1: Training and Learning

1. Introduction Of Analysis Of Insurance Service Centre

Training and Learning is one of the most fundamental subjects while comprehending the essentiality of providing the adequate and sufficient training to the employees of any organisation (Field, 2020). Similarly, in the case of Insurance Service Centre, it is also an important component. In this particular section, the report shall commence the introduction of the subject matter of Training and Learning and expound on its structure and intricacies. Our goal is to assess the effectiveness of the training and learning provided at the Insurance Service Centre and identify the obstacles and challenges that the company faces. This segment will offer an insight into why Training and Learning is a crucial topic to discuss and why it is indispensable for the Insurance Service Centre to allocate resources towards it.

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1.1 Background of the Case Study

The illustration presented is centred on the difficulties encountered by the Insurance Service Centre in dispensing ample instruction and educational opportunities to its staff members. The organisation was confronted with dilemmas involving substandard output, elevated employee attrition, and discontented customers. In an effort to resolve these quandaries, the establishment executed a plethora of instructional and educational undertakings. However, the efficacy of these initiatives was brought into question, and the establishment failed to realise the desired consequences. Hence, it is of paramount importance to scrutinize the context of the case study to comprehend the rationale as to why education and training are pivotal subjects to contemplate. Competent instruction and education have the potential to enable entities to enhance employee output, curtail attrition, and amplify customer gratification, all of which are fundamental components to the prosperity of any enterprise.

2. Evaluation of Training and Learning at Work in Insurance Service Centre

The Insurance Service Centre is deeply devoted to equipping its workforce with the essential competencies and knowledge to enable them to perform their duties effectively. The institution provides an assortment of training programmes, namely induction, technical, and soft skills training.

Induction training programmes are carefully crafted to familiarize new employees with the organisation’s culture, policies, regulations, as well as their roles and responsibilities (Agbo, 2020). Technical training, on the other hand, aims to equip employees with the requisite technical know-how to execute their job duties effectively. Soft skills training focuses on improving communication, teamwork, and customer service skills amongst the staff.

It is indicated by Attri (2019) that various pedagogical techniques are employed by the Insurance Service Centre, including on-the-job training, e-learning, classroom training, and mentoring. The method of on-the-job training is extremely efficacious in enabling employees to acquire knowledge through practical experience, while e-learning presents itself as a cost-efficient and convenient way to disseminate training materials to employees. Classroom training, conducted by proficient experts in the subject matter, is utilised for technical training (Kholifah et al., 2020). Mentoring, on the other hand, serves as a platform to provide workers with necessary guidance and support to elevate their abilities and knowledge.

Even after multiple training and learning opportunities offered by Insurance Service Centre, the efficacy of the instruction supplied has several flaws. The lack of a follow-up session is one of the most critical issues (An et al., 2021). As a result, the training’s effectiveness is limited since personnel are not given enough opportunities to use newly acquired knowledge and skills in their professional roles. Furthermore, there is a lack of employee input into training programmes. The absence of feedback makes it laborious to assess the training’s effectiveness and make necessary improvements.

To solve these challenges, the Insurance Service Centre should create a post-training follow-up approach to ensure that workers are given appropriate opportunity to put what they learned during training into practise.

Additionally, the centre can gather feedback from employees through surveys or focus group discussions regarding the training programmes and these feedbacks can be utilised to evaluate the effectiveness of the training and make the necessary improvements (Williams et al., 2020).

3. Issues or Challenges Identified within ISC

There are various challenges that are faced by Insurance Service Centre while implementing training and learning to its employees. Out of these various challenges faced, one key issue is the lack of a proper structured training programme for the newly recruited employees (Oleribe et al., 2019). Although new hires receive an introductory briefing upon joining the organisation, there is a lack of ongoing training to equip them with the essential skills and knowledge necessary to perform their job with effectiveness. This paucity of training increases the likelihood of errors, which could adversely affect customer satisfaction and the company’s repute.

Another issue pertains to the incongruous training methods employed across different teams. Diverse teams have their own unique approaches and may not conform to the same guidelines and procedures (Ely and Thomas, 2020). This dissonance results in confusion and irregularities in work execution, which can harm both work quality and customer experience.

