According to Ali& Lai (2016), change management is all about managing and adopting the changes in the business environment (both internal as well as external). It can be termed as an approach that assists in supporting and guiding business professional to follow the guidelines and regulations that are advantageous for them. The researcher also talked about change management as an effective tool in making the best use out of the limited resources available in the organisation. Some author often called it as change control and use it in managing the rapidly changing business scenarios. One of the most effective models of change management was given by Curt Lewin which he named as Lewin’s Change Management Model. According to this model, there exist 3 stages of change management (Jayatilleke& Lai, 2018). The first one is Unfreeze, wherein the firm is made adaptable to the changes. The second stage is all about implementing the changes within the organisation and the last stage is all about evaluating the changes so as to ensure that whether or not the variations are implemented within the firm successfully and what could be the future changes required in the firm. All these stages are quintessential for the company in regards to sustainable development.
Importance of Change Management
As mentioned by Levasseur(2010), there are numerous advantages to the organisation's change management strategies. For instance, an organisation undergoing poor employee performance and motivation to work, the change management strategies can act as a factor that motivates not only the employees but also the manager (Levasseur, 2010). It has been seen that bringing changes in the modus operandi can challenge the employee to make use of new ideas and innovation. This breaks the monotony at work and motivates them to carry out their work with zeal and enthusiasm. Another advantage is that the firm can be able to realign its existing resources with respect to its future objectives by making use of the change management process (Palma, et.al, 2011). The author also outlined that this process is significant for assisting workers and guiding them to accept the changes in a manner which is quite operational. In addition to this, the staff performance issue can be resolved with it. According to Nolan (2012), there are numerous factors (both internal and external business environment). It has been seen that employees are usually reluctant to organisational changes and do not easily accept them. Hence, it is very crucial for the organisations to guide them effectively in order to make them understand the importance of the changes for the organisation and their personal development too.
There are innumerable changes that may strike the environment of an organisation. Therefore, an organisation should understand that change management is one of the pillars of the organisation. Another benefit stated by Raineri (2011) is that change management increases the return on investment (ROI) of a firm by making it well-prepared for the future contingencies.
Relationship between Change Management and Organisational Leadership
According to Quintana, et.al, (2012), change management is one of the processes that require effective leadership. Since the process is structured by top leaders and managers, top-notch leadership is required within an organisation. Raineri(2011) states that the style of leadership and approaches are the key ingredient of an effective change management plan. It has been noticed that if a leader or manager is understanding and supportive, then managing changes become quite easier for the organisation as he can persuade them to accept the change. Change control is also correlated with the leadership style of manager or leaders. They can motivate and guide the workers to go along with the changes and accept them for the betterment of their career and company as well. Once the workers accept the changes, they would reap the benefits of the organisational success in the coming days. Only effective leaders and managers are capable of implementing change management strategies effectively throughout the organisation.
Change Management Process and Models
As stated by Rice (2013), change management is the process with numerous steps and each step is required to be carried out effectively in order to conduct day-to-day operations within an organisation. The first and foremost step is analysing the change. It is very significant to identify the change. It has been seen that changes usually take place within an internal and external environment. Once this is done, the business organisation would for presenting the change management to all the stakeholders of the company. Once the changes are accepted by the stakeholders, the changes are implemented throughout the organisational operations. Stakeholders are directly affected by the change management procedure of the organisation.
Lines, et.al, (2015) highlights the next step of implementing the change management process within an organisation. The step is all about planning for the change. The senior management of the company is obligated to formulate the effective change management plan. They will act as the roadmap or blueprint for the company to do a task. The management plan would be comprising detailed objectives and goals that are to be achieved during the course of actions. The plan will comprise the well prepared and documented roles and responsibilities of each and every concerning person along with the duties that are required from them. The prerequisite of every implementation stage is the deep knowledge of changes and their side-effects or outcomes. In addition to this, the experience of the manager is also a factor that increases the accountability of the change management plan (Godlewski, Lee, & Cooper, 2012).
The next step in the complete administration of the change control is the establishment of a well-functioning communication system. There must be strong communication between senior and lower-level management and employees (Godlewski, Lee, & Cooper, 2012). There should not be any gap between them. In case of change control, it is desirable to have written or documented communication in order to avoid any miscommunication or discrepancies in the latter stages. The written communication can help each and every employee in the firm about the change and what the company expects from them (Lines, et.al, 2015).
Once the communication is established, the next step in the process of change administration is the monitoring part, wherein all the expected risks within the functioning of the firm are analysed (Javanparast, et.al, 2018). It is known that every process is characterised by some sort of budgets or funding allocated specifically for that particular operation. Hence, it is quintessential to implement and monitor the process in order to ensure that it does not go beyond the budgetary constraint. In addition to this, the process of monitoring is carried out in order to ensure that the entire process of change control and administration is carried out effectively or not (Javanparast, et.al, 2018).
The next step in the change management process as stated by Hornstein(2015) is the commemoration of the success of the execution of the change management plan. When the change administration is successfully carried out, then it is important for the manager to celebrate. This would also help the workers in making sure that changes are not affecting their personal development and are not impacting their growth negatively (Hwang& Low, 2012).
The last step is about making the revision in the change management plan and this would ensure that whatever be the discrepancies in the current plan should be rectified at the earliest (Hoek, et.al, 2010). In addition to this, the changes can be managed properly in order to carry out business operation effectively. The key to a successful change control plan is to analyse and study the business environment for identifying future requirements and deal with business atrocities (Godlewski, Lee, & Cooper, 2012).
To better explain and implement the CMP to the employees, Change management (2018) explained the Kubler-Ross change curve which is the widely called “five stages of grief.” The curve breakdown of how people undergo change generally. The five stages given in this model are denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance. Bröchner&Badenfelt(2011) highlighted that changing a business environment is not a cakewalk, there are emotions of people attached to it that are required to be considered while formulating the plan.
From the literature review, many new facts about change management were revealed. For instance, change management also depends on the leadership of an organisation. In addition to this, it was also discussed that employees are usually in the denial phase to any change in the internal environment of the company. The steps of the change management implementation were also discussed thoroughly. Ultimately, Kubler-Ross change curve was discussed and it was revealed that emotions are requirde to be considered while formulating any plan for the organisation.
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