UK Policing Articles Assignment Sample

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UK POLICING Assignment 

Annotated Bibliography

Article 1

Shorrock, S., McManus, M.A. and Kirby, S., 2020. Profile of repeat victimization within multi-agency referrals. International Review of Victimology, 26(3), pp.332-343. https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/12819/8/Profile%20of%20repeat%20victimisation%20within%20multi-agency%20referrals.pdf

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The author of this article has analyzed the role of Multi-agency Safeguarding hubs (MASH) to safeguard practices across Wales and England so that it can identify and manage victimization and vulnerability at the earliest opportunity. The purpose of this article is to help in reducing victimization. It has been observed that the author uses Multi-agency Safeguarding Hubs as a contemporary approach. This article has focused on the characteristics of vulnerability which included especially the children and adults who are mostly exposed to any kind of violent situations such as mental, physical and sexual abuse. The article has evaluated a range of services that will provide help and support to vulnerable people for any kind of victimization. According to this article, it is the responsibility of police, mental health and education department, social centres and services of children and adults to provide help and support to the vulnerable and protect them from victimization. This article has evaluated the role of MASH and the benefits of the implementation of the MASH framework. It has also analyzed the purpose of its safeguarding policies and guidelines. According to this article, the purpose of MASH is to identify co-location of safeguarding agencies, coordination of interventions and joint decision making. This article has evaluated a quantitative approach so that it can investigate and examine the characteristic of referrals of MASK in North England which had distinct practices compared to London and Devon. Moreover, it has also analyzed the effects of repeated victimization of children and adults.

Article 2

Birdsall, N., Kirby, S. and McManus, M., 2017. Police–victim engagement in building a victim empowerment approach to intimate partner violence cases. Police Practice and Research, 18(1), pp.75-86. http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/12807/1/IPVarticle.pdf

The article has provided a broad scope of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) which is also considered to be a priority in the views and opinions of the UK government. The author of this article has critically evaluated the contemporary approaches that are made for identification and response which are related to IPV. It has explained the limitations of empowerment and victim engagement. It has focused on domestic violence, vulnerability, domestic abuse and victimology. Domestic abuse in the UK can be any incident that represents a pattern or behaviour of controlling, threatening the victims, violence or abuse towards the intimate partners irrespective of their sexuality and gender. The purpose of this was to find the level and actual cause of domestic violence and domestic abuse in intimate relationships. It has criticized the usual practices and approaches of UK police forces and the way they have been dealing with the problems of domestic violence. It explains how the UK police forces conduct IPV with the application of Domestic Abuse, Stalking and Harassment and honours Based Violence (DASH) which is a risk assessment and is criticized by the author. It has also provided solutions for responding to the problems. It has analyzed the relevant laws of the UK government which can protect and safeguard from domestic violence and domestic abuse. It has also evaluated the specific outcomes of applying these responses by the victims. According to this article, the UK police force needs to acquire victim confidence, cooperation and satisfaction to deal with such problems and responses. It has also focused on a victim-centred approach and different theories to justify the arguments of victims' perspectives.

Article 3

Stokes, N. and Clare, J., 2019. Preventing near-repeat residential burglary through cocooning: Post hoc evaluation of a targeted police-led pilot intervention. Security Journal, 32(1), pp.45-62.https://research-repository.uwa.edu.au/files/32677786/BurglaryCocooning_SecurityJ_R1.pdf

This article has represented a targeted initiative to prevent burglaries which was 8 piloted for almost 8 months by the Australian Police. The purpose of the initiative involved the distribution of pamphlets to the victims just after the incidents had taken place. The pamphlets had specific messages regarding the methods and approaches of preventing burglary. It has evaluated empirical research findings and analyzed strong theoretical patterns and reasons to justify that the intervention had a major contribution to the victims and their neighbours regarding the happening of burglary incidents. It has provided justification for why it can be considered that burglary victimization is a non-random incident and why repeated victimization needs to be considered as a common incident. It has also provided a broad scope of opportunity theory to analyze the patterns and methodology of repeat victimization and non-random aspects. It explains the random nature of a crime with the opportunity theory of crime. It has also analyzed the approaches that can be implemented to reduce the opportunities for burglars to prevent them from attempting such kinds of crime. It has evaluated the police coning pilot initiative of the Western Australia Police Force to deal with residential burglary. It has provided a practical perspective with its low-cost intervention of police to prevent the crimes and have a positive outcome. The benefits and possibility of cocooning activities can also be dealt with and outsourced for the private securities, police forces, non-profit groups, local governments and safety officers.

