Impact Of Leadership Style On Employee Motivation & Job Satisfaction In Workplace

Leadership Styles & Their Effects on Employee Motivation & Job Satisfaction in the UK Hospitality Industry

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The Impact Of Leadership Style On Employee Motivation & Job Satisfaction In Workplace

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Chapter 1: Introduction

Talk about the topic

Job satisfaction is believed to be significant in lowering the rate of absenteeism and their desire to depart the company. According to empirical studies, work engagement is vital in the hospitality sector. The research for the hospitality industry emphasizes the importance of using an appropriate style of leadership to maximize hotel staff employee satisfaction. The hospitality sector is both a significant source of labor and an essential factor in a country's economic development. Because the industry relies on the human resource department, it necessitates skilled workers (Cortellazzo, Bruni, and Zampieri, 2019). Employees who are satisfied with their job positions are more encouraging, fruitful, and innovative than those who are dissatisfied with their jobs. There are a lot of consequences due to the lack of job satisfaction in the workplace which creates inappropriate consequences like reduction in productivity, effectiveness as well as customer satisfaction. Assignment sample in UK Many studies have found that employees who are satisfied with their jobs produce better returns, especially in the hotel and restaurant industry, in which customer experience is regarded as a key to achievement, and good guidance is essential. According to this viewpoint, increased employee happiness is an essential issue that allows organizations to develop a lasting competitive edge in the hospitality industry. Further, job satisfaction is one of the most significant research topics for researchers investigating the hospitality sector (Sweeney, Clarke, and Higgs, 2019). Finding and keeping workers in this day and age has now become incredibly hard. Neoliberalism and large corporate considerations have led to a rise in the need for human resources. Simultaneously, leads to the rise has been discovered to be a turning point for employee productivity and thus for organizational success. The difficulties that businesses face today are not exactly equivalent to the difficulties of the past. Organizations of all types (profit or non-profit) require such innovation, creativity, and problem-solving skills, regardless of their size or type. As an organization, its managers, and its employees evolve, attributes such as initiative, flexibility, and creative problem-solving now become more important (Wen, and, 2019). Top management and management staff have a crucial function in fostering an environment and heritage of exuberance and efficiency among staff members, allowing them to do their jobs more effectively. "Most major corporations in the hotel industry keep shelling out billions of dollars annually on incentive course work, instruction in encouragement, conferences to proven effective, rewards to enhance inspiration, conferences to analyse troubles in the working population encouragement, techniques to quantify encouragement, vision and mission and more with no actual outcomes. It appears that this is due to a misunderstanding of what inspiration entails. Even though encouragement is universally acknowledged, its core eludes it; it is a complicated multidimensional concept that research teams have confronted from various angles. The performance of employees is one of the most significant variables that impact corporate management because staff members who exceed their workers’ organizations' anticipations are a great reflection of the direction that they've earned from their managers and superiors. Job satisfaction is one of the most important parts for any individual within the hospitality sector (Riyanto, Endri, and Herlisha, 2021).

Significance of the topic

Hotels in the hospitality sector are now becoming acutely aware that an absence of efficient personnel administration may result in significant financial damage in the sector. Organizations' viewpoints on administration have shifted as a result of this knowledge. Nevertheless, because of the disposition of the hospitality sector, workforce planning poses special difficulties to management staff. Through appropriate leadership style, there is a strong link between inspiration and fulfillment at work. There are numerous implications to researching this specific topic.

First of all, and foremost, successful management is vital for attaining organizational objectives and boosting general efficiency (Basalamah, and As’ad, 2021). Recognizing the effects of management style on motivation among staff members and satisfaction with work can assist organizations in identifying and implementing much more real leadership practices to enhance efficiency.

Second, inspired and contented staff members perform better and are more inclined to remain with a firm for an extended amount of time. Rapid turnover can be disruptive as well as expensive to companies; therefore, knowing what contributes to motivation and fulfilment at work can assist organizations in retaining talented employees while improving their bottom line.

