Critical Evaluation Of The Trajectory Of Our Current Knowledge With An Emphasis On Conceptual And Historical Issues Assignment Sample

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Critical Evaluation Of The Trajectory Of Our Current Knowledge With An Emphasis On Conceptual And Historical Issues Assignment


The collaborative study of De Castro and de Castro (1989), presents the influence of social factors on human food habits. The research has opened several doors for further research. The literature review presented social, cognitive, biological determinants of food. As per the examination of the mentioned authors, circumstances of an individual determine and affects to a large extent the amount and type of food that is consumed by an individual. Further study has reflected that biological matters as neurotransmission affects the food intake process. Several social and cognitive aspects also determine the inclusive aspects which are responsible for the growth of food habits of an individual.

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Literature review


Several social factors have been assessed in food intake, and various social factors influencing the quality and quantity of food consumption are recorded. Review of the existing literatures such as various journals, articles for the topic has been done by which several information regarding the different factors affecting the eating behaviour is being found out. However, the result of several experiments is based on the restricted surveys in limited circumstances. The psychology of humans is one major factor that determines an individual's food intake type and pattern. Thus, analysis of the static pattern of food input reflects the psychological thinking pattern of an individual human being, which is further influenced by social and behavioural components.

Biological factors affecting eating behaviour

The research on an individual's food habits has reflected several effects of biological factors that affect the structure of food intake of an individual. The reason behind the particular pattern of food intake lies in the biological aspects. However, there lie different biological factors which are responsible for food intake. Genetic factors contribute much to establishing the eating habits of a person. Several types of research have stated that 56% chance persisted within a human to suffer from an eating disorder because of genetic influences (Moore-Berg et al. 2019). The tendency for particular food preferences is also determined by genetic influences. The construction of the nervous system is also to be considered for developing these elements. Proper communication through neurotransmitters results in balanced urgency. Serotonin is one such neurotransmitter that influences eating habits with bulimia disease. The urge to intake more carbohydrate enriched food increases (Feil et al. 2020). As marked by De Castro & de Castro (1989), the daily intake of food and the type of food are to be revised, and the continuation of different aspects are responsible for changing the priority of types of foods.

Type of food intake with and without company

Figure 1: Type of food intake with and without company

(Source: De Castro & de Castro, 1989)

As the study shows, carbohydrate and protein types of food intake increase with the association. Along with the "nature" of a person, nurturing the elements also affects eating priorities (Poulose et al. 2017). This is also to be considered under the biological factor of eating disorders. The circumstances and physical and mental influence on the person increase the conditions which may result in a particular eating disorder. It is reflected by Douglass et al. (2017), several variables as anxiety and locomotive behaviour determine the pattern of food intake. The biological factors are responsible for the development of several aspects which can be included within the processing. Self-reports from the individuals are to be regarded for marking biological factors affecting food disorders. The type of nutrients received by our body determines the hormonal balance within the body. Apart from the neurotransmitters, the hormonal influence on food intake cannot be avoided. Health is determined by the type of food that is intake.

The response of several segments of the body determines the particular tendency of the body. Developmental disorders are the other factor determining the genetic differences within an adult. Genetic factors shape the food intake process of an individual. The surrounding population also determines the growth of these factors in genetic order. As examined by De Castro & de Castro (1989), the influence of a company determines an individual's urge. However, the influence of individual and body dissatisfaction is other biological determinants of food habits. Natural demand of the body generates hunger which creates physical force within a human. The preference for certain types of food culminates through several neurological transmissions within the body. Hormonal responses are also responsible for developing such actions (Goukens&Klesse, 2022). Thus, the natural urge is reformed by specific reactions within the human body, reflected in the particular type of eating disorder.

Cognitive factors affecting eating behaviour

Cognitive factors are responsible for the development of food habits. As per Deckers (2018) view, a particular portion of the brain may affect the food intake system. The activity of the human brain's hypothalamus determines the food intake activities. The typical indicators of being full of food are sometimes not recognized by the brain. Thus, inside of eating plenty of foods, the feeling of emptiness still exists, which motivates an individual for further intake. Several neurotransmitters are responsible for carrying the message to the brain. Thus, the functioning of multiple brain activities simultaneously results in miscommunication (Feil et al. 2020). This creates different cravings for foods.

