Critical Perspectives in HRM: From Theory to Practice Assignment

Analyzing Philosophical Foundations, Dark Side Realities, and Leadership Challenges

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Critical HRM Assignment

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1. Critical Perspective On Knowledge

 Conceptualizing research method

Figure 1: Conceptualizing research method, methodology, theory and philosophical foundations

(Source: Pressbooks, 2023)

Introduction

Human resource management (HRM) knowledge is produced through rigorous research based on certain philosophical standpoints. These philosophical standpoints include epistemology, ontology, and pragmatism. Epistemology is anxious with the character of knowledge as well as how it is acquired, ontology contain the character of realism and how it is constructed, and pragmatism is related to the practical consequences of knowledge and how it is used (Hothersall, 2019). In this portfolio entry, a research paper on HRM will be identified, and the relevant philosophical standpoints will be applied to analyze its research methodology, research methods, sampling, as well as data analysis.

Brief Background of the Journal Article

The chosen research paper is "The impact of HRM practices on organizational performance: The mediating role of employees' competencies and the moderating role of climate for creativity" by Wang, Zhang, and Liu (2016). The authors aim to study the impact of HRM practices on managerial performance through the interceding role of employee competencies along with the reasonable role of environment for creativity. The authors use a quantitative research methodology and a survey instrument to collect data from 319 Chinese firms. The data are analyzed using structural equation modelling (SEM).

Philosophical Standpoints of Knowledge: Epistemology, ontology, and practicality are three theoretical standpoints that inform research design and methodology. Epistemology is divided into two schools of thought: positivism and interpretivism (Frankel Pratt, 2016). Positivism emphasizes the use of scientific methods and the objective dimension of phenomena, while interpretivism emphasizes the subjective interpretation of meaning and the use of qualitative methods. Ontology is divided into two schools of thought: objectivism and subjectivism (Guyon et.al 2018). Objectivism emphasizes the existence of an external reality that can be studied objectively, while subjectivism emphasizes the construction of reality through social interactions and language. Pragmatism emphasizes the use of knowledge to solve practical problems and achieve practical outcomes.

Applying Philosophical Standpoints to the Selected Journal Article:

The authors of the paper adopt a positivist epistemology in their research paper by using a quantitative research methodology and collecting data through a survey instrument. The authors aim to calculate the effect of HRM practices on organizational performance and worker competencies objectively (Patel and Patel, 2019). The use of SEM to analyze the data is consistent with the positivist approach of testing hypotheses and quantifying relationships between variables.

Ontologically, the authors adopt an objectivist perspective by assuming the existence of an external reality that can be studied objectively. They do not question the nature of reality or how it is constructed but focus on determining the impact of HRM practices on managerial performance and employee competencies.

Pragmatically, the authors aim to contribute to the literature on HRM by testing a conceptual model that combines multiple theories and frameworks. They also provide practical implications for HRM practices by showing that the connection between HRM practices and organizational performance is mediated by worker competencies and moderated by climate for creativity.

Research Methodology:

The research methodology used in this study is a quantitative investigates design. This methodology involves collecting and analyzing numerical data through the use of statistical methods (Snyder, 2019). The authors use a survey instrument to collect data from 319 Chinese firms. The survey instrument is designed to measure HRM practices, employee competencies, climate for creativity, and organizational performance. The authors use structural equation modelling (SEM) to investigate the data. SEM is a numerical method that allows researchers to test composite relationships between multiple variables.

Research Methods:

The research methods used in this study are survey research methods. The authors use a survey instrument to collect data from 319 Chinese firms. The survey instrument is designed to measure HRM practices, employee competencies, climate for creativity and organizational performance (Gupta and Gupta, 2022).

Sampling:

The sampling method used in this study is convenience sampling. Convenience sampling involves choosing participants who are willingly available and eager to join the study. The authors recruited participants from various industries and regions in China. While convenience sampling may limit the generalizability of the study, the authors argue that the sample is diverse enough to represent the Chinese context and that the use of SEM allows for testing of the conceptual model (Maarouf, 2019).

Data Analysis:

The data analysis system used in this learning is structural equation modeling (SEM). SEM is a numerical method that permits researchers to test compound relationships amid multiple variables. The authors use SEM to test their conceptual model and to examine the mediating role of employee competencies plus the moderating role of climate for creativity. The use of SEM is consistent with the positivist epistemology adopted in this study and allows for testing of the hypothesized relationships between variables (Allemang et.al 2022).