Third, leadership style can affect worker happiness and mental well-being. Representatives who foster a productive workplace and provide support to their workers can assist in reducing stress as well as emotional exhaustion, resulting in better physical and psychological wellness for workers. Finally, researching the effects that leadership style has on motivation and fulfilment at work can help people improve their leadership potential (Andreas, 2022). People can define their abilities and shortcomings as representatives and seek ways to enhance their practices by knowing various forms of leadership and one ‘s consequences for staff members. On the whole, researching the effect that leadership styles have on motivation among workers and satisfaction with work is critical for organizations that want to boost effectiveness, keep top employees, and boost employee well-being, as well as for people who want to enhance someone else's interpersonal skills. The topic helps to analyse the different scenarios related to Effective and efficient management that will be capable of improving employees’ motivation, resulting in work performance. Further, the study gives preference and ability to consider changes according to the requirement of the workplace. Thus, it gives a clear indication for completing this research on a certain specific topic that helps the people at the workplace with job satisfaction and motivation towards work.

Purpose of the research

The research’s overall purpose is to inspect the impact of leadership style on employee motivation and job satisfaction in the hospitality sector. It will help to enhance the knowledge through advanced research which is carried out with the help of secondary methodology techniques. Further, the major focus of the research is on analysing the different impacts of leadership on job satisfaction. In addition to this, the major audience for the research is employees of the hospitality sector as they are one of the best people who provide information related to their experience (Pancasila, Haryono, and Sulistyo, 2020). The goal of the study is to figure out what's understood, what is unknown, and which subjects can learn more about. In addition to this, the main aim is to understand the different scenarios related to leadership and motivation which helps the employees to grow more in the field. Further, the aim of the research is to understand the impact of leadership style on employee motivation in the UK hospitality sector. The research study looks into the degree to which leadership styles affect hotel staff members' job satisfaction in this study by analysing why the style of leadership improves work satisfaction. It highly supports the discussion regarding the relationship between leadership and the process of decision-making. The goal of this study was to look into the effect of leadership style on employee job satisfaction in the hospitality industry. As a result, it is helpful to recognize that there is a gap between both leadership and the variables leading to job fulfilment for staff members. Thus, the intent of this investigation is to explore the connection between the factors mentioned and management style by probing how leadership behaviour affects the degree to which staff members like their jobs.

In addition to this, it gives a clear idea about the various scenario related to leadership and motivation that helps to analyse the criteria for establishing the research. The study provides a valuable impact on the readers and changes their level of thinking toward the process of leadership and management. This study aims to examine divisional workers' perceptions of motivational variables and how they connect to management styles in the hospitality sector (Li, Xu, Chen, and Menassa, 2019). The study will help to analyse why leaders are playing a major role in the development of employee motivation and encourage them towards achieving goals. The leadership style and motivation of employees are interconnected so that it helps the employees for doing a better job which enhances the level of encouragement. The research will create a huge impact on employee motivation as well as job satisfaction so that it enhances their performance in the hospitality sector. However, the research will mainly encourage employees for improving their level of performance by offering various rewards and recognition. Thus, it is important to consider the major points of discussion and enhance the study for the betterment of the knowledge. There is the use of a different combination of research methodologies for conducting the research and hence it helps to increase the knowledge.

Proposed aim, objectives, and research questions

The main aim behind conducting this study is to research on the topic of The Impact of leadership style on employee motivation and job satisfaction in workplace within Hospitality sector.

The main objectives of this study are:

  • To study the relationship between job satisfaction and motivation
  • To study the various theories of leadership and motivations
  • To study the Importance of Job Satisfaction in the Hospitality Industry
  • To study the Impact of leadership style on employee motivation and job satisfaction in the UK hospitality sector

The research questions related to the study are:

  • What is the relationship between job satisfaction and motivation
  • What are the various theories of leadership and motivations
  • What is the importance of Job Satisfaction in the Hospitality Industry
  • What is the Impact of leadership style on employee motivation and job satisfaction in the UK hospitality sector

Chapter 2: Literature Review

Definition of leadership

As per the opinion of Anderman, 2020, leadership is characterized as an individual's personal or a party's capacity for motivating and impacting each other more towards a familiar objective or purpose. It entails directing people, trying to guide and stimulate those, and energizing them to accomplish everything they can. The capacity to interact, make choices, utilize things, develop friendships, and modify to transition are all necessary for successful leadership. A manager must have dignity, compassion, fortitude, sight, and the capacity to encourage and motivate others. Leadership can be seen in a variety of settings, including company, world affairs, sporting events, schooling, and civic organizations. Botzen, and, 2019 suggested that the capacity to motivate, assist, and encourage a group of individuals forward toward a widely accepted objective or objective is a modern term for management. This entails not only being fully aware of the firm's or group's strategy and objectives but also being capable of conveying this sight to other people and rallying approval for it. Contemporary direction concerning collaborative efforts, pluralism, and flexibility, recognizing that efficient leaders can collaborate with individuals with varied backgrounds and adjust to shifting instances.