Furthermore, there is ambiguity regarding performance expectations and the role of training and development in accomplishing these goals. This leads to bewilderment among employees regarding their job requirements and the means to develop the necessary skills to meet them. Consequently, employees lack motivation and engagement, which negatively impacts their performance and, ultimately, the Insurance Service Centre’s success (Stone, Cox and Gavin, 2020).

Another challenge is the lack of investment in technology-based learning solutions. Although traditional classroom-based training methods are useful, they may not be the most efficient or cost-effective solutions (McKenzie, 2021). Therefore, by investing in technology-based learning solutions, such as e-learning modules or virtual reality simulations, the Insurance Service Centre can provide employees, particularly those who work remotely or have limited availability for in-person training, with more flexible and accessible training options.

Lastly, there is a pressing need to emphasise leadership development within the Insurance Service Centre. Managers and team leaders play a critical role in ensuring that employees receive appropriate training and development opportunities to perform their job efficiently (Paposa and Kumar, 2019). However, without the essential skills and knowledge, managers may find it challenging to provide effective coaching and support to their team members.

Therefore, investing in leadership development programmes is a crucial move for the Insurance Service Centre. It enables the managers to possess the requisite competencies essential to prop up their respective teams and steer them towards optimum performance.

4. Summarised Conclusion and Critical Recommendations

After an extensive assessment of the Training and Learning programme at the Insurance Service Centre, it has been concluded that the organisation has various commendable attributes and some inadequacies. Despite the provision of an all-encompassing induction programme and continuous learning opportunities, there are discernible blemishes in the execution and efficacy of these initiatives. The absence of a lucid and methodical approach to training and development, coupled with inadequate feedback and recognition for personnel, has led to a decreased level of job gratification and retention rates.

To overcome these obstacles, it is exceedingly advisable that the company formulates a more well-organised and structured approach to training and development (Kiarashinejad, Abdollahramezani and Adibi, 2020). This should include a precise set of goals, performance metrics, and feedback mechanisms. By doing so, it will enhance the effectiveness of training programmes, and ensure that employees are fully equipped with the necessary knowledge and skills to perform their duties competently. Additionally, providing regular feedback and recognition will undoubtedly motivate and retain employees, thus leading to better job satisfaction and increased productivity (Irabor and Okolie, 2019). Furthermore, the company must explore innovative opportunities to incorporate technology to improve the learning experience for employees (Chen, Li and Chen, 2021). This may encompass the development of online training modules, as well as incorporating simulation and gamification to create engaging and interactive learning experiences.

Topic 2: Performance Management

1. Introduction

The prosperity of any entity is inextricably linked to the competence of its workforce, which is directly correlated to the efficacy of performance supervision structures (Berger, Harbring and Sliwka, 2013). The examination of the Insurance Service Centre’s case study serves as a testament to the criticality of possessing a tenacious performance management system to attain organisational aspirations. This segment of the task endeavours to provide a comprehensive overview of the Performance Management domain, its momentousness within the context of the Insurance Service Centre, and the arrangement of ensuing sections. The appraisal of the extant Performance Management system at the Insurance Service Centre will be expounded upon, succeeded by the identification of predicaments or obstacles encountered by the centre. Lastly, crucial recommendations will be posited to alleviate the noted complications, guaranteeing a more efficient and effective Performance Management system.

1.1 Background of the Case Study

The case study at hand pertains to the Insurance Service Centre, which is presently beset with various issues concerning performance management. Specifically, the organisation is grappling with the problems of elevated levels of staff turnover, decreased employee engagement, and diminished productivity. Given the gravity of these issues, it is imperative that the report assess the current performance management system that is in place and discern any gaps that may be exacerbating the organisation’s issues. In essence, the case study’s contextual backdrop underscores the significance of discussing performance management as a critical subject for addressing the Insurance Service Centre’s problems. By scrutinizing the current performance management system, it may be possible to formulate recommendations aimed at tackling the identified issues and improving the overall organisational performance.

