What Role Does Emotional Intelligence Play In Managing Work Related Stress?

Understanding and Applying Emotional Intelligence Models to Alleviate Workplace Stress

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What Role Does Emotional Intelligence Play In Managing Work Related Stress?


According to Ackley (2016) the Ability Model, the Trait Model, and the Mixed Model are a few of the models of emotional intelligence that have been put forth. Each model has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the best one to choose will depend on the circumstances.

The Mayer and Salovey (1997) Ability Model focuses on the cognitive skills necessary for emotional intelligence, such as the capacity to recognise, utilise, comprehend, and regulate emotions. According to this paradigm, people who have higher emotional intelligence are better able to handle their own emotions as well as the emotions of others, solve emotional difficulties, and make better decisions. However, this model has come under fire for failing to take into account personality traits and other non-cognitive factors that affect emotional intelligence, as well as for its narrow focus on cognitive skills.

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The Bar-On (1997) Trait Model places a strong emphasis on the function of personality traits in emotional intelligence. According to this theory, emotional intelligence is a group of psychological traits like empathy, self-awareness, and adaptability that are linked to efficient emotional functioning. As it considers a wider range of emotional competencies, this model has the advantage of being more inclusive than the Ability Model. It has been criticized, nevertheless, for its lack of empirical backing and emphasis on self-report emotional intelligence tests (Persico, et.al, (2023).

Goleman (1995) introduced the mixed concept, a complete concept of emotional intelligence that combines both cognitive skills and personality attributes. According to this concept, emotional intelligence is divided into four domains: relationship management, social awareness, self-management, and self-awareness. This paradigm has becoming more common in the workplace since it offers a useful framework for enhancing emotional intelligence abilities. It has, however, also come under fire for lacking empirical backing and emphasizing interpersonal abilities over intrapersonal ones Cerfolio and Chang, (2021).

I would suggest applying the Mixed Model of emotional intelligence to the situation of managing work-related stress for the learning disability liaison nurse at Wirral University Teaching Hospital. This paradigm offers a thorough approach to addressing the emotional intelligence requirements of the nurse, including self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management (Magnano, Craparo and Paolillo, (2016). I would specifically recommend the following tactics:

Encourage the nurse to think about her emotions and how they affect her work in order to develop self-awareness. To assist her in recognizing emotional patterns, this can entail maintaining a journal or using other tools for reflection.

Self-control exercises: Assist the nurse in learning techniques for controlling her emotions, such as deep breathing, mindfulness, or taking pauses when necessary. Encourage her to prioritize stress-relieving hobbies and self-care outside of work.

Increase social awareness: Assist the nurse in learning how to be empathetic and how to take other people's opinions into account Mattingly and Kraiger, (2019). Encourage her to develop relationships with patients and coworkers and to ask for criticism of her interpersonal abilities.

Promote relationship management by assisting the nurse in the development of assertiveness and negotiation skills. Encourage her to establish rapport and trust with coworkers and patients, as well as to communicate clearly in trying circumstances.

We may effectively and practically address the emotional requirements of the learning disability liaison nurse by using the Mixed Model of emotional intelligence to direct our approach to managing work-related stress for her. However, it's critical to consider the model's shortcomings and to be open to different strategies that might work better in this particular situation.

Emotional and Social competency Inventory

The Emotional and Social Competency Inventory assesses workplace emotional intelligence. Based on Boyatzis and colleagues' emotional intelligence model, the ESCI emphasises self-awareness, self-management, social consciousness, and association management.

The 72-item ESCI assesses 12 abilities essential to leadership and work effectiveness. Four domains—self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and connection management—comprise the skills. Self-awareness comprises emotional and accurate self-assessment. Self-management involves self-control, flexibility, and achievement. Understanding, organisation, and service are social awareness. Relationship management includes manipulation, teamwork, conflict management, and inspiring leadership as cited by Kotsou, Mikolajczak, Heeren, Grégoire and Leys, (2019).

