Introduction of UNIT-503 Professional Practices in Education and Training
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The term professionalism is one of the most discussed terms in recent years, especially in a few work setting such as education and training schools where this term is of great value and importance. in the recent era of education, professionalism can be considered critical as it drives individual practice. Also, in the educational setting, it is important to know about the social, political, and economic factors which influence education policy in recent times. The same has been discussed comprehensively in this report. In the present education system, there has been a lot of effort and attention given to the roles of the stakeholders in the educational settings which drives the education system along with proper checks on the quality systems in the educational establishment so that the quality of education can be improved. Professionals such as teachers are in a continuous effort to evaluate themselves to improve their capabilities which helps them to achieve success in their field.
1.1. Define the concept of professionalism and dual professionalism in education and training
Professionalism refers to the attributes and characteristics of the skilled and trained individual who are in a specific professional role. The Government of the United Kingdom lists a few professions which can be categorized as recognized professions including a nurse, accountant and a teacher or a lecturer. There are roles which need to be filled by the professional do not imply that the individual holding these professions will act like a professional (Kravchenko et al., 2020).
To define what a profession is, there have been several theories and models that have been outlined which enable the evaluation of the role to judge if that profession is required to be considered as a profession. According to Kravchenko et al., (2020) the models of professionalism, a profession is something which should include the following;
- Intellectual education and training
- A code of behaviour or conduct
- Theoretical knowledge
- A mindset to serve people
When working as a teacher, the individual should be professional in teaching and should also show professionalism in the subject that a teacher teaches. This can be referred to as a dual profession. According to Evetts (2014), teaching and the process of learning is a sophisticated process where it demands professionals and teachers to possess dual professionalism and can integrate experience and expertise to provide an excellent learning process and excellent teaching. There has always been the recruitment of experienced teachers by the educational and other establishments which would be relevant to the courses that need to be delivered and these teachers are recruited to bring understanding and knowledge to teaching people (Coenders and Verhoef, 2019). However, this is unless those teachers are effective as ineffective teachers may not pass the knowledge to students which imply that they are not working as dual professionals.
There have been pre-defined standards for teachers that state that the teachers must be qualified as per the standard requirement to be called qualified teachers. The qualification that is required to be a qualified teacher should be about the specific subject area that is being taught which should minimum of one level above what is currently being taught to the students (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2019). Despite these requirements to be a qualified teacher, there have been aspects in which the teaching profession suffers problems of low status in the society, inability to control their selection process, degree of interference of the government which further leads to low bargaining power, low status and low compensation (Evetts, 2014).
However, various authorities have set up various professional standards for the teaching sector. These standards include the following;
- Teachers are committed to developing and maintaining their expertise in the dual aspect of their profession to ensure the best education is given to the students and learners.
- Teachers are subjects in learning and teaching.
- The teacher should draw suitable research as part of their practice which should be evidence-based (Kravchenko et al., 2020).
1.2. Explain ways in which your professional values influence your practice in an area of specialism
It is worth noting that our professional values influence the practice, especially in the profession of teaching. Teaching professionally should be inculcated so that the student can respect and learn how to be professional. This can be done by respecting other teachers and staff and by ensuring that there is a certain boundary while interacting with the students (Magnus et al., 2018). Also, one of the important professional values is to understand the ability of the students while teaching them as doing so will help the teacher to relate everything they teach to the students. This value in turn increases the level of engagement of the students and helps the students to be ready for their careers ahead. Also, our professional values should be in line with the teaching standards and the industry standards (Lofthouse, 2019).
One of the elements that influence our professional values is the actual practice in an actual teaching environment. This means that teachers should be in a position to teach the units assigned to them and have the integrity to either take the unit for teaching or make it clear that the experience is not enough to teach the particular unit that has been assigned (Poorchangizi et al., 2019). Teachers assigned to teach about technology and computing should be aware of the latest technological and industrial trends so that they can give the best knowledge to the students. The reason for being aware of the technology and industry is due to the ever-changing nature of technology and industry. Another element of showcasing the professional values is through reflecting on what has been taught to the students by analyzing how the class went and what elements can be improved so that the student can take the best advantage of the teaching and the subject by gaining appropriate knowledge from the teachings and apply them in their lives (Lofthouse, 2019).
