Protecting Children's Development Through Nonviolent Families Assignment Sample

Analysing the risks and vulnerabilities domestic violence poses to children and adults in families

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1. Introduction Of The Difficulties Families Face (CYP 6092) Assignment

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Family creates a place of peace and security to t h e children and allows them to be developed in all aspects of life. In this study, different aspects of family violence have been studied and also provided with required interventions which could be adopted for better children's mental health and physical health outcome. Domestic violence also negatively affects the adult which resulted in a reduction in mental health and productivity. This study has followed the structure of first considering the risk and vulnerability of both children and adults and followed by the detection of problems that a family faces from domestic violence. Lastly, effective interventions and the scope of empowerment have been discussed.

2. Risk and vulnerabilities of children and adults

2.1 Risks and vulnerabilities associated with children

According to Connolly and Morris (2012), Concept of children and childhood can be defined alternatively by different cultures. This aspect of society has been determined by the demography, cultural, economic and political spheres of the society. As per the statement of Daniel et al. (2010), Domestic violence occurs due to Psychological, medical and social problems. It has been found that approximately 45% of Dutch people have experienced some sort of family violence. It has also been found that 80% of them are male perpetrators. This indicates a serious impact on the children by altering their mindset toward violence as they continue to think the world is full of violence. This puts the children at risks such as risks of low grades in schooling, risks of nonconformity to social norms, risks of being rebellious, criminal mentality, alcoholism and drug abuse.

All the above areas of risk put children in a vulnerable situation in society. It has been found by Plant et al. (2011), drug abuse becomes more common in children whose parents are in continuous clashes. This is because family isolation incurred due to regular violence in the same compelled the children to be in search of other mental support which indeed leads them to alcoholism and other vulnerabilities. It has been also found by Grant and Ray (2017), that domestic violence also puts children at risk and vulnerabilities which have been reflected in lower grades in schools and low social integration. This is of utmost importance for evaluation as this could lead the children to a criminal mentality and social rebellion. This could reduce their exceptionalities in society and reduce the scope for understanding social norms and regulations. Along with this, two common vulnerabilities that the children confront due to domestic violence are childhood loss and injuries.

Human life has been devastated by the pandemic globally. The lives of children have been devastated by the pandemic; women are also highly affected during the pandemic. The women and children of the UK have faced the crisis largely several factors have been affected that includes health, economic and social (Xue et al. 2020). Covid-19 has a devastating effect on women's and children's lives along with their health, education and livelihood. Due to the pandemic intense poverty is on rising, after 1998, for the first time. The health of the children appears less affected by the pandemic compare to the elders, a high interruption has been witnessed in the educational life of the children (Dlamini, 2021). The protective structure of the children has also been disrupted along with their communities and families they are placed under the stress of economic and health burdens. The pandemic period created issues for children and women in various aspects. During the lockdown period, periodic health checkups faced problems as most parts of the city disrupted transportation facilities (Caroline and Louise, 2020). Children face fundamental education issues due to shutdown in the learning process and internet issues also provide issues in the child's educational process.

Risks and vulnerabilities associated with children can be analyzed through many factors such as individual as well as environmental factors. In addition, “individual factors” mainly involves “mental and physical disabilities”, “mental health difficulties”, poor background, “unfair upbringing”, or inadequacy in homecare”. On the other hand, environmental factors mainly include “materialistic destitution”, health pattern of the parent and their behaviours, “education level of parents”, and “family stress level”, “violence occurs in intimate partners” and so on. The degree of child vulnerability can vary according to the changing and evolving nature of these individual and environmental factors. It has been also reported that children with disabilities also have a low chance to experience adequate socio-economic growth and development. Besides, inequality also contributes “poor mental health of the children”. In the same vein, children and adults from “poor socio-economical upbringings” are more chance “to develop mental difficulties” as compared to those who are “from high socio-economic backgrounds; material deprivation”. Perceiving “inferior social status” as well as “stronger parent-child transmissions” is also other factors that contribute to creating mental health difficulties. Environmental factors such as maltreatment including poverty and living in overcrowded houses and poor neighbourhoods and parental substance misuse also result in increasing the risk to vulnerable children.

2.2 Risks and vulnerabilities associated with the Adults

As per Groen and van Lawick, (2009), domestic violence initially takes place psychologically. Humiliation and counter humiliation meaning the genders are the prime cause of domestic violence. Author also notified that the majority of violence has begun from the female partner due to exorbitant frustration and provocation. Author also recognized that often their spouse and male partner have to retaliate for self-defense. With this, some male partners also start the initial argument with their spouses due to job and office-related frustrations. Other than that, the Author also stated that violence is intimately related to the patriarchal mindset of dominating women.