The Bangun and Iswari (2015) ESCI provides extensive assessments of emotional intelligence and precise feedback on how to improve. The assessment uses 360-degree feedback from supervisors, peers, direct reports, and others. This multi-rater approach ensures accurate and complete feedback and promotes workplace transparency.

According to Serrat and Serrat (2017), corporations, government agencies, and nonprofits have employed the ESCI. One study indicated that the ESCI measured emotional intelligence accurately and positively correlated with job performance, leadership effectiveness, and employee engagement. Another study indicated that the ESCI predicted leadership potential better than intellect and personality tests.

The ESCI can also test employees' emotional intelligence. This can help identify areas where the company needs training or support and high-potential executives.

Consider ESCI constraints. Self-reported data may be inaccurate. If respondents are dishonest, the ESCI may be biassed. Finally, since the ESCI is new, more research is needed to determine its validity and dependability.

The Emotional and Social Competency Inventory (ESCI) helps assess workplace emotional intelligence. According to Boyatzis (2016), it assesses emotional intelligence and provides comments on how to improve. The ESCI is utilized in many settings to predict job performance and leadership potential. The ESCI can improve workplace emotional intelligence, despite its limitations.

Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test

According to Leite, et al. (2019), the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test is a commonly used measure of emotional intelligence (EI). The MSCEIT is unique in that it measures four components of emotional intelligence: discernment, facilitation, comprehension, and regulation.

The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) is unusual for several reasons:

  • Performance-Based Assessment: Unlike most EI exams, the MSCEIT measures emotional intelligence through performance. Vorobyeva (2022) assesses a person's ability to recognize, use, understand, and manage emotions.
  • Multi-Faceted Approach: The MSCEIT measures emotional intelligence through discernment, facilitation, comprehension, and regulation. These branches allow for a more in-depth assessment of emotional intelligence.
  • Discernment: This branch evaluates the ability to accurately sense and identify emotions in oneself and others, including non-verbal clues and emotional shades.

Facilitation: This branch tests the ability to use emotions to think and solve problems. Emotions boost creativity, adaptability, and decision-making.

  • Understanding: This branch assesses ability to comprehend complex emotional information and emotional relationships. Megías-Robles, et al. (2020) explain how emotions change throughout time.

Regulation: This area assesses the capacity to control one's own and others' emotions. It involves stress management, conflict resolution, and emotional well-being.

  • Emphasis on Actual capacities: The MSCEIT assesses an individual's actual emotional capacities rather than self-perception or self-reported measures. Performance-based emotional intelligence assessments eliminate self-reporting biases.

A popular instrument for assessing emotional intelligence is the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). The Situational Judgement Test for Emotional Intelligence (SJT-EI), the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue), and the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i) are further methods for measuring emotional intelligence. All of these instruments were created to gauge emotional intelligence in various ways, and they may evaluate emotional intelligence in various ways.

Higgs Framework

According to Chaudhuri and Khlopov, (2021) the Python programming language can be used to create web apps with the help of the Higgs Framework. It’s modular, adaptable, and user-friendly design makes it simple to construct and deploy web applications with little effort on the part of developers.

The following tools and functionalities are available through the Higgs Framework to assist developers in creating web applications:

  • Using the framework's robust routing system, developers can quickly link URLs to particular views or application functions (Heinemann & Nir (2019).
  • Higgs supports a number of templating engines, such as Jinja2 and Mako, to assist programmers in creating dynamic HTML pages.
  • Database Integration: Higgs is simple to integrate with existing data stores because it comes with built-in support for a number of database systems, including PostgreSQL, MySQL, and SQLite.
  • According to Heo, (2022), user authentication and authorization mechanisms are provided by the framework, including support for password hashing, session management, and role-based access control.
  • Higgs encourages the use of middleware to give applications extra features like CSRF protection, caching, and logging.