Also, various ethical professional values need to be considered in the teaching practice. For example, being strongly against piracy of the software and educating the students on the impact of piracy. Also, the teacher would educate the student about the pollution caused by the data centre industry than the service industry and therefore there is a need for awareness among the students about the consequences of using Google search as it consumes a lot of energy (Ivaniuk et al., 2020). As a part of professional values, the teacher should include an explanation of the student's future career prospects. For example, after their graduation, they will be likely to be in competition and work in different countries they will have to face different cultures, values, salaries and other factors such as differences in time zones. This practice as a teacher will help the students to be aware of their future and take necessary steps such as skill development as a part of their preparation for a specific job in a specific industry or a country (Alekhina et al., 2018). Hence, it can be said that our professional values influence our practice in an area of specialism and help the student to provide knowledge outside of the course materials so that they are aware of the outside world in advance.
2.1. Explain ways in which social, political and economic factors influence education policy
There are various factors which impact the education policy in the United Kingdom. These consists of social factors, economic factors and political factors. A social factor consists of the factors related to society and individuals. A political factor refers to the policies of the government and its practice and finally, economic factors deal with aspects that are related to the economy. Especially, the financial aspects of the economy (Qureshi et al., 2021).
It has been reported that only 17% of the working women in the United Kingdom are in technical jobs and the reason might be social factors of girls not interested to study technology and mathematics (Cox, 2021). This poor number of UK women employment in tech jobs has made the country take action against this social issue by introducing various initiatives that encourage women to take an interest and initiatives in technology-related jobs. This is evident from the fact that the local authorities are well equipped with resources and funds which help to bid on projects which require women's involvement (Marquez and Main, 2021).
The country United Kingdom is one of the low ranking countries for English and Mathematics and therefore an important political factor as it embarrasses the government of the United Kingdom and can influence the votes during elections (Cox, 2021). To respond to this political challenge, the government of the United Kingdom introduced mandatory English and Mathematics classes for those who don’t have a GCSE in English or Mathematics at grade C and above. Also, this initiative by the government became the source of funding for the teaching establishment as the government provided funds to only those educational establishments which have made it compulsory for the student to attend the Mathematics and English classes (Qureshi et al., 2021).
Economically, there is a smaller number of children from low-income groups were attending the further education and to respond to this issue, the government of the United Kingdom introduced Education maintenance Allowance in which the students receive £30 every 2 weeks which is generally calculated on the household income (Marquez and Main, 2021). One of the major requirements of this initiative was that the student must get their lessons from the school so that they can receive the payment. If any student misses their lesson, the payment would be cancelled for that week. This initiative however has been closed in the United Kingdom but it is currently active in Scotland, Ireland and Wales (Sibieta and Cottell, 2021). For England, it has been transformed into various bursaries for very low-income groups. One of the major positive impacts of this initiative by the government is that it increased the number of students continuing their studies to 5.9%. however, there has been criticism from the liberal party and conservative party that the government is trying to bribe the young population (Sibieta and Cottell, 2021).
2.2. Analyze the impact of current educational policies on curriculum and practice in own area of specialism
The policies framed by the government of the United Kingdom have various impacts on the curriculum and practice in their area of specialism. The policies framed by the government should be able to cope with the changing needs of society. If it remains stagnant it will harm the learners. Therefore, the government should focus on changing the policies as per the requirement of the industry or the society so that it can have a positive impact on the learners (Hewitt, 2020).
Politically, the policies farmed by the government can prove to be beneficial to the individual. However, an individual possessing a disability may not prove to be beneficial as it may require specific learning needs. For example, a person suffering from dyslexia may not be good at English so he needs to pursue another course and if that person is going to work in any organization, the organization should provide adjustment in his qualification considering the disability through the equalities Act (Machin and Vignoles, 2006). However, these regulations do not provide a fruitful result in education and therefore can harm the groups or individuals having a specific disability.
One of the economic factors is the lesser funding for the educational establishment due to an increase in the number of the educational establishment. Hence as a result there may be a decrease in the number of courses offered as there is less funding available (Crick et al., 2020). This shortage of funds also implies that there is huge competition between the educational establishment. However, to avoid this the government of the United Kingdom has introduced policies of educating the individual with disabilities in a special educational institution which will focus on the specific curriculum suitable for the people with disability (Crick et al., 2020).