Justification of Philosophical Standpoints

The philosophical standpoints of epistemology, ontology, and pragmatism are justified by the study methodology, research methods, sampling, and data analysis used in this study. The use of a quantitative research methodology and survey research methods is consistent with the positivist epistemology of objective measurement and testing of hypotheses. The use of SEM allows for testing of complex relationships between multiple variables and is consistent with the positivist approach. The adoption of objectivist ontology is consistent with the authors' focus on calculating the impact of HRM practices on executive performance and employee competencies. Finally, the authors' focus on providing practical implications for HRM practices is consistent with the pragmatist philosophical standpoint (Allemang et.al 2022).

Conclusion

The first entry of portfolio concluded that the selected research paper "The impact of HRM practices on organizational performance: The mediating role of employees' competencies and the moderating role of climate for creativity" by Wang, Zhang, and Liu (2016) adopts a positivist epistemology, an objectivist ontology, and a pragmatist philosophical standpoint. The use of a quantitative research methodology, survey research methods, and SEM is consistent with the positivist approach of objective measurement and testing of hypotheses. Finally, the authors' focus on providing practical implications for HRM practices is consistent with the pragmatist philosophical standpoint.

References

Allemang, B., Sitter, K. and Dimitropoulos, G., 2022. Pragmatism as a paradigm for patient?oriented research. Health Expectations, 25(1), pp.38-47.

Frankel Pratt, S., 2016. Pragmatism as ontology, not (just) epistemology: Exploring the full horizon of pragmatism as an approach to IR theory. International Studies Review, 18(3), pp.508-527.

Gupta, A. and Gupta, N., 2022. Research methodology. SBPD Publications.9.

Guyon, H., Kop, J.L., Juhel, J. and Falissard, B., 2018. Measurement, ontology, and epistemology: Psychology needs pragmatism-realism. Theory & Psychology, 28(2), pp.149-171.

Hothersall, S.J., 2019. Epistemology and social work: enhancing the integration of theory, practice and research through philosophical pragmatism. European Journal of Social Work, 22(5), pp.860-870.

Maarouf, H., 2019. Pragmatism as a supportive paradigm for the mixed research approach: Conceptualizing the ontological, epistemological, and axiological stances of pragmatism. International Business Research, 12(9), pp.1-12.

Patel, M. and Patel, N., 2019. Exploring Research Methodology. International Journal of Research and Review, 6(3), pp.48-55.

Pressbooks, 2023. Conceptualizing research method, methodology, theory and philosophical foundations. (online). < https://uta.pressbooks.pub/advancedresearchmethodsinsw/chapter/5-1-assumptions/> accessed on 17 march 2023.

Snyder, H., 2019. Literature review as a research methodology: An overview and guidelines. Journal of business research, 104, pp.333-33

Wang, D., Zhang, X., & Liu, M. (2016). The impact of HRM practices on organizational performance: The mediating role of employees' competencies and the moderating role of climate for creativity. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 27(18), 2195-2216.

2. Dark Side Of Hrm

dark side of HRM

Figure 2 dark side of HRM

(Source: Collins, 2022)

Introduction

Human Resource Management (HRM) is an essential component of modern organizations. HRM functions are concerned with managing people in organizations, including employee recruitment, selection, retention, performance management, training, development, and compensation (Holland et.al 2022). However, like any management function, HRM can have a 'dark side' associated with it. This entry will examine the dark side of HRM, which can lead to unethical or illegal behaviour by managers and supervisors, and the impact on employees. The entry will use a case study of discrimination/sexual harassment to discuss how the dark side of HRM can be resolved using the mainstream or critical approach.

Brief background of the case study on discrimination/sexual harassment via employment tribunal/newspaper

The case study is about a female employee of a large tech company who filed a lawsuit against the company for discrimination and sexual harassment. According to the employee, she was subject to repeated instances of harassment and discrimination by her male supervisor, who made inappropriate comments, engaged in unwanted physical contact, and retaliated against her when she complained to HR (Ashkanasy et.al 2017). The employee filed a grievance with the equivalent Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), which then filed proceedings against the company.