Goleman framework

In 1999, Daniel Goleman developed the mixed model of emotional intelligence (EI) (Cavins, 2021). This paradigm views EI as a set of skills that can be learned and improved. Four domains organize competencies:

Self-Awareness: This domain involves recognizing and understanding one's feelings and how they affect one's thoughts and actions. Self-awareness includes emotional awareness, accurate self-evaluation, and self-confidence.

Self-Management: This category covers emotional and behavioral control. Self-management includes self-control, adaptability, accomplishment oriented, and initiative (Nandy, 2020).

Social Awareness: This area involves understanding others' feelings and wants. Social awareness includes empathy, organizational awareness, and service orientation.

Relationship Management: This domain covers interpersonal abilities. Relationship management skills include influence, conflict management, cooperation, and leadership.

The Goleman framework emphasizes emotional intelligence in personal and professional settings (Goleman, 2020). It means that emotionally intelligent people can handle difficult social situations, form intimate ties, and succeed in a variety of settings.


Branch What you did Outcome
  • Managing emotions to achieve specific goals
Identified the nurse's specific goals and helped her manage her emotions to achieve them Improved work performance and reduced stress levels.
  • Understanding emotions, emotional language, and the signals conveyed by emotions
Provided education and training on emotional language and signals to help the nurse better understand her own and others' emotions. Improved communication and relationships with colleagues and patients.
  • Using emotions to facilitate thinking
Using emotions to facilitate thinking encouraged the nurse to use her emotions as a tool to facilitate problem-solving and decision-making. Increased innovation and creativity in her work.
  • Perceiving emotions accurately in oneself and others
Perceiving emotions accurately in oneself and others helped the nurse develop her emotional awareness and ability to accurately perceive the emotions of others. Improved empathy and emotional intelligence, leading to better patient care and colleague relationships.

In this essay, we will explore each of these four branches of emotional intelligence as deliberate by the MSCEIT and discuss the implications of this model for personal and professional development.

Perceiving Emotions

According to the Carson, Carson and Birkenmeier(2016) The first branch of emotional intelligence deliberate by the MSCEIT is the aptitude to distinguish emotions in oneself and others. This involves accurately identifying emotions in facial terminology, body language, and tone of voice. People who score high in this branch are able to read emotional cues effectively and use this in sequence to guide their own behavior and respond appropriately to others.

Perceiving emotions is an important aspect of emotional intelligence in the workplace because it allows individuals to recognize the emotional states of their colleagues and respond accordingly. For example, a manager who can accurately perceive when an employee is feeling stressed or under pressure can provide support and guidance to help them manage their workload effectively cited by Weiszbrod, (2020). Similarly, sales professionals who are skilled at reading the emotional cues of their clients are better able to tailor their approach to the client's needs, leading to improved sales outcomes.

Using Emotions to Facilitate Thinking

The second branch of emotional intelligence considered by the MSCEIT is the capability to use emotions to facilitate philosophy. This involves using emotion to enhance cognitive process such as problem-solving, decision-making, and creativity. People who score high in this branch are clever to employ their emotion to inform their thinking, rather than letting their emotions override rational thought (Davis and Wigelsworth, 2018).

Using emotions to facilitate thinking is an important aspect of emotional intelligence in the place of work since it allows people to make enhanced decisions and solve problems more efficiently. For example, a manager who can use their emotional intelligence to understand the motivations of their team members can develop strategies that are more likely to be effective in achieving the team's goals. Similarly, professionals in creative fields who are capable to use their emotions to inform their work are often able to produce more compelling and innovative results.

Thoughtful Emotions

The third branch of emotional intelligence deliberate by the MSCEIT is the capability to understand emotions. This involves considerate the complex relationships between different emotions and the ways in which emotions can modify over time. People who score high in this branch can understand how emotions develop and how they are influenced by varied factors such as culture, context, and personal experience.

As per Di Fabio and Palazzeschi, (2015) emotions area significant characteristic of emotional intelligence in the workplace because it allows individuals to administer their hold emotions more effectively and to appreciate the emotions of others. For instance, a manager who is capable to recognise the emotional impact of a decision on their team members is more likely to be able to implement the decision in a way that is accepted and supported by the team. Similarly, professionals in diverse workplaces who can understand how different cultural norms and values influence emotional expression are better able to communicate effectively with colleagues from different backgrounds.