Also, it has been highlighted by Sibieta and Cottell (2021) that the vocational courses that are made available for the students do not help the students in getting a job as there are many vocational institutions does not showcase what is the current demand in a particular industry and therefore are not fit for the intended purpose. Hence, the impact of this situation enabled the colleges to introduce courses which can be helpful in the employability of their students by providing them with study programs which are related to specific industrial requirements by focusing on the non-educational elements such as volunteering and work experience which strongly emphasized employability of the students (Hewitt, 2020).
3.1. Explain the roles of stakeholders and external bodies in education and training
There has been a huge reliance on the stakeholder on an educational institution and vice-versa which has been continuously increasing in recent times as over the years the universities and schools have become the centre of the community and now they are very much like a social enterprise. This social enterprise takes the student and teaches them into being future employees (Mahony and Weiner, 2019).
Stakeholders are the person who has an interest in the welfare of the organization or the educational institution in this case. There are external and internal stakeholders. The external stakeholder includes the local authorities, government, stationary suppliers and transport operators while the internal stakeholders include parents, curriculum planner, teacher, students and administrator who have direct involvement in the educational establishments. The role of this stakeholder is to get benefits from the institutions either actively or passively (Mahony and Weiner, 2019). However, the roles of each of the stakeholders have been outlined below;
Role of Teacher
The role of the teacher is one of the most important roles in any educational institution. The teacher is the one who provides the student with knowledge and opportunities for personal development which will have a greater impact on the future of the students and their future careers (Bjørkquist, 2009).
Role of Curriculum planner
The role of the curriculum planner is to organize the different elements of the course syllabus such as the objective of the curriculum, assessments, activities and Unit definitions.
Role of Parents
Parent has a huge role to play in educational institutions as they are the one who keeps the institution going by paying the fees for their children so that they can continue to study. Also, teachers are dependent on the homework of the students as they need to help the student to complete their homework at home (Luik and Lepp, 2021).
Role of government and Local authorities
The main role of the government is to see if there is an adequate education facility in an area along with funding the educational institutions. Also, they make sure that there is no inequality in terms of education (Luik and Lepp, 2021).
Potential stakeholder in education
3.2. Explain how being accountable to stakeholders and external bodies impacts organisations in education and training
Stakeholders are those who are accountable and interact with the educational institutions in various ways in the educational institutions which include the educational achievement and well-being of its people. One of the main impacts of the stakeholders of the educational institution is that they are not able to connect at the same time due to their different personal commitments (Smith et al., 2018). Hence, it can have a great impact on them not connecting or communicating correctly with each other.
To overcome such a lack of communication, the educational establishment should provide a way of interacting with each other through digital platforms such as emails, chatting or messages. By doing this, the communications between the take holders are improved to a greater extent as it helps to sort out various issues of the student pursuing education in the educational institutions (Vogel, 2018). Hence, it can be said that being accountable to the stakeholders and external bodies impacts the overall functioning of the school or educational institutions.
3.3. Explain why it is important to work in partnership with employers and other stakeholders in education and training
Working in partnerships helps in providing a clear understanding of the roles and responsibilities that are required for the smooth functioning of educational institutions. Defining and working with a clear set of roles and responsibilities helps in carrying out the partnership work smoothly (Sá and Serpa, 2018). It is also be noted that if there is any change in the operations as well as changes in the roles and responsibilities, the changes should be well documented both verbally and in writing so that there is no confusion and all the stakeholders can achieve improved and positive outcomes for the educational institutions (Sá and Serpa, 2018).
A teacher, there should be utilization various communication systems to promote and support partnerships within the workplace daily. Examples of communication systems that are used in educational institutions include communication books and diaries as well as daily plans. There is the use of various communication systems that are used to communicate with the parents and other partners so that they can know the daily updates on the activities of the children. Also with the help of daily plans, other teachers and staff can identify what needs to be done on a particular day without any confusion (Venkatraman et al., 2018). A teacher working closely with other teachers while in the staff room and developing the plan for the children y seeking inputs from the staff would help them to understand whether the plan is effective or ineffective for the proper education of children.
3.4. Analyze the impact of being accountable to stakeholders and external bodies on curriculum design, delivery and assessment in own area of specialism
By using tools such as stakeholder analysis, the extent of the influence of the important people in learning and educational practices in the educational establishment can be measured through four-quadrant matrices.