Definition of Employee motivation and job satisfaction

As per Setiyani, and, 2019 employee motivation and job satisfaction are two important concepts in the workplace that are closely related but have distinct differences.

Employee motivation refers to the forces that drive an individual to work towards achieving their goals within an organization. It involves the internal and external factors that encourage an employee to engage in their work, be productive, and strive for excellence. Motivation can be influenced by a variety of factors, including intrinsic factors such as personal interest and passion for the work, and extrinsic factors such as pay, benefits, recognition, and opportunities for advancement.

In contrast, job fulfilment refers to a company's stage of tranquillity and happiness with its position and place of employment. It refers to how satisfied a worker is with their work in terms of meeting their personal as well as professional requirements and aspirations. Bouwmeester, and, 2019 state that the work environment, the level of independence and authority over one's task, friendships with peers and superiors, and the entire company heritage are all variables that may influence employee satisfaction. Employee motivation and work performance are linked, but they're not the same thing. The contractor may be driven to accomplish their objectives and execute well, but they may be dissatisfied with their tasks because of variables that include a poor workplace or a lack of opportunity for advancement. A contractor, on the other hand, may be extremely happy with their position and workplace culture but lose the ambition to go further than their basic job requirements.

Recognizing and dealing with motivation and fulfilment in the workplace are critical components of organizational achievement. According to Purba, and Sudibjo, 2020 Workers who are exceptionally driven and happy are more likely to feel involved, fruitful, and determined to succeed, which results in better results and consequences. Employers can help employees stay motivated and satisfied at work by providing possibilities for development and growth, creating a positive workplace environment, supplying advantageous benefits and wages, and praising and recognizing managers for their charitable donations.

In conclusion, staff motivation as well as job fulfilment are critical worksite ideas that affect employee participation, success, and as a whole growth of the organization. While they are connected, they are different things that necessitate completely separate aspects and techniques for advancement.

Theories of motivation

As per the viewpoint of Sirait, and, 2022 to handle situations, we must first recognize their speculations. Motivation theorists such as Maslow, Mayo Hertzberg, McGregor, and Vroom have all made a significant contribution to our knowledge about the topic. These speculations are still not fresh, but they are still important today. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory ranks among the most well-known motivational theory. According to this hypothesis, folks have 5 different kinds of needs, which are biological, protection, affiliation, ego, and identity. The first level must be completed before proceeding with the subsequent level, and so forth. While hygiene factors were once enough to inspire people, it is now claimed that today's modern workers look for higher-level needs to be met. Another theory of motivation is the theory of X and Y McGregor. In this theory, McGregor placed people in two groups; the X group who are the people interested in rewards and compensation, and the Y group who are the self-directed people and who are looking for challenges. Herzberg is another theorist who studied employee motivation and developed a thesis that categorizes motivation into two groups; motivators and hygiene. Extrinsic motivators such as perks and pay rates are examples of maintenance factors, whereas sources of motivation such as completing tasks and job assignments are examples of internal motivation. As per Saputra, 2021, Vroom's expectancy theory was created especially for the workplace. According to this theory, staff members will knowingly and willingly choose action over the other if people genuinely think it will lead to a preferred result, such as implementation. These speculations still are important today, and they've also affected how existing motivational theories are explained. Many hypotheses believe in their validity and, extra notably, emphasize the innate motivational variables.