Two major aspects are generally considered while taking into account the food system. The first aspect is "nature", and the second aspect is "nurture". Consumption of different food items is based on demand. This demand for food is not the consequence of biological reactions (Chusak et al. 2022). Cognitive effects can be considered within a similar section. There exist different types of determinants; evolutionary, social, psychological, and individual preference is some determinants that determine a person's food habit. Chusak et al. (2022) marked that these determinants are interlinked, and one determinant influences the other. Here, the individual preference for food and cognition of that individual are interlinked. Cognition differs from person to person, and the development of self-referenced food is determined by cognition. Determination for change due to physical and biological degradation influences the eating disorder within a human. Proper continuation with a healthy food system result in balanced monitoring. A mindfully assessment of biological needs replaces the moment's need. Here the association and environment regulate the demand of the foods. The amount of food, as examined by De Castro & de Castro (1989), is influenced by participatory meals and alone meals.

  Variables affecting food intake decision

Figure 2: Variables affecting food intake decision

(Source: Higgs & Thomas, 2022)

 It has been examined that healthy food habits are often created through participation with self. Several stimuli are created within the system, which enables an individual to have a particular type of food. These stimuli are selected and nurtured by the type of food that is being consumed by an individual. Focused determination prohibits an individual from having unhealthy types and amounts of food. Healthy consumption of food largely depends on the cognition of an individual. As per the view of Goukens & Klesse (2022), stress, anxiety, disability for social interaction result in different approaches, which is otherwise considered to be a reason for increasing eating disorders. Thus, cognitive nurture can affect healthy food habits. The food habit is largely determined by cognition, and the construction of specific cognition may change the food habit.

Social factors affecting eating behaviour

Different social factors affect people's eating behaviour in a society. Factors like family culture, meal patterns, income, education, accommodation, and many others affect individuals' eating behaviours (Zhang et al. 2019). Further, five factors influence food and eating behaviour: price, taste, freshness, quality, and health-related. Family and friends influence people's eating habits, and when people sit together to attain their food; it tends to be less or more eating habits. Culture and society are some of the essential factors in a society that help people shape their diet. However, in today's society, people tend towards fast and cheap food to meet their daily needs (Treasure et al., 2020). Therefore, for this reason, low-cost food creates a massive increase in the rate of obesity among different ages of people.

In fact, it was seen that the increased consumption of this high-calorie food had spawned an obesity epidemic among the people. Further, there is some strong set of inverse associations between socioeconomic factors like people's occupation, income, and factors affecting obesity. As per the opinion of Kossioni, (2018), a study found that the cost of healthy food like vegetables and fruits is higher than less nutritious food. Food has become the new national pastime for every individual present in society. Perhaps no "food" has a bigger impact on society than alcohol for people. It was mostly seen in every party that alcohol is being consumed by people to show their high-class level and entertain their guests. Moreover, it has the potential to be the one consumable item like "alcohol" that becomes a common thread in every social gathering and party (Cadario & Chandon, 2020).

Social factors affecting eating behaviour

Figure 3: Social factors affecting eating behaviour

(Source:, 2021)

Further, consuming alcohol becomes quite a moderation in society and impacts people's health. However, consuming alcohol can become very detrimental to people's health. Moreover, it was seen that people when visiting any kind of gathering consume more food with their known one. This very concept works on viewing the other person how much quantity of food they consume. Mancini et al. (2019) mentioned, and according to that view, people make their minds to consume more food. Moreover, other senses work in the party and social gathering. That people usually take different kinds of food, when they are alone. While on the other hand, when people gather at any social party and invitation, they are provided with different varieties of food. As a result, people consume more food with their known ones and gossip with them. These very situations are created by enjoying the overall situation of the party and consuming more food by viewing others (Stok et al., 2018).

