The teaching, learning and assessment in education and training will be able to promote equality and diversity through the approaches to education and training (Reece and Walker, 2016.). In order to guide the student an essential role is being played by an educator or teacher. A range of activities are included in order to improve teaching. In order to collect the evidences of about where the learners are their in their learning the assessment can be used. To meet the needs of the learner the teaching and learning can be adapted.
In this report the role of a teacher based on their own job description will be presented .And the code of practice related to their own areas of teaching , eduction and training will also be discussed in this report. This report will be further recognize the importance to meet the individual learning needs of the learners. The different type of assessment will also be represented in this report.
A period of initial assessment is undergone by all learners. The individual learning and support needs are being recognized by using the concept of initial assessment. With this the individual learning plan is being designed that will be give the structure for their learning. For the learning programme this will determine the starting point of the learner. During the learning programme the leaning needs are the skills, knowledges and competence that a learner needs to acquire. Support needs are the additional aid that is being given to the learners in order to deal with the obstacles which may present them from fulfilling their learning programme. At the beginning of any new class it is imperative that diagnosis assessment takes place in the first class. The clear indication will be given through this about where the individual learner stands and in order to highlight the areas where that students may need additional support and assistance this tool is important (Savery, 2015.).
At time of delivering one to one tutorial this can be then be taken and with the students this can be spoken about. It may appropriate to refer to the students after this has taken place in order to give them extra classes for support in the areas such as numeracy or English. The clear indication of extra classes can be given through the initial diagnosis. I think it will be useful for teachers as at the time of preparing the lesson plan these can be involved by them so that in any specific are no student is single out and as a whole the class are learning at same level .During my role as a teacher it is essential that each new learner has a starting point from where to start the lesson. By the use of initial assessment procedure this can be found. To the learning process initial assessment is a vital link. With this I can identify each learners starting point. The currant level of the ability of the learners can be identified with this and in functional skills and personal and social skill their need for support will be identified. I will be able to learn my learners at this time. From somewhere every leaner need to start (Simonson, Smaldino and Zvacek, 2014.).
By using the initial assessments I will be give a chance to asses the current knowledge of my learner and this will also enable to make sure that on the right course that suits the needs of the learners is enrolled. The individual needs of the leaner can be discovered by me during the initial assessment process. It is being stipulated by the equality act 2010 that education providers are obliged legally in order to make reasonable adjustment to assist and guide the learners with their disabilities participate and achieve in education. Around the learners the learning process need to be based and the learners will be given a chance to indulge any concerns or worried about the course through this initial assessments. This can also help me to plan the course that will suit the needs and requirements of the learner. The foundation for my learners journey can be layed by me by using the initial assessment. In order to develop preferring learning styles initial assessment can also be used. On the individual ability and desire to learn the learning are based.
The visual, auditory and kinaesthetic are three main learning styles. Most of the learners are multi model that implies that not preferential styles is being used by them. Through experiences I am inclined to think that learning styles can also be task motivated and on the various past experience that learners has this could depend. In order to assist and guide me to discover and target which specific areas of learning need to be developed the diagnosis assessment can be used in order to achieve their learning goals. For an instance with maths a learner can have problem but after diagnosis it being found that in order to understand the fraction he has a problem. In order to achieve the final outcomes this would then highlight what requirements need to be concentrated in order to help the learners on understand the fractions.
It is essential for the teacher to recognize the individual learning needs due to following reasons-:
Achieving quality – There are children in the classroom with behavioural, emotional or other challenges. This may limit their abilities of learning. The education is acquired by the learners without any barriers when the teacher identified their weakness and apply various measures to overcome them. From the rest of the class this will make sure that challenged learners does not feel left out (Susan Wallace, 2011).
Developing talents - In the classroom the needs are not always negative. The process understanding their skills is usually undergone by the learners. The teacher has enough experience to tell whether the learners have that specific skill or talent. In order to develop the nurturing is needs to develop skills and talents. Once it is being recognized by the teacher then the essential support is given by them to develop them
Developing interest - The moral of the learners is boosted when the teacher identify and meet the ends of the learners they will feel motivated. The individually prescribed instruction that is given by the teacher helps many learners to understand and grasp concepts of education. To the subjects of art and mathematics this is more applied. The learners will develop if they will feel support from their tutor (Thomas, 2015).
Diagnosis assessment and its importance
In order to determine the strength, weaknesses, knowledge and skills of the student prior to the instruction diagnosis assessment can be used. To diagnose the difficulties of the student it is used primarily and also guides the lesson and curriculum planning. With this the teacher will measure the truce learning of the student. A preview of what is being expected from child is being given by this assessment. For the future lesson the idea is being given to the learners .