Leadership and motivation

Leadership and motivation are two concepts that are directly associated with the work site. While inspiration is an essential component of a successful current leader, great governance can have a major impact on encouraging staff members to work at their strongest. Leaders need to understand how their actions affect employees' motivation. Mahaputra, and Saputra, 2021 stated that leaders have frequently overlooked the importance of building effective relationships with stakeholders, including employees, in the past, since their mission was unclear concerning employees' motivation. Further, the leaders need to analyse the difference between the motivation level of X and Y. Broder believes that representatives ought to implement several techniques that are tailored to each ordinary person. A few real workers, for instance, are purely inspired by job protection while others are compelled by clear corporate rules, strength, acknowledgment, and remuneration. On the other hand, there is a classification of staff members who already are altruistic and thoroughly enjoy the work they do. Fascinating, trying to guide, and uplift a collection of individuals moving towards a common goal or objective is a complex process that requires. According to the opinion of

Paais, and Pattiruhu, 2020 great managers can interact with an inspiring vision, establish clear deadlines and objectives, and supply the needful assistance and assets to help their team succeed. They can also develop connections with their teammates, foster a productive workplace, and promote a culture of mutual respect and cooperation. Incentive, on the other hand, includes both internal and external variables that encourage a person to be efficient and push themselves to succeed throughout their work. Staff members who are exceptionally energized are more likely to feel involved, dedicated, and inventive, which leads to better results and outcome measures. Great managers recognize the value of ambition and can employ various techniques to motivate and back up their teammates. It may involve offering chances to advance and grow, rewarding and recognizing accomplishments, fostering a favourable and encouraging work environment, and offering feedback and interaction. Furthermore, successful managers can personalize their motivational strategy predicated on their teammates' particular requirements and tastes. Elkhwesky, and, 2022 suggested that they recognize that various workers may be inspired by various factors, such as freedom, acknowledgment, or the chance of making a difference, and are capable of altering their leader behaviour correspondingly. In conclusion, good leadership and encouragement are intimately connected at the work site. Leaders who can encourage, mentor, and embolden their teammates while also acknowledging and tackling their particular requirements and tastes produce more inspired and involved workers that are dedicated to organizational success and accomplishment.

Leadership styles

Ko, and Kang, 2019 state that a style of leadership is a method in which a leader achieves the goal of their group by encouraging staff members to work together and concentrating on their fellow humans. Knowing leadership styles is essential for a group to collaborate when expanding while accepting transformation. Position in Autocratic Leadership is given from above, from a single image that gives rise to a firm or team. An autocratic leader establishes tactics, guidelines, and treatments, and provides a practical way, dictating all of it to superiors. Totalitarian regimes are not involved in cooperation with people outside their sphere, those who are infrequently keen in responses, and they favour having complete control while remaining in charge. The Democratic Leadership approach entails soliciting feedback from supervisors and teammates to give everyone a chance to make a difference in the judicial process. Democratic leaders remain in charge of making decisions, but their company offers others to feel involved and invested in the outcome. Congressional democrats excel at inspiring creative thinking in their supervisors, and undertakings benefit from accomplishments from all flanks. Democratic leaders are inquisitive, and they want to hear from everyone. Their willingness for a participatory climate makes them great handheld radios, as well as supervisors frequently find someone to be personable.

Leadership and decision making

In the worksite, leaders, and judgment are inextricably linked theories. As per the viewpoint of Bush, S., Michalek, and Francis, 2021 Effectual managers have to arrive at acoustic choices which help the company's objectives and goals while also considering the requirements and points of view of their teammates. Fascinating, trying to guide, and uplift a collection of individuals towards a common goal or objective is a complex process that requires. Great managers can converse a strong vision, establish clear objectives and objectives, and provide the needed assistance and tools to help one ‘s team succeed. They additionally have to be capable of making educated choices that are in keeping with the principles and business strategy priorities of the company. An insightful and structured procedure that accounts for pertinent information, viewpoints, and possible ramifications of a specific action is essential to successful judgment. It also means being able to consider various alternatives and choose the most appropriate option to take according to current information and perspectives. Successful managers can make educated choices by collecting and analysing information, soliciting opinions and input from teammates and other interested parties, and taking into account the possible effects and implications of various possibilities. In the opinion of Rabiul, and Yean, 2021 they can also clearly articulate their decisions and are ready for criticism and contribution from their teammates.