Managing Emotions

The fourth branch of emotional intelligence deliberate by the MSCEIT is the aptitude to administer emotions. This involves modifiable one's hold emotions and responding appropriately to the emotions of others. People who attain high in this branch are capable to manage their emotions effectively and to counter to the emotions of others in a move that is suitable and constructive as cited by Drigas and Papoutsi (2018).

Managing emotions is a significant feature of emotional intelligence in the workplace because it allows individuals to create a positive and productive work environment. For instance, a manager who can regulate their own emotion is less possible to become defensive or angry when faced with criticism, leading to more constructive feedback and better outcomes.

Applying the MSCEIT model to the situation described above, the first step in managing the learning disability liaison nurse's stress would be to perceive and understand her emotions. This could involve active listening and empathy to understand her perspective and how she is feeling. It could also involve using nonverbal cue such as body language and tenor of voice to notice subtle emotional cues.

The next step would be to help regulate her emotions by providing support and resources to manage her workload and stress. This could involve prioritising tasks, delegating responsibilities, and providing training or mentorship to improve her skills and confidence in the role. It could also involve providing access to counseling or other mental health services to address any underlying issues contributing to her stress.

Another model that can be used to manage emotions in the workplace is the Emotional and Social Competency Inventory (ESCI). This model is based on the thought that emotional intelligence is a set of competencies that enable individuals to effectively manage emotions in themselves and others as cited by Farooq, Riaz and Javid (2017). The ESCI assesses these competencies through a series of questions that measure different aspects of emotional intelligence, such as self-awareness, social consciousness, self-management, and affiliation management.

Applying the ESCI model to the situation described above, the first step in managing the learning disability liaison nurse's stress would be to develop self-awareness and social awareness. This could involve reflecting on one's own emotions and biases, as fine as understanding the cultural and social context in which the nurse is working. It could also involve developing empathy and a sense of connection with the nurse, which can help build trust and support.

According to the Gilar-Corbi (2021) The next step would be to develop self-management and relationship management skills to effectively manage the nurse's stress. This could involve setting clear goals and priorities, managing time and resources effectively, and communicating clearly and assertively with the nurse and other stakeholders. It could also involve developing strong relationships with other healthcare professionals, such as doctors, nurses, and social workers, who can provide support and resources to help manage the nurse's workload and stress.

In calculation to these models, there are numerals of other strategy that can be used to manage work-related stress in the healthcare industry. These include:

  • Mindfulness: The practice of mindfulness entails paying attention to the present moment in a sympathetic manner.This can be a useful tool for managing stress and improving emotional intelligence, as it helps individuals become more aware of their thoughts, feelings, and bodily sensations.
  • Cognitive restructuring: Cognitive reformation is a technique that involve identify and demanding unenthusiastic opinion and viewpoint that contribute to stress and anxiety as cited by Prentice, Dominique Lopes and Wang, (2020). This can be a useful tool for managing work-related stress, as it can help individuals develop more positive and realistic ways of thinking about their work and their ability to manage it.
  • Exercise: Exercise is a proven way to diminish stress and recover emotional intelligence. It can help individuals manage their emotions more effectively, improve their mood, and increase their energy levels.
  • Social support: Social support is a crucial factor in managing work-related stress. Having a strong support network of friends, family, and colleagues can assist persons cope with the demands of their job and reduce feelings.