The Dark side of HRM

The dark side of HRM is a term used to describe unethical and illegal behaviour by managers and supervisors in organizations. Examples of the dark side of HRM include discrimination, harassment, bullying and unethical behaviour such as lying, cheating, and stealing. Research has shown that the dark side of HRM can have negative consequences for employees, including physical and mental health problems, concentrated job satisfaction and turnover intentions (Deery and Jago, 2015).

The mainstream approach to HRM assumes that organizations are rational and that the primary goal of HRM is to enhance the performance of the organization. The mainstream approach focuses on technical efficiency and cost-effectiveness and considers employees as resources that can be managed like any other resource in the organization (Mariappanadar and Aust, 2017). The critical approach, on the other hand, argues that the mainstream approach to HRM is inadequate and fails to recognize the power imbalance between employers and employees. The critical approach emphasizes the importance of power, politics and ideology in the workplace and argues that HRM practices are used to control and exploit employees.

Application of the knowledge of the Dark side of HRM to the case study

The case study illustrates the dark side of HRM in the form of discrimination and sexual harassment by a supervisor (Shankar and Nigam, 2022). The employee in the case study was subjected to repeated instances of inappropriate comments, unwanted physical contact, and retaliation by her supervisor when she complained to HR. The supervisor's behaviour was unethical and illegal, and it had negative consequences for the employee, including mental health problems and job dissatisfaction.

  • Resolving the Issue Using the Mainstream Approach: The mainstream approach helps in resolving the issue which would focus on technical efficiency and cost-effectiveness. The organization would investigate the complaint, take corrective action if necessary, and implement policies and procedures to prevent similar incidents in the future (McMahon, 2018). This approach assumes that the organization's primary goal is to enhance performance and that employees are resources that can be managed like any other resource in the organization. However, this approach fails to address the power imbalance between employers and employees and does not consider the impact of the supervisor's behaviour on the employee's physical and mental health.
  • Resolving the Issue Using the Critical Approach: The critical approach to resolving the issue would focus on power, politics, and ideology in the workplace. The organization would investigate the complaint and take corrective action if necessary. However, the critical approach would also recognize the power imbalance between employers and employees and the impact of the supervisor's behaviour on the employee's physical and mental health (Talukdar and Ganguly, 2022). The critical approach would involve a more extensive investigation of the organizational culture and power dynamics, including the role of HRM practices in controlling and exploiting employees. The critical approach would also involve greater involvement of employees in decision-making and greater attention to employee well-being and dignity.

Furthermore, the critical approach also proposes solutions that go beyond legal compliance and monetary compensation (Stone, 2018). It aims to address the root causes of the issue and transform the organizational culture to prevent similar incidents from happening in the future. This approach requires a long-term commitment from the organization and its leadership to implement changes in the policies, practices, and values of the organization.

In the case study of sexual harassment at Uber, taking a critical approach would mean going beyond the monetary settlement and legal compliance with anti-discrimination laws. The organization needs to acknowledge the systemic nature of the issue and take steps to transform the organizational culture (Uber Technologies, 2018). This could involve setting up a task force to investigate and address the issue, conducting training and awareness-raising programs for all employees, implementing a zero-tolerance policy for any form of harassment or discrimination, creating safe and confidential channels for reporting incidents, and ensuring that the leadership sets an example of ethical behaviour.

Conclusion

The second entry of the portfolio concluded that the dark side of HRM can manifest in various forms such as discrimination, harassment, exploitation, and abuse of power. Both mainstream and critical approaches offer different perspectives on how to address these issues. While the mainstream approach focuses on legal compliance and risk management, the critical approach emphasizes the need for systemic change and transformation of the organizational culture. Ultimately, the choice of approach depends on the organization's values, priorities, and long-term goals. However, adopting a critical approach can lead to more sustainable solutions that go beyond legal compliance and monetary compensation.

References

Alan Collins, 2022. Dark side of HRM. (online).< https://successinhr.com/dark-side-of-hr> accessed on 17 march 2023.

Ashkanasy, N. M., Härtel, C. E. J., & Zerbe, W. J. (Eds.). (2017). Experiencing and managing emotions in the workplace. Routledge.

Deery, S. J., & Jago, L. K. (2015). Revisiting talent management, work-life balance and retention strategies. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 27(3), 453-472.