Article 4

Johnson, S.D., Guerette, R.T. and Bowers, K., 2014. Crime displacement: what we know, what we don’t know, and what it means for crime reduction. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 10(4), pp.549-571. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11292-014-9209-4

The author of this article has focused on the initiatives that can help in crime reduction. The purpose of this was to critically examine the current body of displacement research. It has been presented with various gaps of displacement research. It has provided a theoretical approach to understanding the expected crime displacement. The existing criminology theory is critically reviewed by the author to present better scope and approaches for the future of crime displacement. According to the theoretical and Empirical research of this research, it can be said that displacement can be considered to be evitable and that diffusion of crime control benefit can be used further. It has analyzed the alternative perspectives and patterns of crime displacement. It has provided justifications to the future aspect of existing displacement research and its irrelevance. It has discussed displacement research since it can be related to the broader evidence-based policy movements. It has evaluated a set of studies and research which is identified to be part of NPIA-funded collaboration review by Campbell and it has focused on the police interventions in displace crimes according to the geographical locations. It has provided a systematic review and the way a situational crime intervention is conducted that it can deal with displace crimes. It has also provided logical arguments to justify the diffusion of crime control benefits. According to the evidence and logical approaches, it explains the types of displacement which are considered also to find out the gaps which make it insufficient for the future.

Article 5

Legewie, J., 2016. Racial profiling and use of force in police stops: How local events trigger periods of increased discrimination. American journal of sociology, 122(2), pp.379-424. https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/pdf/10.1086/687518

The author of this focuses on the political issues which are highly related with the police forces and the impact of such racial issues that ultimately contributes to racial profiling. It has provided a broad overview of racial biases and discriminations which has created controversies relating to the police forces. It has evaluated the reasons and arguments for the increased racial bias and discrimination in the use of force after certain relevant events and incidents. It has analyzed the shooting of a police officer which has created huge racial challenges since the suspect was black. The purpose of this research was to examine and evaluate this particular argument. The author has designed a quasi-experiment which has analyzed the data from almost 3.9 million pedestrian shops that are located in New York City. However, according to the findings of this research, it is revealed that two fatal shootings of police officers have increased the frequency and incidents of racial bias and discrimination by the police forces. According to the study, it further argued the suspects being black is the reason for increased racial bias towards black people just a few days after the incident happened. It has examined the acts of extreme violence against law enforcement that affect the conductions and treatment of police forces resulting in racial threats and conflicts. It explains how incidents of extreme violence can affect and lead to increased use of force only against African-Americans and other black Americans.

Article 6

Tilley, N., 2010. Whither problem-oriented policing. Criminology & Pub. Pol'y, 9, p.183. https://www.academia.edu/download/74711222/j.1745-9133.2010.00619.x20211116-17119-8dnh7g.pdf

The author of this article has focused on problem-oriented policing. It has provided a broad scope of relevant community concerns and the effectiveness of solutions which can be applied to eliminate these problems. It is observed that it has evaluated the recurrent problems so that it can find out the conventional responses to these problems. It has also analyzed the underlying sources of these problems to figure out the relevant solutions, strategies and implications to remove them based on the findings of the analysis. It has provided problem-oriented policing of both the US and the UK. It has evaluated a few concerns of POP with the application of quasi-experimental methods and standard experimental approaches. According to the findings of this research, causal attribution, comparison areas, compensatory efforts and local problems need to be evaluated to use the implications of POP. However, it has been difficult to examine the effectiveness of POP in the study. It has also analyzed the approaches and methods of conducting POP. It has provided sufficient justification to the acts of the UK regarding the POP. In both countries, annual problem-solving conferences are conducted so that the practitioners can gather knowledge and learn from the national and international authorities. The study has also provided specific measures for the oriented police services to deal with problem-oriented policing. However, it can be argued that the mentioned issues of POP are not confined to interventions and that it has to do more with practical implications and methods.

References

Birdsall, N., Kirby, S. and McManus, M., 2017. Police–victim engagement in building a victim empowerment approach to intimate partner violence cases. Police Practice and Research, 18(1), pp.75-86. Available at http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/12807/1/IPVarticle.pdf [Accessed on 24.02.2022]

Johnson, S.D., Guerette, R.T. and Bowers, K., 2014. Crime displacement: what we know, what we don’t know, and what it means for crime reduction. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 10(4), pp.549-571. Available at https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11292-014-9209-4 [Accessed on 24.02.2022]

Legewie, J., 2016. Racial profiling and use of force in police stops: How local events trigger periods of increased discrimination. American journal of sociology, 122(2), pp.379-424. Available at https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/pdf/10.1086/687518 [Accessed on 24.02.2022]

Shorrock, S., McManus, M.A. and Kirby, S., 2020. Profile of repeat victimisation within multi-agency referrals. International Review of Victimology, 26(3), pp.332-343. Available at https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/12819/8/Profile%20of%20repeat%20victimisation%20within%20multi-agency%20referrals.pdf [Accessed on 24.02.2022]

Stokes, N. and Clare, J., 2019. Preventing near-repeat residential burglary through cocooning: Post hoc evaluation of a targeted police-led pilot intervention. Security Journal, 32(1), pp.45-62. Available at https://research-repository.uwa.edu.au/files/32677786/BurglaryCocooning_SecurityJ_R1.pdf[Accessed on 24.02.2022]

Tilley, N., 2010. Whither problem-oriented policing. Criminology & Pub. Pol'y, 9, p.183. Available at https://www.academia.edu/download/74711222/j.1745-9133.2010.00619.x20211116-17119-8dnh7g.pdf [Accessed on 24.02.2022]

 

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