Bar-On EQI

According to the Goleman and Boyatzis, (2017) The Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i) is a popular self-report assessment tool for assessing emotional and social intelligence across various domains. The test assesses 15 different abilities that can be divided into five major groups: flexible thinking, stress management, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and emotional stability. Due to the EQ-i's extensive evaluation of emotional and social functioning, it is frequently used in organizational settings for personal and professional growth. The Bar-On EQ-i has great psychometric properties due to its extensive validation and high reliability and validity. Additionally, it can be found in more than 30 other languages, allowing for effective cross-cultural use. The main critique raised against the EQ-i and its model of emotional intelligence is that it is based on Bar-On's own concept of emotional intelligence, which has been criticized for being overly comprehensive and broad. More research is needed to provide a more precise and fact-based definition of emotional intelligence.

Personal and practice situation

When one considers the stances that Smith and Jones have taken on the matter at hand, it is obvious that their points of view on the matter at hand are very different from one another. Smith argues in favor of a more centralized approach to management, placing an emphasis on the requirement for strong leadership and clear orders coming from the top down. On the other side, Jones is an advocate for a more decentralized strategy. He places a strong emphasis on the significance of employee empowerment and the equitable allocation of decision-making authority throughout the business. This discussion between centralized and decentralized methods, which I am currently engaged in as part of my job as a project manager, is particularly pertinent to me personally. In the past, I have had a tendency to lean toward a more centralized approach, as I believed that this would help to ensure that everyone is working towards the same goals and is on the same page. However, after giving Jones' arguments some thought, I can see how a more decentralized approach could also be effective. This is especially true when it comes to the issue of enabling members of the team to take ownership of their work and contribute more fully to the overall success of the project.

In general, I believe that the discussion has shed light on how crucial it is to take into account a variety of points of view whenever one is deliberating over the best way to manage a project or organization. We may improve our chances of success and create a working atmosphere that is more inclusive and productive if we are prepared to experiment with a variety of various ways and maintain an open mind towards the perspectives of others.

Best model for the case study: Bar-On EQ-I model.

The learning disability liaison nurse at Wirral University Teaching Hospital has worked in the role and hospital for two years. The learning disability service has never been managed well, and she is the only staff member doing this role. She has been feeling overwhelmed with the workload and has been off briefly (2 weeks) with work-related stress. As her line manager, I need to support and manage her stress, but I am unable to provide any other staff to assist with the workload.
In this case study, the learning disability liaison nurse is experiencing work-related stress due to a high workload and lack of support from the hospital. Emotional intelligence can help in managing her stress by providing a framework for understanding and regulating emotions, as well as building relationships and effective communication.

According to the Mayer, Caruso and Salovey, (2016) There are different models of emotional intelligence, including the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), the Emotional and Social Competency Inventory (ESCI), and the Bar-On EQ-i. Each model has its strengths and weaknesses, and choosing one to use depends on the specific context and needs of the situation.

In this case, the Bar-On EQ-i model may be the most appropriate to use for managing the learning disability liaison nurse's stress. This model focuses on five composite scales, which include intrapersonal, interpersonal, adaptability, stress management, and general mood as cited by Hodzic, Scharfen, Ripoll, Holling, and Zenasni, (2018).

Managing the stress of the learning disability liaison nurse in the given scenario requires a combination of emotional intelligence skills and effective management strategies. Emotional intelligence can help to regulate emotions, build relationships, and promote a positive work culture, which are all important factors in reducing stress levels and increasing job satisfaction.

One useful model for developing emotional intelligence is the Bar-On EQ-i model, which focuses on five composite scales: intrapersonal, interpersonal, adaptability, stress management, and general mood. By using these competencies, it is possible to identify specific areas where the learning disability liaison nurse may benefit from support and development.

To address the specific challenges facing the learning disability liaison nurse in this case study, it is important to focus on the stress management composite scale. This includes stress acceptance and impulse control, which are essential skills for managing stress in a high-pressure work environment (Durairaj, (2021). By providing the nurse with tools and techniques for managing stress, such as relaxation techniques and time management skills, it is possible to reduce her stress levels and improve her overall well-being.

In addition to focusing on stress management, it is important to support the nurse in developing her interpersonal skills. This can help her to build relationships with colleagues and clients, which can in turn provide a support network and reduce feelings of isolation and overwhelm. By encouraging regular communication and creating a culture of teamwork and support, it is possible to help the nurse feel more valued and supported in her role.