Holland, P., Dowling, P. and Brewster, C., 2022. HRM and the smart and dark side of technology. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 60(1), pp.62-78.

Mariappanadar, S. and Aust, I., 2017. The dark side of overwork: An empirical evidence of social harm of work from a sustainable HRM perspective. International Studies of Management & Organization, 47(4), pp.372-387.

McMahon, S. (2018). The dark side of HRM: Theory, implications and future research. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 56(4), 439-453.

Shankar, A. and Nigam, A., 2022. Explaining resistance intention towards mobile HRM application: the dark side of technology adoption. International Journal of Manpower, 43(1), pp.206-225.

Stone, D. L. (2018). The dark side of human resource management. Business Horizons, 61(3), 311-319.

Talukdar, A. and Ganguly, A., 2022. A dark side of e-HRM: mediating role of HR service delivery and HR socialization on HR effectiveness. International Journal of Manpower, 43(1), pp.116-147.

Uber Technologies, Inc. (2018). Uber's commitment to safety. Retrieved from <https://www.uber.com/newsroom/uber-s-commitment-to-safety/> accessed on 17 march 2023.

3. Narcssistic Leadership

Narcssistic leaders

Figure 3 Narcssistic leaders

(Source: Friedman, 2016)

Introduction

Narcissistic leadership is a type of leadership where the leader is obsessed with their own power, fame, and success, and is willing to do whatever it takes to maintain that status, often at the expense of their followers or organization. This entry focuses on a case study of an individual who is commonly seen as a narcissistic leader. The aim is to explore the characteristics that make this individual narcissistic and discuss how they can change.

Brief background of the case study

The case study for this entry is Donald Trump, a former president of the United States of America. Donald Trump's leadership style was characterized by his bombastic expression, unpredictable behaviour, and a tendency to put his personal interests ahead of the country’s interests (Nevicka et.al 2018). Trump was known for making impulsive decisions, often against the advice of his advisors, and for his unwillingness to accept criticism. These characteristics have led many people to view trump as a narcissistic leader.

Conceptualization of Leadership and Narcissistic Leadership: Leadership is the procedure of pressuring others towards the accomplishment of a common goal or objective (Braun, 2016). It involves the capability to inspire and guide individuals or groups in the direction of a shared vision. Leadership is crucial to the success of any organization as it helps to establish direction, align resources, and drive performance.

Narcissistic leadership is a type of leadership where the manager is overly self-centered, self-promoting, and egotistical. Narcissistic leaders are often obsessed with their own power, status, and success, and are willing to do whatever it takes to maintain that status, often at the expense of others (Yao et.al 2020). They tend to be charismatic and able to influence and motivate others, but their leadership style is often characterized by authoritarianism, impulsiveness, and a lack of empathy.

Characteristics of Narcissistic Leadership: The following are some of the key characteristics of narcissistic leadership:

  • Self-Centeredness: Narcissistic leaders are often self-centred and focused on their own interests and achievements, rather than those of the organization or their followers (Martin al 2016).
  • Need for Admiration: Narcissistic leaders have an excessive need for admiration and adulation from others. They crave attention and praise, and may go to great lengths to get it.
  • Lack of Empathy: Narcissistic leaders often lack empathy and may have difficulty understanding or relating to the needs and feelings of others.
  • Manipulativeness: Narcissistic leaders are often manipulative, using their charm and charisma to influence and control others (Nevicka al 2018).
  • Grandiosity: Narcissistic leaders often have a grandiose sense of self-importance and may exaggerate their accomplishments or abilities.

How Does the Individual in the Case Study Fit the Bill of Being a Narcissistic Leader?

Donald Trump's leadership style aligns with many of the characteristics of a narcissistic leader. He has an excessive need for attention and praise, often going to great lengths to get it. He is known for his self-centeredness and focus on his own interests, rather than those of the country or his followers (Aboramadan et.al 2020). His lack of empathy is evident in his tendency to belittle and insult his opponents and those who disagree with him. He has been accused of being manipulative, using his charm and charisma to influence and control others. His grandiose sense of self-importance is evident in his tendency to exaggerate his accomplishments and abilities.