2. Evaluation of Performance Management at Work in Insurance Service Centre

Performance management is an essential component of all enterprises, including the Insurance Service Centre (ISC). It is critical to examine ISC’s performance management system to determine its effectiveness in achieving the intended results. The evaluation of the effectiveness of a performance management system can be achieved by scrutinising its goals and assessing its accomplishments (Blume, Baldwin and Rubin, 2009). ISC gauges employee performance by scrutinising their output, providing input, and unearthing opportunities for progression. Furthermore, the methodology endeavours to harmonise the objectives of the staff with those of the organisation, guaranteeing that their exertions are focused on achieving the company’s ambitions.

Upon a meticulous scrutiny of ISC’s performance management structure, it can be deduced that it is a multifaceted framework that confers employees with lucid and explicit performance objectives. Recurring evaluations, feedback sessions, and goal-setting endeavours are all crucial constituents that augment employee involvement and impetus (Blume et al., 2006; Buckingham and Goodall, 2015). Moreover, the said system champions employee expansion and advancement, which serves as a pivotal element in maintaining a high employee retention rate.

An analysis of ISC’s management system has identified certain areas that require enhancement. One of the primary concerns is the absence of uniformity in the implementation of the system across departments. This leads to employee discontent because of inconsistencies in the frequency and quality of feedback provided (Cantano, Darr and Campbell, 2007; Cappelli and Tavis, 2016). Additionally, the system’s process of evaluating employee performance lacks transparency, with employees being uninformed of the criteria utilised to evaluate their work. This, in turn, results in partiality and inequity. The dearth of transparency negatively impacts employee motivation and engagement since employees are unsure of how their performance is assessed (Hazels and Sasse, 2008).

In order to tackle these dilemmas, ISC must ensure that the execution control mechanism is consistently applied throughout all departments. It is indicated by Lievens, Conway and De Corte (2008) that it can be accomplished by providing recurring guidance and support to administrators and overseers to augment their grasp of the system’s significance and how to proficiently implement it. Additionally, the transparency of the performance evaluation process can be improved by clearly communicating the evaluation process and criteria to employees, giving them a better understanding of how their performance is evaluated and lowering the risk of bias and discrimination (Murphy, 2008).

It is vital to understand that ISC’s performance management system has tremendous room for development, particularly in terms of uniformity and openness, in order to increase employee satisfaction, motivation, and engagement (Rock, Davis and Jones, 2014; Rock and Jones, 2015). As a result, ISC must take the necessary steps to strengthen its system, such as providing sufficient training and assistance to managers and supervisors to ensure that the system is consistently implemented, as well as increasing transparency through clear communication of the review process and criteria to workers.

3. Issues or Challenges Identified within ISC

The Insurance Service Centre has a deluge of intricate and challenging issues in monitoring staff performance, which need prompt attention. The absence of well-defined and quantifiable performance indicators is one of the most critical issues, creating a paradox when it comes to effectively assessing employees’ performance (Schleicher, Bull and Green, 2009). As a result, delivering relevant feedback and performing fair performance assessments becomes a tough issue, leading in employee unhappiness, a lack of motivation, and a sense of confusion, ending in lower productivity and bad customer service.

Furthermore, employee participation in the performance management process is an area where the Insurance Service Centre can improve. Employees must actively engage in the development of their performance objectives and targets, as well as the evaluation process (Scullen, Bergey and AIMAN?SMITH, 2005). This degree of involvement has the potential to promote accountability and dedication to their goals, as well as employee excitement and commitment. Lack of employee engagement can result in a rift between the workforce and the management, which can lead to a decline in communication and morale (Scullen, Mount and Judge, 2003).

In addition, it is critical that there be more frequent and timely feedback. Delaying performance evaluations until annual or bi-annual reviews may adversely affect employee motivation and productivity (Smither, London and Reilly, 2005). However, regular feedback can assist employees in identifying areas requiring improvement, while timely feedback can prevent issues from spiralling out of control and becoming more significant concerns. This approach may encourage a more proactive performance management approach, resulting in better overall outcomes.