As the systematic collection, interpretation and use of information about learning the assessment can be defined. A better understanding to the teachers can given through assessment as it will make them aware about what the learners know and understand. This will also help the teacher to know about the skill and personal abilities of their learners. The quality assessment practice can be underpin by the five principles. The first one is that it should be complementary and supportive to the learning. The assessment need to be valid and reliable and for the purpose and manageable it should fit in. The teachers professional judgement it should support. For different reasons a range of assessment approaches can be used at different stages in the learning sequence
1. Formative assessment -
By the teachers it is used during the learning process. To the successful teaching and learning assessment is essential. A link between teaching and learning is being given though assessment. In order to discover what has actually taken place in learners developing understanding during a sequence of learning and teaching assessment can help them. It is used in order to change the training and learning activities in order to enhance the pupil attainment. This is a range of formal and informal procedures. On improving learning the formative approaches focuses mainly. The diagnostic testing is included in this type of amassment. For both the students and teacher the qualitative type of feedback is included in this inn order to pay attention on details of the content and performance. With summative assessment it is commonly contrasted. In order to recognize the concepts that learners struggle to understand the formative assessments can help. The detailed information is gathered by the formative assessments in order to enhance the learning of the student while it is taking place. The integral part of formative assessment is etching and learning .By providing feedback it will contribute towards the learning. Not only home-work and test are included in a formative assessment but with the student it can also be an interactive process with the learners. For an instance group discussion with the learners can include allowing them to write question and answers before to learning a topic. One of the valuable component of the formative assessment process is descriptive feedback (Wanner and Palmer, 2015.).
2. Summative assessment –
In this the focus in on the realist of the program. At the neds of a learning sequence summative assessment comes and at a given point it is used to acknowledge, record and report on overall achievement of the pupil. At the conclusion of a defined instructional period summative assessments are used to analyse the learning, skill acquisition and academic achievement of a student. In order to find out whether the student have learned what is expected from them the test, assignment projects are used. At the conclusion of a specific instructional period summative assessments are given and therefore they are generally evaluation and not diagnosis. In most districts , schools ad course summative assessments are typically a major compensate of the grading process. The standardised tests are one of the most well-known and widely discussed example of summative assessment. In order to quantify achievement or to rewards achievement summative assessment can be used. The high stakes test, standardised state exams, mid terms and final exams etc are some examples of summative assessment. In order to check the students' mastery of a subject summative assessment can be used. The questions for the use of parents are also included in many textbooks based on instruction that is given(Jackie, 2015)..
3. Diagnosis assessment –
The experience of the learners is improved through the diagnosis assessment and also this will also enhance their level of achievement. The strength of the learner will be recognise and also the areas where the learners need to improve will also be identified from this assessment. In order to diagnose the difficulties of the student diagnosis assessment can be used. This will help the teacher to discover the strength, weaknesses , knowledge and skills prior to instruction. It is beneficial for both the instructor and the students. It will help the teacher to plan meaningful and efficient instruction. For an instance through this assessment the teacher before only will know whether the student knows about this assessment or not. This will help the teacher to pay attention more on the topics that learners still need to be learn rather than on the topics that students already know (Xu and Brown, 2016. ). In order to individualize instruction this type of assessment will provide information. On a particular portion of a unit or course of study it may show a teacher that addition instruction is needed by a small group of students. For these students then remediation can be provided by the teacher so that with new content they can fully engage in this assessment. In order to assess the future learning the baseline is created for assessment . Before the instruction has occurred it shows both the teacher and the students what is knows before. On a topic this will set a baseline. For an instance with group work the instructor will survey students prior experiences and also the attitude of the student towards the group work will also be surveyed by the instructor.
4. Evaluation assessment –
With the overall performance of an arrangement on a department, school or system this assessment is concerned. At all the levels for the performance of the school system this assessment will make sure that there is appropriate accountability. In order to monitor this is used to inform curriculum planing and provide information.
5. Dynamic assessment –
At times the teaching is being given on some unfamiliar topic or field then this type of assessment will help to measure what is being achieved by the student. By continuously using the dynamic assessment the teachers make every efforts to neglect both scenarios .This assessment can be used in order to discover what is the actual learning needs of the each student. From the culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds assessment the children is not an easy task. The learning process is being emphasized by the dynamic assessment. For the student it can be highly interactive and process-oriented. A test-teach-retest model is used by this assessment. On the ability of the individual the emphasis is pay by this assessment. In a structured way the dynamic amassment can be done. For an instance to an unknown object a teacher might refer during the pretend play and after some time it is being notice that particular new work is picked by the child and that child have begun using it.