According to the stakeholder analysis, the students come in the first quadrant in the above stakeholder analysis which implies that about the syllabus, they hold high power and interest(Aithal and Aithal, 2020). In the second quadrant, the parents and the supervisors are placed they have lower interest and importance in the syllabus and also with the educational institution. In the third quadrant, stakeholders such as management, and administrative authorities are placed which should be kept satisfied as it is important to consider their views and idea about the planning and designing of the curriculum based on the power and importance of these individuals (O’Connor et al., 2020). Overall, the main aim of the educational institution is to provide personal as well as career development for the students in compliance with the legislation of the government. Also, the educational institutions must take feedback from the parents to identify the requirement of the learners and develop the curriculum accordingly. Furthermore, it is of great significance to take consultation form, various academicians, as their theories will give an idea into different approaches used in training and education (Dawodu et al., 2021)
4.1. Explain key aspects of policies, codes of practice and guidelines of an organization
The policies, codes of practices and guidelines of an organization are framed to provide a suitable code of conduct in any organization. In the educational establishment as well, these policies, code of practices and guidelines help in providing unbiased learning opportunities for the students along with providing lifelong learning abilities to be able to be employable in future by being one of the highly economic, social and culturally responsible educational institutions (Redmond et al., 2018). Hence, these institutions having a unique regulatory structure can help in promoting equality and diversity can provide a meaningful lifelong education for the students. As per the policies and regulations a classroom should be free from all discrimination such as gender, age, learning disabilities, caste and creed. There should be no policy which encourages any discrimination or inequality. Also, the management of educational institutions must follow guidelines for safety so that there is no damage to equipment and resources (McGhee, 2021). Furthermore, the administration should avoid any malfunctions and negative practices that are carried out within the premises along with carrying out a risk assessment for a safe environment as per the policies and guidelines framed by the educational institutions. Any negative behaviour such as the use of drugs, ragging, bullying and theft which can hinder the safety of the students needs to be assessed and addressed and reported to the concerned authority immediately so that appropriate actions can be taken by the management (Redmond et al., 2018).
4.2. Analyze the impact of organizational requirements and expectations on curriculum practice in own area of specialism
The government has driven the need to adopt equality and diversity in the curriculum practice in the educational institutions and to the wider section of society. The promotion of diversity and equality within the University curriculum will help to develop a diverse and equal institution and culture of the business for the future by providing equal opportunities for the people especially women, ethnic groups and all other minority groups by enabling wider participation (Noble et al., 2018). It has been argued by Anspal et al., (2019) that the demand and availability of the students have enabled wider participation in the courses that belong to all ethnic groups and sexes. Also, it has been encouraged that the curriculum planner should be able to plan various approaches and models to ensure equality and diversity is maintained by avoiding the stereotyping of information which can offend individual or groups. These curriculum practices are based on the equality act 2010 formulated by the government of the United Kingdom (Noble et al., 2018).
There has been an increase in the awareness of the requirement of the Universities and schools to develop a practice based on equality and diversity along with embedding it in the teaching practice and every possibility in the curriculum with regular impact studies so that the University's standards are met. Also, the use of technology has a greater impact on curriculum practice. The Virtual learning environment is being widely used by educational establishments to communicate with external and internal students (Anspal et al., 2019).
5.1. Analyze the quality improvement and quality assurance arrangements of own organisation
One of the quality improvement and quality assurance arrangements in an educational institution is reflective peer observation teaching which is commonly known as POT which is especially done in higher education and has become an important part of a teacher's CPD and also a teacher's duty to raise quality standards and reflective practice in teaching systems (Alayoubi et al., 2020). Its main aim is to focus on the reflection after each class and take feedback from the students which enables the teacher to effective teaching and their roles as effective teachers and engage with the students in the process of their personal as well as professional development. Peer Observation and teaching is an effective way to assess the quality and thereby improve it with the help of skill development in the teachers. According to Tijjani (2019), a good teacher is imaginative, intuitive and a good listener who is willing to adapt to any change that occurs in a curriculum (Hermanto, 2018). Also, frequent quality improvement audits along with quality assurance determine the approach of quality assurance which help in seeking a coherent and systematic approach to enhancing the quality of the learning opportunities in terms of delivery of curriculum, assessment strategy and teaching (Tijjani, 2019). Quality enhancement is a set of approaches which are well determined and well established and are formulated to maintain the ethical consideration which encourages and expects an improvement in learning opportunities. This quality assurance and assessment are carried out through a series of reviews done periodically and monitoring of the courses which are already taught and also with the help of the external examination report to meet the quality enhancement objectives using a series of milestones which establishes an approach to the delivery of the curriculum (Hermanto, 2018).