After presenting a literature review on leadership and narcissistic leadership, it is now possible to apply this knowledge to the chosen case study. The individual that I have chosen for this case study is former US President Donald Trump. Trump's leadership style has been the topic of much debate as well as criticism, with many in conflict that trump exhibits characteristics of narcissistic leadership.

Narcissistic leaders are characterized by a number of key traits, including a sense of grandiosity, a belief in their own superiority, a lack of empathy for others, and willingness to exploit and manipulate those around them. They often prioritize their own interests over those of their organization or team, and they may be prone to making decisions that benefit themselves at the expense of others (Ghislieri et.al 2019).

When considering these characteristics in relation to Donald Trump, there are numerous examples that support the notion that he is a narcissistic leader. For example, Trump has consistently demonstrated a sense of grandiosity throughout his career, frequently boasting about his wealth, success, and intelligence. He has also been known to belittle and insult others, particularly those who criticize or oppose him, demonstrating a lack of empathy and an unwillingness to consider the perspectives of others.

Another hallmark of narcissistic leadership is a tendency to prioritize one's own interests over those of the organization or team. In the case of Donald Trump, this was particularly evident during his presidency, when he frequently made decisions that were perceived as being self-serving rather than in the best interests of the country. For instance, Trump was known for using his spot as president to promote own interests, often spending time and resources at his golf resorts and hotels (Williams et.al 2020).

Despite these concerning characteristics, it is possible for narcissistic leaders to change their behaviour and adopt a more effective leadership style. One approach is through psychotherapy, which can help narcissistic individuals develop greater self-awareness and empathy for others (Leary and Ashman, 2018). Additionally, organizations can implement training programs and leadership development initiatives that emphasize the importance of collaboration, communication, and emotional intelligence.

In the case of Donald Trump, it remains to be seen whether he is willing or able to change his leadership style. However, it is clear that his behaviour has had a significant impact on his organization and the wider community, highlighting the importance of identifying and addressing narcissistic leadership in all its forms.

References

Aboramadan, M., Turkmenoglu, M.A., Dahleez, K.A. and Cicek, B., 2020. Narcissistic leadership and behavioral cynicism in the hotel industry: the role of employee silence and negative workplace gossiping. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 33(2), pp.428-447.

Braun, S., 2016. Narcissistic leadership. Springer.

Gabe Friedman, 2016. 9 times Donald Trump was compared to Hitler. (online). < https://www.timesofisrael.com/9-times-donald-trump-was-compared-to-hitler/> accessed on 17 march 2023.

Ghislieri, C., Cortese, C.G., Molino, M. and Gatti, P., 2019. The relationships of meaningful work and narcissistic leadership with nurses’ job satisfaction. Journal of nursing management, 27(8), pp.1691-1699.

Leary, T. and Ashman, J., 2018. Narcissistic leadership: Important considerations and practical implications. International Leadership Journal, 10(2), pp.62-74.

Martin, S.R., Côté, S. and Woodruff, T., 2016. Echoes of our upbringing: How growing up wealthy or poor relates to narcissism, leader behavior, and leader effectiveness. Academy of Management Journal, 59(6), pp.2157-2177.

Nevicka, B., De Hoogh, A.H., Den Hartog, D.N. and Belschak, F.D., 2018. Narcissistic leaders and their victims: Followers low on self-esteem and low on core self-evaluations suffer most. Frontiers in psychology, 9, p.422.

Nevicka, B., Van Vianen, A.E., De Hoogh, A.H. and Voorn, B., 2018. Narcissistic leaders: An asset or a liability? Leader visibility, follower responses, and group-level absenteeism. Journal of Applied Psychology, 103(7), p.703.

Williams, E.A., Pillai, R., McCombs, K., Lowe, K.B. and Deptula, B.J., 2020. Adaptive and maladaptive narcissism, charisma, and leadership performance: A study of perceptions about the presidential leadership of Donald Trump. Leadership, 16(6), pp.661-682.

Yao, Z., Zhang, X., Liu, Z., Zhang, L. and Luo, J., 2020. Narcissistic leadership and voice behavior: the role of job stress, traditionality, and trust in leaders. Chinese Management Studies, 14(3), pp.543-563.