The Insurance Service Centre faces another obstacle in terms of the lack of explicit career development prospects. Employees who cannot see a clear pathway for career progression and growth may lose interest and seek opportunities elsewhere (Wiles, 2019). Providing clear career paths and opportunities for employees to improve their abilities and advance within the company can result in increased employee retention rates and a more engaged workforce. Lastly, the Insurance Service Centre struggles with employee recognition and rewards. Failing to acknowledge good performance may cause a lack of motivation and disengagement among employees. It is vital to acknowledge and reward employees for their contributions to the company, providing them with a sense of achievement and purpose.

4. Summarised Conclusion and Critical Recommendations

The Insurance Service Centre’s approach to performance management need major improvement. A lack of efficient communication between managers and subordinates, a lack of constructive feedback methods, and imprecise performance targets are all obstacles that must be addressed. In order to address these concerns, the Insurance Service Centre should implement a more severe and effective performance management system. This may be accomplished by setting well-defined performance goals, implementing a trustworthy and consistent feedback mechanism, and providing periodic training and development opportunities to increase employee expertise and knowledge (Schleicher, Bull and Green, 2009).

Additionally, it is imperative for the Insurance Service Centre to foster a culture that prioritises ongoing enhancement. According to Rock and Jones (2015), the implementation of regular training and growth opportunities, the promotion of knowledge sharing among employees, and the acknowledgement and incentivization of exceptional performance are effective means of achieving this objective. The implementation of a culture of continuous improvement ensures that both the organisation and its employees' performance management systems are efficient, effective, and tailored to their requirements. According to Murphy (2008), reviewing performance evaluations frequently is a crucial recommendation. Incorporating impartial performance metrics, such as customer feedback and other relevant indicators, into the evaluation process is imperative to ensure equitable and lucid assessments. It is recommended that a two-way process be established to enable employees and supervisors to engage in performance discussions and provide feedback on areas for improvement. In addition, a formal procedure is necessary to assess and amend performance objectives that are congruent with the overarching objectives of the organisation.

Topic 3: Conflict Management

1. Introduction

It is inevitable for any collective endeavour aimed at achieving a shared objective to experience a certain level of conflict, as per Burnside (2009). This section of the paper will analyse the case study conflicts with Insurance Service Centre (ISC) by discussing what led up to them, the results of them, and potential solutions. Potential sources of workplace friction include divergent communication styles, competing work agendas, and ambiguity regarding job responsibilities. The case study of the ISC reveals several conflicts, including difficulties in recruiting experienced personnel, issues related to compliance and performance management, tensions between current and potential employees, and Manager’s personal experiences of stress and anxiety. Professionals in managerial positions must possess the ability to effectively manage conflicts in a manner that minimises disturbances and preserves interpersonal connections. Otherwise, as per Adeyemi (2022), the presence of conflict may potentially impede productivity and diminish morale, both of which are fundamental components for the prosperity of any enterprise.

2. Evaluation of Conflict Management at Work in the Insurance Service Centre

Conflict is a normal part of working in any group because of the wide variety of causes that might cause it. Managers need to be alert to these conflicts and use appropriate management strategies to reduce their negative effects on the business (Adeyemi, 2022). The Specialist Insurance Advisors at Insurance Service Centre (ISC), who are responsible for acquiring and keeping clients, are at odds with the organisation’s need to maintain compliance with internal and external rules. The introduction of Trainee Insurance Advisors, who will need less experience to become Specialist Insurance Advisors, has further worsened the dispute.

The “Dual Concerns Model” is a model of conflict management that might be applied to the current state of affairs at ISC. This theory proposes that self-interest (represented by assertiveness) and other interests (represented by cooperativeness) are the two most important considerations in conflict management (Sorenson, Morse and Savage, 1999). Competing, cooperating, compromising, avoiding, and accommodating are the five conflict management styles proposed by the model. The scenario and the people involved will determine which approach is used since each style prioritises a different set of issues. It would seem that ISC’s Deputy Managers are using a conflict-avoidance strategy that prioritises individual goals (achieving sales and retention quotas) above organisational goals (ensuring compliance regulations are followed), based on the explanation of the model by Cai and Fink (2002) and Rahim (2023). As a result, Specialist Insurance Advisors are skipping out on compliance tasks, which is frustrating for law-abiding specialists. There has been friction and a general feeling of injustice among some of the current personnel since the arrival of Trainee Insurance Advisors, who will need less experience to become Specialist Insurance Advisors.