A combination of community, societal relational and individual factors contribute to risk and understanding these factors can help various opportunities for the prevention of domestic violence. Women who are abused may use alcohol or drugs as a way to cope which may cause many chronic health problems such as high blood pressure, and digestive unbalance. Gender-based violence results in sexual or mental harm consisting of threats. There are many causes of violence in the UK which mainly consist of exposure to violent media, home or neighbourhood and actions as hostile when they are not present (Gregory and Williamson, 2022). Unemployment and poverty are other serious troubles which deliver a tremendous amount of stress and deliver as domestic violence. From a survey of the UK, it is evaluated that 1 in 4 women face violence in their lifetime.

Both the male and female partners put them in vulnerable situations due to continuous domestic violence. As cited by Groen and van Lawick (2009), terrorizing either partner is the most crucial vulnerability based on which other risks and vulnerabilities occur in the family. This tension between partners could be deteriorating the job sectors of the partners which could further escalate the situation in the family. A situation, where one partner terrorizes others lastly leads each partner to terrorize the other. Therefore, a continuous sense of insecurity has to be confronted by the adults. Author also found that 45% of total domestic violence is mutual. This indicates that both genders become vulnerable in terms of psychopathology. This could lead to mental unrest in the partner and can also compel them to be either fully isolated from social activities or exorbitant social integration with other social entities other than their spouse. Therefore, it can be concluded that domestic violence not only affects the children in the family but also the adults in the same. This could be more disastrous to society as this is exponential and can negatively affect other families nearby or distant apart.

Health status, cognitive ability as well as social networks are considered major risk factors that are responsible for vulnerability in older adults. This can be analyzed by the prevalence of the patriarchal mindset and socialization of the children. If an individual seeking to gather the reason behind increasing domestic violence and risk then most of the cases are often related to patriarchal mindsets. On the other hand, “parents’ level of education” also significantly influences “children’s educational achievements”. This can be also recognised as one of the significant risks associated with the adult section of the community.

3. Range of problems families face and some methods of effective intervention and empowerment

3.1 Ranges of problems of families

The families face many challenges while staying together while including the followings. The different problems faced by families are Parenting Disagreements, Conflicts and arguments, financial problems, Work-Life balance, Sibling Rivalry and so on. It is often observed that parents fight due to disagreement between their thought regarding raising their children. People's thoughts differ from each other and with different thoughts, it's destinated that fights and conflict will happen. Most of the time family members cannot tolerate each other due to differentiation in thoughts which raises arguments among them. Many parents due to fights and arguments tend to get separated and divorced (Bernet et al. 2020). Divorce among the elders impacts the mental health of a child but the parents in a rage do not weigh the situation and get separated. Families tend to provide a safe and warm environment but sometimes it makes a person sad and disappointed. Family problems can affect an individual mentally and physically and can also have an emotional breakdown. Financial issues are the biggest problem in a family as it has been observed that families that have financial issues often have conflicts and fights. Financial issues sometimes lead to domestic violence that hurt the family member physically. The family members also become victims of domestic violence due to many factors. The financial and psychological issues of a person contribute to the increase in the case of domestic violence.

Domestic violence puts the family in a range of problems which includes economic, social, psychological, and health problems. These are integrated into each other and require a thorough understanding in order to detect the appropriate reason for problems. Economic problems have been created by domestic violence based on costs which have been incurred due to legal battles with spouses, alcoholism, child abuse and other problems which have been incurred due to domestic violence. All these family challenges incurred some kind of financial burden on the family. It has been found by Davies (2012) that the role of economic issues in the family occurred due to domestic violence. It has been further found by the author that domestic violence could be more detrimental if integrated with the legal battles with the spouse for divorce or separation. These two incurred other people to pay some kind of remuneration to the other partner. Other than that, it reduces the scope of education for children which could be detrimental to society.

Psychological problems can also be considered major problems due to domestic violence. This could lead to both financial losses for treating the affected family member and loss of early childhood of the children. This is consequential to the family members in the snake and it could reduce the mental outcome or intellectual development of the children. Health problems can also be a major problem for the family due to domestic violence, clashes among the couple could often lead to injury and sometimes death of one spouse. It has been found from the study conducted by Plant et al. (2011) that perpetual exposure to domestic violence could negatively affect the mental situation of the family member. This could even lead to brain hemorrhage and permanent brain damage in the children which could require a considerable amount of money for treating the same. Social disintegration can also be the problem of domestic violence among family members. It has been found by Grant and Ray (2017) that domestic violence could isolate the family and its members from neighbors. This could be detrimental to the mental well-being of the family.

3.2 Method of effective intervention and empowerment

The effective intervention and empowerment methods that can solve different problems of the families are as follows. The social worker can intervene in the family problems if any one of them won't help to solve the issues. The family members need to support each other in every situation. In a family, there are people that have different thoughts so the family members need to respect the thoughts of each family member. The family members can also get consolation from the psychologist to avoid conflicts and arguments in the family (Xiao et al. 2021). The family members can take a break and participate in hobbies to ensure that they stay out of unnecessary arguments in the family. Parents that face disagreement in the parenting style need to compromise with each other to ensure that the child does not face any mental health issues. The family members need to communicate with each other and share their happiness as well as sadness. It has been observed that family members avoid communicating with each other which leads to bigger issues and fights that cannot be solved over time. The family members in the case of domestic violence need to report it to the police so that the matter does not escalate. It has been observed that family members often stay quiet against domestic violence which gives more opportunities and encourages the family member to commit the crime of domestic violence.