6. Synoptic assessment –
In this type of assessment two or more than two modules are combined in a single assessment (Race, 2014.). In order to make connections with modules such type of assessment can help the children. This assessment will also increase the involvement of the students and also an opportunity to the teaching staff will be given in order to adopt a holistic approach for delivering the module. The goal of this assessment is the underline of the modularization of the curriculum. At the course design stage Synoptic assessment must be carefully built. In between the course teams and a good and efficient communication is required. A clear communication is needed of instruction and expectation. Across the module team the careful planning and coordination's is needed in this assessment.
7. Criteria references tests and assessment –
In order to measure the performance of the students against a fixed set of predetermined criteria or learning standards these type of assessment is designed. This type of assessment is used in elementary and secondary education in order to find out whether the specific body of knowledge is learned by student or not. The test will be prepared by the students if they have answers a certain percentage of questions correctly. If the expected standards is not met by the student who have taken the Criteria references tests and assessment then that student will fail the exam. On the other side if the expected standard are met by the student the highest possible score will also be earned by the student. The multiple choice questions or true -false question or open ended questions are included in the Criteria references tests and assessment. In order to use the test in a specific course the individual teacher may design the test. This test can also be high-stakes test as in order to make an essential decisions about students, educators , schools this test can be used. In Schools the Criteria references tests and assessment that are created by the individual teachers are also very common. For an instance a test can be evaluated by the history teacher in order to find out the understanding and retention of unit. In this case the criteria might include the causes and timeline of the war, the nations that were included, the dates and places of the battles etc. A test may be designed by the teacher in order to examine the student understanding of the criteria and a minimum passing score will also criteria references tests and assessment (Ou, 2015).
8. Ipsative assessment-
Based on the earlier skills of the learners this assessment will help to determine the progress of the students. The performance is being compared with the earlier performance in order to find whether any improvement is being made.
9. Non-referenced assessment-
The relative performances of the students is being compared in this assessment. The ranking of the students is involved in this type of assessment or their grades or marks are also scaled.
10. Static assessment –
At a singular time this assessment is being carried out and the additional feedback is not included in this. This assessment completely differs from dynamic assessment.
By the research of Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky the methods and approaches to teaching has being greatly influenced (Kirkwood and Price, 2014). To the fields of education both of them have contributed by giving explanations about the cognitive learning style and abilities of the children. The ways in which the cognitive development of children is viewed may differ in both of these theories that Piaget and Vygotsky but these both theories offer educators with good suggestion on how to each certain materials in developmentally proper manner.
Piaget theory of communication
It is being proposed by the Piaget that in infant the cognitive development takes place from infant to young adult in four stages .These stages are as follows-: sensorimotor, pre operational, concrete operations and formal operations. The child is in the sensorimotor stage on between the ages of zero and tow years of age. During this stage that his or her own world is experienced by the child. Through the senses and through movement this experience is being experienced by the child. Also the object permanence is also developed by the child during the latter part of the sensorimotor stage With this the child can understand that there is exists a object even though it is not within that area of vision (Entwistle, 2015.).
It is also being understood by the child that his/her actions s could course another action. For an instance they will know that by kicking a phone the phone will start moving. The above examples show the goal -directed behaviour of the child. In the sensorimotor stage the child can also reverse their actions .The child is considered to be in the peri-operational stage during a child second and seven year. During this stage Piaget stated that the ability of mental operation is still not achieved by the child. The ability to think through actions is still not thee in the child during this stage. The acquisitions of the skill of conservation is another essential aspect of this stage. In between the age of seven to eleven years the concrete operation occurs. In the later elementary years the students learn best through hands-on discovery learning .In this stage the reasoning process also begin to take shape. The identity, compensation and reversibility are the three basic reasoning skills that are acquired during this stage. It is being learned by the child during this stage that a person or thing remain same over time period. From the age of eleven to adulthood the final stage of cognitive development that is formal operations takes place in children. During this stage people are able to think abstractly. The skills such as inductive and deductive reasoning abilities area also being achieved by them. In order to solve the problem the people in this stage make use of various resources and strategies. The complex thinking and hypothetical thinking skills is being developed in the people (Baldwin, 2016). One is able to recognize the factors of a problem and produces the solution through hypothetical deductive reasoning. The best possible solution or principles are also imagined by the people in this stage.
Based on this theory various teaching strategies is being made by the teachers .The actions and the verbal instruction will be sued by the teachers in the pre-operational stage as the child has not yet mastered the mental operation. The his/her actions need to be demonstrated by teacher as the child still not think through process. In this stage the use of visual aids will benefit the child (Comparing Piaget and Vygotsky, 2017.). The hands on learning need to be attached to the children during the concrete operational stage .In this the students also need to be motivated to perform experiments .The children will develop the logical and analytical thinking skills by performing experiments and soling problems. The short instruction also need to be provided by the teacher. The opportunity to advance the skills in scientific reasoning and problem solving need to be given to the children by the teachers during the formal operational stage. The open-ended project should also be offered to the students.