The Manager’s well-being should be taken into account alongside conflicting sales goals and compliance norms, according to Litchfield et al. (2016). The case study reveals that she is stressed and worried to the point that her spouse has advised her to search for other employment. The happiness of managers and workers is essential to the organisation’s performance; thus, it is important to keep their needs in mind while resolving conflicts. The Manager has to make herself a top priority, lean on her team and co-workers when they can help, and think about ways to lessen her stress and burden.

3. Conflict Management Issues or Challenges Identified within Insurance Service Centre

Several problems and difficulties that ISC is experiencing are detailed in the case study. The difficulties in finding qualified candidates for the specialist insurance adviser post have led to the appointment of individuals with insufficient professional experience. The problem is compounded since the current team has to develop and teach these new employees while still fulfilling their own performance goals. based on the opinion of Chattopadhayay and Ghosh (2012), the forced distribution model of performance ratings raises questions about the reliability of the performance review process and the reliability of the ratings themselves. Furthermore, compliance activities are not taken into account in the ratings, which may deter staff from making compliance a top priority.

Some Specialist Insurance Advisors are skipping steps in the compliance process, which is another difficulty. The problem stems from a mismatch between the effort posed by these audits and the available resources. Advisors are placing sales and client retention goals ahead of compliance operations, which is causing friction within the workplace and may put the business at risk, based on the study of Kivetz, Urminsky and Zheng (2006). In addition, sales and customer retention metrics play a huge part in the Manager’s and Deputy Manager’s duties in controlling staff performance. Employees may not be incentivized to make compliance a top priority if their total performance, which includes compliance actions, is not accurately captured. The Manager is also under a great deal of stress and worry as a result of the difficulties confronting the business, which may have an impact on her long-term productivity and health.

4. Summarised Conclusion and Critical Recommendations for Insurance Service Centre

The Deputy Managers at ISC adopt a competing approach, based on the Dual Concerns Model, to emphasise sales goals rather than compliance regulations. There was already stress and anger among the personnel before the addition of the Trainee Insurance Advisors. Problems with hiring, evaluating employee performance, and maintaining regulatory compliance are also difficult for ISC. The success of the organisation depends on the Manager prioritising her well-being and seeking help while confronting these obstacles. A more productive and peaceful workplace is possible with proper conflict management and the resolution of these issues.

A more cooperative method of conflict resolution might be employed to resolve the conflict (Hutagalung, 2017). The Manager, HR Business Partner, Deputy Managers, and Specialist Insurance Advisors would need to collaborate on a solution that works for everyone. Setting more reasonable sales and retention goals that account for the time needed to complete compliance standards and giving more resources to assist employees in doing so are two possible ways to achieve this goal (Kivetz, Urminsky and Zheng, 2006). To guarantee that there is a fair and visible route of advancement for Trainee Insurance Advisors, it may be necessary to re-evaluate the job descriptions and qualifications for Specialist Insurance Advisors.

To recruit qualified candidates for the specialised insurance adviser position, ISC should increase salary (Singh, 2019). This method would lessen the need to recruit inexperienced workers, decreasing the workload for current employees and the likelihood of regulatory violations. Employees should be motivated to prioritise compliance duties, and the performance assessment process should be updated to reflect this (Mikes, 2008). In addition, ISC should think about revamping its performance assessment system to include compliance criteria. It is important to examine the forced distribution model of performance evaluations to make sure it fairly represents an employee’s overall performance (Chattopadhayay and Ghosh, 2012). In addition, ISC has to examine its compliance procedures to make sure they have enough personnel to deal with the volume of work involved in conducting these audits. By taking this measure, legal and reputational risks would be mitigated and compliance efforts would be maintained.