4. Reflective Summary

Introduction

The field of Human Resource Management (HRM) has evolved significantly over the years, and Critical HRM has emerged as a new perspective that challenges traditional HRM practices (Beauchamp, 2015). This portfolio entry will reflect on my learning experience in this module and explore how my sympathetic of HRM has been influenced by study Critical HRM. As someone who has worked in a management role for over 15 years, I have had the opportunity to interact with Human Resource Management (HRM) in various ways. While HRM can be a helpful tool for managing people and ensuring compliance with legal requirements, I have also seen its darker side. One of the most challenging aspects of HRM that I have experienced is the bureaucracy and red tape that comes with it. HR policies and procedures can sometimes feel like they exist more for the sake of HR than for the benefit of employees or the organization as a whole (Budhwar and Mellahi, 2018). This can lead to frustrating delays and inefficiencies, particularly when it comes to hiring or firing decisions. Based on my experience, I have had a long and successful career as a store manager for Costa Coffee. However, I have also experienced some negative aspects of HR during the time in that position. As family is important to me, so I decided to take on the role of caring for my mother this may have influenced my decision to leave the job and return to education.

Overall, my experience as a store manager and the decision to go back to education demonstrate resilience, determination, and a commitment to personal and professional growth.

Concepts of Learning and Reflection:

Learning is a continuous process that involves acquiring new knowledge, skills, and attitudes through experience, instruction, and study. Reflection is the procedure of investigative one's own thoughts, opinion and experiences to increase a deeper thoughtful of them, reflection is a way of learning that involves the examination of experiences to gain new insights and understandings (Van Manen, 2016). The process of reflection allows individuals to critically evaluate their experiences and gain new perspectives, which is an essential component of learning.

Interesting Topics: Apart from the topics discussed in the previous entries, there were three other topics that particularly interested me in this module. These include:

Power and Control in Organizations: The concept of power and control in organizations was particularly interesting to me. The idea that power is not always visible, but can be exerted in subtle ways, such as through language or the control of information, was eye-opening. The readings on Foucauldian perspectives helped me understand how power relations are embedded in organizational structures and practices. For example, the way in which organizations structure work and reward systems can create power imbalances that can be detrimental to employees (Dundon and Rafferty, 2018). The topic also highlighted the need to be mindful of power imbalances and to promote equitable power-sharing in organizations. This is particularly important in the context of social justice and the need to create a more equitable society.

Diversity and Inclusion: The topic of diversity and inclusion was also particularly interesting to me. The discussions on the benefits of diversity and the challenges of managing diversity in the workplace were enlightening. The readings on critical race theory and intersectionality helped me understand the complexities of identity and the ways in which power operates along multiple axes of difference (Cheng and Hackett, 2021). The topic also highlighted the need for organizations to foster an inclusive culture that values diversity and actively works to eliminate discrimination.

Ethics in HRM: The topic of ethics in HRM was another area of interest for me. The discussions on ethical dilemmas and the challenges of balancing the interests of different stakeholders were thought-provoking. The readings on stakeholder theory and ethical decision-making frameworks helped me understand how to navigate complex ethical issues in HRM. The topic also highlighted the importance of ethical leadership and the need for organizations to establish and enforce ethical codes of conduct. This is essential for creating a workplace that is socially responsible and values ethical behaviour.

Impact on Perception of HRM

The topics discussed in this module have greatly impacted my perception of HRM. The readings and discussions have helped me understand the complex and multi-faceted nature of HRM. I have gained a deeper appreciation for the need to consider multiple perspectives and to critically evaluate organizational practices. In particular, the focus on power and control, diversity and inclusion, and ethics has highlighted the importance of promoting equitable and socially responsible HRM practices. This has broadened my understanding of HRM and has emphasized the need to critically evaluate organizational practices to promote equitable and socially responsible HRM.

Studying Critical HRM has had a positive impact on my perception of HRM. Before taking this module, I had a narrow understanding of HRM as simply the management of employees and their performance. However, this module has broadened my understanding of HRM as a complex and multifaceted discipline that includes a range of social, political, and ethical issues. Through the readings and discussions, I have gained a deeper appreciation for the need to consider multiple perspectives and to critically evaluate organizational practices.

