This report will discuss the four different culture models and their influence on the organisation. It will also discuss different definitions of leaders provided by the sources, such as Hofstede, Trompenaars, and the GLOBE. Moreover, the report will talk about how an organisation transforms into a multicultural organisation. In addition to this, impacts of group memberships on leader will be elaborated along with a discussion on obstacle new leadership styles face in traditional companies.
The concept of organisational culture was introduced in the 1970s and they got popularised in the late 1990s. The four models of culture that got developed with time are: Hofstede, Trompenaars, GLOBE, and Edgar Schein’s culture model.
Hofstede Culture Model: This is one of the most comprehensive models that studied the role of culture in influencing the values at workplace. According to Hofstede, culture is defined as “the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of a particular team from others.”In his culture model, he determined five dimensions of culture: power distance, masculinity-femininity, individualism-collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, indulgence and long-term orientation. (Schneider, et.al, 2013).
Trompenaars’s culture model
Trompenaar introduced a seven dimensional model to distinguish people from one culture from another. The model is used to understand the individuals belonging to different culture in a better way. This way one can easily avoid misunderstanding(Hughes, 1993). The seven dimensions are:-
GLOBE Culture Model: GLOBE
GLOBE study is developed to conceptualise the long-term multi-facet program that validates the cultural dimensions and their linkage with leadership. GLOBE utilises the inferences of the Hofstede's research of organisational culture and elaborates it further in order to relate it with the leadership concept in culture. GLOBE defined culture as shared values, motives, identities, and beliefs and envisaging important events that result from collective experiences of the employees that are passed on to the future generation. (Goetsch& Davis, 2014). GLOBE has added four dimensions to the Hofstede’s theory which are:-
Edgar Schein Organisational Culture Model
Edgar Schein believed that organisations takes time to adopt culture. Changes cannot be implemented in just a single day. It takes place gradually as the employees have to undergo various changes. They learn from the experience and mistakes and start implementing them in their modus operandi. According to Schein, there are 3 levels in an organisation (Hughes, 1993).
Hofstede, Trompenaars, and GLOBE analysed various employees and leaders across the world. Theyhave developed certain dimensions that they have used to define the culture of firms and countries. In his research, Hofstede determined four dimensions that characterise the culture: power distance, individualism-collectivism, masculinity-femininity, and uncertainty avoidance.Hofstede laid the groundwork in the research work for organisational culture. The. GLOBE project research is all about how traits are perceived in effective leadership across the globe (Chhokar, et.al, 2013). It was founded to analyse the organisational values, norms, and leader’s beliefs in various societies. GLOBE has identified six leadership styles (House, et.al, 2013) :-
A multicultural organisation can be defined as the firm that consists of people from different origin, culture, race, and demography who are integrated across the organisational structure. Such employees have different ethnicities and background. Such organisations discourage any kind of discrimination and aptitude, skills, and talent are the only criteria to get success in such firms. For a company that is aiming at becoming the multicultural organisations, some important points are provided below (Chemers, 2014).:-
Group membership can be defined as the association of two or more individuals working together. In an organisation, leadership and its effectiveness can be affected by a number of factors. Group membership is one such factor that can have direct impacts on the leaders, his/her leadership styles and its effectiveness. Talking about the impact on the leadership style, the membership can influence the choice of selection of the leadership style in an organisation. For instance, participative leadership style is all about putting attention on each and every member of the group and discussing the problem with them before making the final decision (Verba, 2015). The larger the size of the group the lesser attention will be given to the member and more time will be consumed in the decision-making. Groups with a large number of members are often chaotic, unorganised, less educated, and have low productivity. Therefore, in order to handle them, the autocratic leadership style is adopted out of compulsion. These issues have been seen in the areas like political parties, assembly line plant, etc. If the number of members in the group is less and servant leadership style is chosen, then this may result in better efficiency. On the other hand, if the same is implemented in the large groups, then there would be a widespread hold-up and chaos. Apart from this, the situational leadership style is suitable for groups of all size. This is due to the fact that leaders make decisions based on the abilities of the employees or followers.
The impact of group membership on the group effectiveness is also quite significant. The lesser the number of members in a team, lesser will be the distractions and more will be the productivity and better performance of the members. In small groups, the leader's actions are considered to the scrutiny of member's action. This raises the standards of the leaders and his leadership style. The effectiveness of the leadership can be judged based on the dimension, such as stability, communication, problem-solving, skills set, interactions, etc. Some leaders believe in the concept of ‘leading by example'. However, this strategy loses its effectiveness when applies to a larger group. In large groups, the leader starts to participate and the followers take everything for granted. This demotivates the leaders. The size of the group has a significant role in the effectiveness of the leadership style (Bealer&Bhanugopan, 2014).
There are many leadership challenges that new leadership often face in traditional firms (Scott, 2015). These are explained below:-
The following report highlighted the leadership and some aspects related to it. There were five questions that were answered thoroughly. The first question discussed the four different culture models and their influence on the organisation. The second talked about different types of leadership provided by the sources, such as Hofstede, Trompenaars, and the GLOBE. Moreover, the third question explained how an organisation transforms into a multicultural organisation. The last and the fourth elaborated impacts of group memberships on the leader.
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