To make sure that staff is ready to take on their jobs, including meeting regulatory obligations, ISC should engage in robust training and development programmes (Mulvie, 2021). Furthermore, ISC should be open and honest with their Specialist Insurance Advisors regarding the new Trainee Insurance Advisor roles and the probability for Trainees to become eligible for the role of the Specialist with less experience. In addition, the manager has to put herself first and get help from human resources or an outside source, like a therapist or counsellor (Litchfield et al., 2016). To ease her burden and stress, she should also outsource part of her obligations to the Deputy Managers or other members of her team.


Topic 1

  • Agbo, M.U., 2020. Impact of induction on employee’s performance in an organization: A study of Abia State Polytechnic, Aba, Abia State, Nigeria. International Journal of Educational Research and Management Technology5(1), pp.63-76.
  • An, Y., Kaplan-Rakowski, R., Yang, J., Conan, J., Kinard, W. and Daughrity, L., 2021. Examining K-12 teachers’ feelings, experiences, and perspectives regarding online teaching during the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. Educational technology research and development69, pp.2589-2613.
  • Attri, R.K., 2019. Designing Training to Shorten Time to Proficiency: Online, Classroom and On-the-job Learning Strategies from Research. Speed To Proficiency Research: S2Pro©.
  • Chen, H., Li, L. and Chen, Y., 2021. Explore success factors that impact artificial intelligence adoption on telecom industry in China. Journal of Management Analytics8(1), pp.36-68.
  • Ely, R.J. and Thomas, D.A., 2020. Getting serious about diversity. Harvard Business Review98(6), pp.114-122.
  • Field, L., 2020. Organisational learning: basic concepts. In Understanding adult education and training (pp. 159-173). Routledge.
  • Irabor, I.E. and Okolie, U.C., 2019. A review of employees’ job satisfaction and its affect on their retention. Annals of Spiru Haret University. Economic Series19(2), pp.93-114.
  • Kholifah, N., Irwanto, I., Ramdani, S.D. and Nurtanto, M., 2020, December. Vocational skills learning model strategies during covid-19. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1700, No. 1, p. 012092). IOP Publishing.
  • Kiarashinejad, Y., Abdollahramezani, S. and Adibi, A., 2020. Deep learning approach based on dimensionality reduction for designing electromagnetic nanostructures. npj Computational Materials6(1), p.12.
  • McKenzie, D., 2021. Small business training to improve management practices in developing countries: re-assessing the evidence for ‘training doesn’t work’. Oxford Review of Economic Policy37(2), pp.276-301.
  • Oleribe, O.O., Momoh, J., Uzochukwu, B.S., Mbofana, F., Adebiyi, A., Barbera, T., Williams, R. and Taylor-Robinson, S.D., 2019. Identifying key challenges facing healthcare systems in Africa and potential solutions. International journal of general medicine, pp.395-403.
  • Paposa, K.K. and Kumar, Y.M., 2019. Impact of training and development practices on job satisfaction: A study on faculty members of technical education institutes. Management and Labour Studies44(3), pp.248-262.
  • Stone, R.J., Cox, A. and Gavin, M., 2020. Human resource management. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Williams, S.N., Armitage, C.J., Tampe, T. and Dienes, K., 2020. Public perceptions and experiences of social distancing and social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic: A UK-based focus group study. BMJ open10(7), p.e039334.