Later influence of this research and psychology

This overall topic can help people provide various kinds of activities related to them and provide essential knowledge about their behaviour in other social gatherings and parties. Further, people can identify the changes when they are alone and collaborate with others at any gathering. As per Whitelock & Ensaff's (2018) opinion, this study will help people identify the cognitive changes and biological factors that affect their eating processes. Further, this study will help the readers to develop various cognitive factors that affect people eating behaviours. These cognitive factors can deal with epidemiological studies that mainly focus on the vegetable and fruits intake process. Moreover, this study will help the various students and people identify their behavioural changes regarding eating behaviour. Further, it was believed that cognitive function deals with the more intakes of healthy foods can develop an adequate level of cognitive development of body and mind (, 2021).

Several factors are responsible for influencing eating behaviours that include taste, food taboos, cooking skills, perception, and knowledge. Together, all these factors develop the societal factors that influence social norms and peers' values of people. Further, some other factors are responsible for developing biological factors relating to people's eating behaviour. As mentioned by De Castro & de Castro (1989), the biological factors that deal with biological and genetic factors are mostly related to the family's background. Therefore, this comprehensive study will help students and people who have eating disorders due to some biological factors. Further, studying this topic will help the students and other readers to have their eating disorder and other factors responsible for in taking of food.

Eating disorder

Figure 4: Eating disorder

(Source:, 2021)

Moreover, this kind of eating disorder can be genetic or biological as recorded in the context (Zhang et al. 2019). It was seen that more than 56% of eating disorders create an additional risk of developing eating disorders in people. Moreover, this comprehensive study will help the students and readers identify different actions and reactions related to eating behaviours. Further, this study provides effective results in focusing on healthy eating behaviours and creating sustainability for the human body. People will gradually learn about food selection and its impact on their bodies. People will identify the factors responsible for their overeating habits and other habits related to the consumption of food.

Moreover, people will identify the impact of stress, restriction of food, in taking palatable foods, and other environmental factors responsible for their eating behaviours. As per the opinion of Treasure et al. (2020), people will clearly identify that their precursory circumstances lead to binge eating processes and further result in various eating disorders. Further, this study will help the individuals provide motivation to have that food, which is healthier than fast food.

Literature gap 

The study analyzes several factors that influence the food habits of an individual. Biological aspects are discussed here which are responsible for food preference of an individual. However, in depth analysis can be conducted for the completion of these works. Lack of more relevant research papers resulted in the better communication of several aspects which are otherwise to be taken for the development of these aspects. The cognitive influence can be discussed in a more detailed manner with proper support of more literary works. However, though the study discusses the importance of several social, biological and cognitive aspects in food habits, in depth discussion could be conducted on cognitive factors which creates gaps in the literature.


It can be concluded from the above topic that there are several factors responsible for eating behaviours in human beings. These behaviours of human beings are being trajectory and provide various knowledge about eating factors and behaviour. Human beings can easily identify these behaviours by having historical issues and conceptual knowledge based on their eating. Further, some other factors are responsible for eating more or less, depending on human beings' moods and physical statements. It can be concluded that social, cognitive, and biological eating behaviours will help individuals increase the flexibility to choose their food based on health. 


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Chusak, C., Tangmongkhonsuk, M., Sudjapokinon, J., &Adisakwattana, S. (2022). The Association between Online Learning and Food Consumption and Lifestyle Behaviors and Quality of Life in Terms of Mental Health of Undergraduate Students during COVID-19 Restrictions. Nutrients14(4), 890.

De Castro, J. M., & de Castro, E. S. (1989). Spontaneous meal patterns of humans: influence of the presence of other people. The American journal of clinical nutrition50(2), 237-247.

Deckers, L. (2018). Motivation: Biological, psychological, and environmental. Routledge.

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Poulose, S. M., Miller, M. G., Scott, T., &Shukitt-Hale, B. (2017). Nutritional factors affecting adult neurogenesis and cognitive function. Advances in nutrition8(6), 804-811.

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