The intrapersonal composite scale includes self-regard, emotional self-awareness, assertiveness, independence, and self-actualization. To manage the nurse's stress, it is important to help her develop a positive self-image, increase her emotional self-awareness, and encourage her to be assertive in expressing her needs and boundarie (O'Connor et.al 2019).

This can be done through regular check-ins and supportive feedback, as well as providing opportunities for personal and professional development.

The interpersonal composite scale includes empathy, social responsibility, and interpersonal relationships. To manage the nurse's stress, it is important to build a supportive and collaborative relationship with her and encourage her to reach out for help when needed. This can be done through regular communication and creating a culture of teamwork and support.

The adaptability composite scale includes reality testing, flexibility, and problem-solving. To manage the nurse's stress, it is important to help her develop adaptive coping strategies, such as problem-solving and flexibility. According to Petrides, Mikolajczak, Mavroveli, Sanchez-Ruiz, Furnham and Pérez-González, (2016) This can be done through regular coaching and feedback, as well as providing opportunities for professional development and training determine by Hamid, (2022).

The stress management composite scale includes stress acceptance and impulse manage. To manage the nurse's stress, it is important to provide her with strategies for managing stress, such as relaxation techniques and time management skills. This can be done through regular coaching and feedback, as well as providing resources for stress management and self-care.

According to the Kanesan and Fauzan, (2019) The general mood composite scale includes optimism and happiness. To manage the nurse's stress, it is important to support an optimistic and supportive work environment and encourage a culture of gratitude and appreciation. This can be done through regular recognition and reward for hard work and contributions.

Emotional intelligence can be an effective tool for managing stress in the workplace, and the Bar-On EQ-i model can provide a framework for understanding and regulating emotions, building relationships, and promoting a positive work culture. By focusing on the five composite scales, intrapersonal, interpersonal, adaptability, stress management, and general mood, it is possible to effectively manage the stress of the learning disability liaison nurse in this case study (Issah, 2018).

Applying the Models:

I mentioned the Bar-On EQ-i model but did not provide a detailed application. To effectively manage the nurse's stress, the application of the Bar-On EQ-i model could involve:

  • Assessing Emotional Intelligence: Conducting an assessment using the Bar-On EQ-i or similar tools to identify the nurse's current strengths and areas for improvement in each composite scale (Wolfe, 2019).
  • Developing a Personalized Plan: Based on the assessment results, creating a personalized development plan that focuses on enhancing specific EI skills relevant to the nurse's needs and challenges.
  • Training and Coaching: Providing targeted training sessions or coaching to help the nurse develop and strengthen the identified EI competencies. This can include workshops, role-playing exercises, and one-on-one coaching sessions.
  • Integration into Daily Practice: Encouraging the nurse to actively apply the acquired EI skills in her daily work interactions, such as practicing empathy, active listening, and problem-solving (Gartani & Zarhbouh (2023).
  • Ongoing Support and Evaluation: Providing continuous support, feedback, and evaluation to monitor the nurse's progress and make necessary adjustments to the development plan.


The report is concluded that the emotional intelligence plays a considerable role in managing stress and improving work performance, especially in healthcare settings where high-pressure situations are common. The Bar-On EQ-i model offers a comprehensive and practical approach to assessing and developing emotional intelligence skills in individuals, which can help them, cope with stress and achieve better outcomes.

In the case study presented, the learning disability liaison nurse is facing elevated levels of stress and workload, which may affect her job performance and well-being. By applying the Bar-On EQ-i model, as her line manager I can identify the nurse's strengths and weaknesses in different emotional intelligence competencies and develop a tailored action plan to support her in managing stress and improving job satisfaction.

Overall, emotional intelligence is a critical skill that healthcare professionals need to develop and maintain to ensure effective and compassionate care for patients, and the Bar-On EQ-i model can be a valuable tool in achieving this goal.


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