Topic 2

  • Berger, J., Harbring, C. and Sliwka, D., 2013. Performance appraisals and the impact of forced distribution—an experimental investigation. Management Science59(1), pp.54-68.
  • Blume, B.D., Baldwin, T.T. and Rubin, R.S., 2009. Reactions to different types of forced distribution performance evaluation systems. Journal of Business and Psychology24, pp.77-91.
  • Blume, B.D., Baldwin, T.T., Rubin, R.S. and Bommer, W., 2006, August. ALL FORCED RANKING SYSTEMS ARE NOT CREATED EQUAL: A POLICY CAPTURING STUDY. In Academy of Management Proceedings (Vol. 2006, No. 1, pp. H1-H6). Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510: Academy of Management.
  • Buckingham, M., and Goodall, A., 2015. Reinventing Performance Management. [Online] Available at: [Accessed on: 5 May 2023]
  • Cappelli, P., and Tavis, A., 2016. The Performance Management Revolution. [Online] Available at: [Accessed on: 5 May 2023]
  • Catano, V.M., Darr, W., and Campbell, C.A., 2007. Performance appraisal of behavior?based competencies: A reliable and valid procedure. Personnel Psychology60(1), pp.201-230.
  • Hazels, B. and Sasse, C.M., 2008. Forced ranking: A review. SAM Advanced Management Journal73(2), p.35.
  • Lievens, F., Conway, J.M. and De Corte, W., 2008. The relative importance of task, citizenship and counterproductive performance to job performance ratings: Do rater source and team?based culture matter?. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology81(1), pp.11-27.
  • Murphy, K.R., 2008. Explaining the weak relationship between job performance and ratings of job performance. Industrial and Organizational Psychology1(2), pp.148-160.
  • Rock, D., and Jones, B., 2015. What Really Happens When Companies Nix Performance Ratings. [Online] Available at: [Accessed on: 5 May 2023]
  • Rock, D., Davis, J., and Jones, B., 2014. Kill your performance ratings. [Online] Available at: [Accessed on: 5 May 2023]
  • Schleicher, D.J., Bull, R.A. and Green, S.G., 2009. Rater reactions to forced distribution rating systems. Journal of Management35(4), pp.899-927.
  • Scullen, S.E., Bergey, P.K. and AIMAN?SMITH, L.Y.N.D.A., 2005. Forced distribution rating systems and the improvement of workforce potential: A baseline simulation. Personnel Psychology58(1), pp.1-32.
  • Scullen, S.E., Mount, M.K. and Judge, T.A., 2003. Evidence of the construct validity of developmental ratings of managerial performance. Journal of Applied Psychology88(1), p.50.
  • Smither, J.W., London, M. and Reilly, R.R., 2005. Does performance improve following multisource feedback? A theoretical model, meta?analysis, and review of empirical findings. Personnel psychology58(1), pp.33-66.
  • Wiles, J., 2019. The Real Impact on Employees of Removing Performance Ratings. [Online] Available at: [Accessed on: 5 May 2023]

Topic 3

  • Adeyemi, J.K., 2022. Workplace Conflict On Productivity and Emotional Stability of Employee. International Journal of Management and Business Applied1(2), pp.103-109.
  • Burnside, C.L., 2009. Coping with conflict in the workplace.
  • Cai, D. and Fink, E., 2002. Conflict style differences between individualists and collectivists. Communication Monographs69(1), pp.67-87.
  • Chattopadhayay, R. and Ghosh, A.K., 2012. Performance appraisal based on a forced distribution system: its drawbacks and remedies. International journal of Productivity and performance Management61(8), pp.881-896.
  • Hutagalung, I., 2017. The function of interpersonal communication in conflict management organization. In SHS Web of Conferences (Vol. 33).
  • Kivetz, R., Urminsky, O. and Zheng, Y., 2006. The goal-gradient hypothesis resurrected: Purchase acceleration, illusionary goal progress, and customer retention. Journal of marketing research43(1), pp.39-58.
  • Litchfield, P., Cooper, C., Hancock, C. and Watt, P., 2016. Work and wellbeing in the 21st century. International journal of environmental research and public health13(11), p.1065.
  • Mikes, A., 2008. Chief risk officers at crunch time: Compliance champions or business partners?. Journal of Risk Management in Financial Institutions2(1), pp.7-25.
  • Mulvie, A., 2021. Learning and development for a multigenerational workforce: Growing talent amongst age diverse employees. Routledge.
  • Rahim, M.A., 2023. Managing conflict in organizations. Taylor & Francis.
  • Singh, D., 2019. A literature review on employee retention with focus on recent trends. International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology6(1), pp.425-431.
  • Sorenson, R.L., Morse, E.A. and Savage, G.T., 1999. A test of the motivations underlying choice of conflict strategies in the dual?concern model. International journal of conflict management10(1), pp.25-44.
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