Bernstein theory of communication
To the study of communication a significant contribution was made by this theory. It is being shown by this theory that in very day conversation an essential role is being played by the language. Within the social group the relationship that are established get affected by the ways language is being used and also the type of speech that is used. The elaborated and restricted code are the two types of language codes. For the insiders who share the assumption the restricted code are suitable .However on the other side the elaborated codes do not assume that these assumptions or understanding are shared by the listener. The elaborated code are ore explicit , more thorough and it also not need to the listener to read between the lines. On the background knowledge and share understanding the speaker draw in the restricted code. A sense of includeness is developed in this type of code. Among friends and families and other intimately knot groups the restricted group can be found. Since the early 1970s the Bernstein code of theory in sociology have undergone a considerable development. In both education and linguistics it has a huge influence (Jackie, 2015).
Vygotsky theory of communication
In the field of psychology and eduction the Vygotsky theory also became a major influence. Through the social interactions and their culture the students can also learn a lot. In the cultural setting the human activities takes place. Through the process when the child receives help then he or she may be able to make use of better strategies in the future. For the sociocultural perspective scaffolding is another principle of this theory. With the hints or clues to solve the problem is being provided in the scaffolding .In order to offer a student a better approach to solve any problem in the future. The encouragement and strategies will be provided in this theory .The strategies will form in order to assist the student to attempt the problem. The major principle of Vygotsky sociocultural theory is considered as the development of language. The cultural beliefs and the value system is being indicated by the language of a certain group of people. As the same way the children learn cognitive skill the children learn the language in the same way. In the language development it is very essential that a child' thinking regarding this constraint of language. The private speech is also included in the other aspect of language development. In order to guide actions and help in thinking the private speech can be used. The importance of cultural tools in cognition is also being emphasized in this theory. The help in the communication can be provided by the cultural tolls as it can be technological tool. In order to solve the problem or help in learning the various cultural tools are available such as language, media, televisions, computers and books (Claire, 2012).
For teaching if the teacher is making use of Vyothskian methods then it will be a very active member in education of student. By providing assistance the teacher would apply the technique of scaffolding. And when relating new information the feedback can also be offered. It should be ensured by the teachers that adequate amount of tools need to be given to the students for learning. In order to better utilize the tools in the future the student need to be taught through the use of tools such as computer, resource books and graphs.
Thus summing up the above report it can be concluded that to the learners the safe and secure environment need to be given by teachers and also they need to discover way to promote equality and diversity. Also, the quizzes, discussion etc ned to be organized in the classroom so that to promote diversity and equality. By using the concept of initial assessment the individual needs and support needs are identified by the teachers. The various tools such as computers, resources books etc need to be used by teacher during teaching as it will help the children in their learning.
Books and journals
Claire G., 2012. Perfect Assessment for Learning . Crown House Publishing, 2012
Jackie B., 2015. The Perfect Lesson - Third Edition: Revised and updated. Crown House Publishing, 2015
Baldwin, M., 2016. Social work, critical reflection and the learning organization. Routledge.
Entwistle, N. ed., 2015. Handbook of Educational Ideas and Practices (Routledge Revivals). Routledge.
Kirkwood, A. and Price, L., 2014. Technology-enhanced learning and teaching in higher education: what is ‘enhanced’and how do we know? A critical literature review. Learning, media and technology, 39(1), pp.6-36.
Ou, C., 2015. Innovation and Change in English Language Teaching: Theory and Practice. English Today, 31(3), pp.59-60.
Race, P., 2014. The lecturer's toolkit: a practical guide to assessment, learning and teaching. Routledge.
Reece, I. and Walker, S., 2016. Teaching, training and learning: A practical guide. Business Education Publishers Ltd.
Savery, J.R., 2015. Overview of problem-based learning: Definitions and distinctions. Essential readings in problem-based learning: Exploring and extending the legacy of Howard S. Barrows, 9, pp.5-15.
Simonson, M., Smaldino, S. and Zvacek, S.M. eds., 2014. Teaching and learning at a distance: Foundations of distance education. IAP.
Susan Wallace. 2011. Teaching, Tutoring and Training in the Lifelong Learning Sector. The Perfect Series. Achieving QTLS Series. SAGE, 2011
Thomas, P.A., 2015. Curriculum development for medical education: a six-step approach. JHU Press.
Wanner, T. and Palmer, E., 2015. Personalising learning: Exploring student and teacher perceptions about flexible learning and assessment in a flipped university course. Computers & Education, 88, pp.354-369.
Xu, Y. and Brown, G.T., 2016. Teacher assessment literacy in practice: A reconceptualization. Teaching and Teacher Education, 58, pp.149-162.
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