5.2. Explain the function of self-assessment and self-evaluation and the quality cycle
Self-assessment and self-evaluation are effective components in enhancing the quality and achievement of teaching growth and delivery. Masuwai et al., (2021) state that self-evaluation and assessment showcase the change by challenging the teachers to identify the definition of excellence in teaching and enhance their capability to recognize the mastery of experience. This also helps in selecting goals for improvement of the teaching with their peers by providing them with a standard of teaching which is clear while looking for loopholes between the opportunities and desire while providing scope for action (Masuwai et al., 2021). This also helps in enhancing the communication between the teachers and staff of educational institutions while getting influenced by the external change in the practice of teachers.
Self-assessment and self-evaluation can be an effective strategy for the service quality effectiveness for a professional strategy for growth in combination with the coaching of peers and observation of any outside change agent along with a focused strategy for improvements within the program for the quality assurance that makes up the quality cycle (Matakala, 2018).
The quality cycle, therefore, begins with the planning phase where the goals are identified and a plan of action is made. This is then followed up by another phase called the do stage where the plan is implemented and in the third stage which is the study stage where the results are monitored as part of the testing phase to check the validity of the plan and to measure the progress sign or any other gap which requires attention and further improvement (Ramiz, 2018). The last step in the quality cycle is the action phase where there is an integration of learning generated by the whole process which is further used to make adjustments to the goals or to reformulate the theory used. This quality cycle is a never-ending cycle of continuous improvement (Panadero et al., 2019).
5.3. Evaluate a learning programme taking account of the quality maintenance of own organization
To evaluate the learning program there is a various formal and informal feedback system which helps in the student assessments and quality maintenance in the educational establishments. The learning programs come with feedback which helps the students to reflect on what they have learnt and identify areas where the student needs improvements (Cavalcanti et al., 2021). This system also allows the student to assess their skills on their own from one module to another along with adjusting to various kinds of delivery styles by the teaching staff. The student can get both formal and informal feedback not only through the teaching staff but also from the mentors, fellow students and academic tutors.
Summative feedback is another kind of formal feedback which are given through comments on what has been done well and what needs to be improved by emphasizing the strength of the student based on the module lecture (Susilana and Pribadi, 2021). The feedback is designed in such a way that it enhances the learning capacity of the student by telling the student at the end of the module what has been done wrong by the student in their assessments. However, it should be noted that not all the students should receive the same feedback which needs to be identified by the lecturer and he needs to execute the feedback in such a way that it gives the best results for both the student and the teaching staff (Ferreira et al., 2020).
The feedback is an ongoing process that the student must get by the end of the module along with the support on the way to use the feedback for the overall development of the student academically. Therefore, while giving feedback, the teacher should make sure that the student is aware of what feedback he or is getting so that he/she can work on it for further improvements (Ferreira et al., 2020).
5.4. Identify areas for improvement in the learning programme taking into account the outcomes of the evaluation
The feedback as a learning program is an important aspect of the incremental process of continuous learning and assessment. With the help of a continuous feedback system, there is an improvement in the learning process as it involves information which is critical for the student to adapt and work on their weaknesses to improve further (Brooks et al., 2019). Also, effective feedback helps the students to reflect on their learning process and help the students in making strategies so that they can adjust to increase their learning curve.
There are several areas for improvement in the learning program – feedback which includes - While giving feedback, the teacher should stress making the student understand that the feedback is given to help them understand the assessment of their learning in school or college (Demszky et al., 2021). Also, the teacher should encourage the student to ask questions about the feedback that is being provided to them along with this initiative to improve the learning program, the teacher must focus on giving feedback to the students either individually or in groups.
Also, the teacher should focus on providing feedback relevant to the learning outcomes and the assessment tasks as much as possible and help the students understand what has been discussed while providing the feedback. It is also imperative to ask questions to the student what they think about improving themselves academically (Molloy et al., 2020). Hence, it can be said that the learning program of providing feedback can be improved by making proper strategies on how to execute it so that the learner can take most of the benefit and motivation from the feedback provided.
To conclude, the profession of teaching is a complex job which requires the teachers to carry out the important duties that will help the learners to achieve success and growth. Through this report, the educational setting and role of teachers in the educational setting have been discussed along with various policies of the government which impact the education and the educational settings. The quality of the educational setting has also been analyzed through this report along with there is a comprehensive discussion on learning program have been done.
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