According to Connolly and Morris (2012), child and family violence is sometimes bound to occur due to different reasons. This could be reduced by adopting appropriate measures such as rehabilitation of negatively affected family members, counseling of the same, and coordination fostering among the couples and others.

Figure 1: Resilience and vulnerability matrix

(Source: Daniel et al. 2010)

Intervention is required among the families which are affected by family violence this could be done by the state, welfare society or by the member of the same family. Most pertinent method for empowering is the counseling of the family members who regularly indulge in violence (Grant and Ray, 2017). This could be done by practicing councilors. Majority of domestic issues occurred due to misunderstandings which can be reduced by simple face-to-face conversations of the family members. This should be effective for other members to understand the basic reason for violence. Rehabilitation of the family members could also be adopted for whom who are not cooperating with other family members. It has been found from the study conducted by (Harris, 2011), role of civil society becomes crucial for the managing rehabilitation of the affected family member. Regular family time by the couple enforced by legal instruments could also be an effective intervention from the same to reduce the cases of domestic violence. This increases the coordination among the family members and reduces conflict among them. The above resilience matrix indicates the relation between vulnerability and resilience and the consolidation of protective factors.

4. Conclusion

It has been found from the different studies that domestic violence is not due to psychological factors but also arises due to other socio-economic and political factors. Appropriate intervention for empowerment could help reduce the negative impact of domestic violence on children and adults as well. It has been found also that the role of civil society, state and family members is crucial for reducing such anomalies in the family. Regular counseling of nonconformity in the family either by legal compulsion or by voluntary intervention could be both time and cost-effective. As domestic violence could be cost-concerning and can also reduce the economic consolidation of the family, it becomes pertinent to intervene from the family members or the organizations such as the state or civil society. As a last resort, rehabilitation could be adopted for reducing the effects of domestic violence on neighbors or children. Therefore it can be concluded that mere subversion and evaluation of domestic violence and its impact would not suffice the detrimental of the same. It requires more interventions and welfare measures.

References

Bernet, W., Gregory, N., Rohner, R.P. and Reay, K.M., 2020. Measuring the Difference Between Parental Alienation and Parental Estrangement: The PARQ?Gap. Journal of forensic sciences, 65(4), pp.1225-1234.

Caroline, B.J. and Louise, I., 2020. The pandemic paradox: The consequences of COVID-19 on domestic violence. https://onlinelibrary. wiley. com/doi/pdfdirect/10.1111/jocn. 15296. https://covid-19.conacyt.mx/jspui/bitstream/1000/2777/1/1102688.pdf

Connolly, M. and Morris, K., 2011. Understanding child and family welfare: Statutory responses to children at risk. Bloomsbury Publishing.

Daniel, B., Wassell, S. and Gilligan, R., 2011. Child development for child care and protection workers. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Davies, M.B., 2012. Social work with children and families. Bloomsbury Publishing.

Dlamini, N.J., 2021. Gender-based violence, twin pandemic to COVID-19. Critical Sociology, 47(4-5), pp.583-590. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0896920520975465

Grant, K.B. and Ray, J.A. eds., 2018. Home, school, and community collaboration: Culturally responsive family engagement. Sage Publications.

Gregory, A. and Williamson, E., 2022. ‘I think it just made everything very much more intense’: a qualitative secondary analysis exploring the role of friends and family providing support to survivors of domestic abuse during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Family Violence, 37(6), pp.991-1004. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10896-021-00292-3

Harris, B., 2011. Working with distressed young people. Learning Matters.

Knowles, B. and Cole, T., 2011. How to help children and young people with complex behavioural difficulties: a guide for practitioners working in educational settings. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Plant, M., Robertson, R., Miller, P. and Plant, M., 2011. Drug Nation: Patterns, Problems, Panics & Policies. Oxford University Press.

van Lawick, J. and Groen, M., 2018. Intimate Warfare: Regarding the fragility of family relations. Routledge.

Xiao, X., Ngai, F.W., Zhu, S.N. and Loke, A.Y., 2020. The experiences of early postpartum Shenzhen mothers and their need for home visit services: a qualitative exploratory study. BMC pregnancy and childbirth, 20(1), pp.1-12.

Xue, J., Chen, J., Chen, C., Hu, R. and Zhu, T., 2020. The hidden pandemic of family violence during COVID-19: unsupervised learning of tweets. Journal of medical Internet research, 22(11), p.e24361. https://www.jmir.org/2020/11/e24361/

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