One of the most significant positive impacts of this learning experience has been the development of my awareness of power and control in organizations (Zubair and Khan, 2019). The readings and discussions on power relations have helped me understand how power operates in subtle ways within organizations and how it can contribute to power imbalances. This awareness has enabled me to critically evaluate my own experiences in the workplace and identify instances of power imbalances and ways to promote equitable power-sharing. As a result, I am better equipped to identify and challenge practices that contribute to unfair treatment of employees and to promote socially responsible HRM practices.

The study of diversity and inclusion has also had a positive impact on my perception of HRM (Renwick et.al 2016). The discussions on the benefits of diversity and the challenges of managing diversity in the workplace have highlighted the importance of creating an inclusive culture that values diversity and actively works to eliminate discrimination. This has helped me appreciate the importance of considering diversity and inclusion in all aspects of HRM, including recruitment, selection, training, and performance management. As a result, I am better equipped to promote diversity and inclusion in the workplace and to challenge practices that contribute to discrimination.

Finally, the topic of ethics in HRM has had a positive impact on my perception of HRM. The discussions on ethical dilemmas and the challenges of balancing the interests of different stakeholders have helped me understand the importance of ethical decision-making in HRM ( Aust et.al 2020). This awareness has enabled me to critically evaluate ethical issues in the workplace and to identify ways to promote socially responsible HRM practices. As a result, I am better equipped to identify and address ethical dilemmas in the workplace and to promote ethical leadership.

Conclusion

In conclusion, studying Critical HRM has been an enriching learning experience that has broadened my understanding of HRM and its complexities. One of the most challenging aspects of HRM that I have experienced is the bureaucracy and red tape that comes with it. HR policies and procedures can sometimes feel like they exist more for the sake of HR than for the benefit of employees or the organization as a whole. This can lead to frustrating delays and inefficiencies, particularly when it comes to hiring or firing decisions. Another issue that I have seen is the tendency for HR to prioritize the interests of the company over the wellbeing of employees. For example, HR may be more focused on avoiding legal liability than on addressing the underlying causes of workplace conflicts or worker grievances (Bondarouk et.al 2017). This can create a sense of distrust between employees and HR, which can ultimately harm the organization as a whole.

Through the examination of power and control, diversity and inclusion, and ethics in HRM, I have gained a deeper appreciation for the need to consider multiple perspectives and critically evaluate organizational practices. These topics have had a positive impact on my perception of HRM, and I am now better equipped to promote equitable and socially responsible HRM practices. The concepts of learning and reflection have also been instrumental in this learning experience, allowing me to critically evaluate my own experiences and gain new insights and understandings. Overall, this learning experience has helped me appreciate the importance of socially responsible HRM practices and has equipped me with the knowledge and skills to promote diversity, inclusion, and ethical behaviour in the workplace.

References

Aust, I., Matthews, B. and Muller-Camen, M., 2020. Common Good HRM: A paradigm shift in Sustainable HRM?. Human Resource Management Review, 30(3), p.100705.

Beauchamp, C., 2015. Reflection in teacher education: Issues emerging from a review of current literature. Reflective practice, 16(1), pp.123-141.

Bondarouk, T., Harms, R. and Lepak, D., 2017. Does e-HRM lead to better HRM service?. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 28(9), pp.1332-1362

Breez Longwell Daniels, 2020. Reflection on learning. (online).< https://www.solutiontree.com/blog/reflection-on-learning-summer-2020/> accessed on 17 march 2023.

Budhwar, P. and Mellahi, K., 2018. HRM in the Middle East. In Handbook of Research on Comparative Human Resource Management (pp. 487-499). Edward Elgar Publishing.

Cheng, M.M. and Hackett, R.D., 2021. A critical review of algorithms in HRM: Definition, theory, and practice. Human Resource Management Review, 31(1), p.100698

Dundon, T. and Rafferty, A., 2018. The (potential) demise of HRM?. Human Resource Management Journal, 28(3), pp.377-391.

Renwick, D.W., Jabbour, C.J., Muller-Camen, M., Redman, T. and Wilkinson, A., 2016. Contemporary developments in Green (environmental) HRM scholarship. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 27(2), pp.114-128.

Van Manen, M., 2016. Writing in the dark: Phenomenological studies in interpretive inquiry. Routledge.

Zubair, D.S.S. and Khan, M., 2019. Sustainable development: The role of green HRM. International Journal of Research in Human Resource Management, 1(2), pp.1-6.

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