According to the described methods, leaders can make decisions in a wide range of manners. He retained that the leader has the authority to increase or decrease engagement in judgment. The practices mainly cover the autocratic decision where the employees have no aspect of saying no so that the managers have full control over the choice. In the case of consultation, the decision is made by a leader with the help of the different opinions of employees. The joint decision includes the decision of both employees and leaders for taking any decision. The leader delegated ruling power to other employees in case of delegation.

Wu, and, 2019 suggested that When leaders involve their staff in decision-making, the choice is more likely to improve the deal's quality, make it easier to acknowledge, improve worker happiness, and employee commitment skills training. In conclusion, strong leadership and choice are vital elements of organizational accomplishment. Leaders who can arrive at choices that assist their group's objectives and principles even while considering the requirements and viewpoints of their group members are much more probable to benefit from inspired and involved workers dedicated to organizational performance.

The Importance of Job Satisfaction in the Hospitality Industry

As per the research of D’Auria, and De Smet, 2020 Globalization's social, ideological, and financial changes have completely affected the hospitality industry and enhanced its geographic reach. In this sense, hotel rivalry is growing, and hotel operators are focusing on improving the quality of service to gain a competitive benefit. In the hospitality industry, offering excellent customer service is one of the most significant aspects that offers a long-term competitive edge because it rises trust in a marketplace. Hotels that are unable to offer good service will not be capable of remaining viable in this fierce competition. Workers just provide the majority of offerings in hotels. As a result, staff members play a critical role in predicting performance. Customers’ satisfaction necessitates the collective forces of hotel personnel. Even so, the jobs conducted by hotel workers can be very tricky. This is because whereas hotel staff strives to please their customers, they must also contend with extended hours, juggling demands, and a mentally taxing workplace environment. Previous research on hotel employees has found they're more susceptible to adverse outcomes including pressure, exhaustion, "sentimental injury," crime, and physical issues. Taking everything into account, hotel workers have less satisfaction with their jobs than workers in those other industries. Whereas inadequate employee satisfaction lessens the quality of service, this same desire to leave that it causes adds to the debt stress for hotels. It is critical to determine how hotel staff members' employee satisfaction can be enhanced.

As per Zhang, Gao, and Li, 2020 Job satisfaction has been described as "positive emotions that employees with better towards work" and defined as "a positive or pleasant mental took issue from the analysis of one's task or work history." According to every one of these classifications, job fulfilment is an emotional scene that represents the company's good emotions against one ‘s job. Good feelings arising from employee satisfaction improve both mental and physical wellness, as well as individual profitability, and can expedite the procedure of staff members trying out new business skills. Kuziemski, and Misuraca, 2020 state that They also add value to the delivery of outstanding services and conservation, implying that rising satisfaction with work is a continuing focus for psychologists and supervisors. According to organizational behaviour researchers, job satisfaction will increase company earnings by improving “employee performance as well as the level of customer service delivered. Furthermore, it is reported that job happiness is a significant factor in reducing the rate of absenteeism and significantly lowering the intention to quit. Following the results of prior research, job happiness is essential for the hospitality sector. The writings on the hospitality industry emphasize the importance of using suitable methods of leadership to maximize hotel workers' work performance. Obtaining more job satisfaction inside a squad can result in a slew of advantages, such as lower costs because of fewer absent, better outcomes and high turnover, enhanced efficiency, improved guest service and prestige, and bigger and more powerful economic well-being, which has become a key indicator of success in the hospitality industry.

The Relationship between Leadership and Job Satisfaction

In terms of Koo, and, 2020 theory, the leaders' roles are essential factors in job fulfilment in addition to the way they can influence a majority of the independent variable, additionally since socializing among management and staff can directly enhance satisfaction with work. Employee job satisfaction has been extensively researched in the context of organizational culture, alongside leadership. According to studies, organizations that are agile and use employee engagement, with such a focus on interaction and staff incentives, are more likely to enjoy their jobs, which results in company development. The leaders develop organizational approaches that focus on principles and views, which results in the formation of a distinct culture. A way of life, on the other hand, is normally lively but instead of static. As it emerges, it influences the president's acts and ploys. ­­­­ Ohunakin, and, 2019 proposed in a historical background idea of job gratification that satisfaction with one's specific job is a side product of trying to meet specific motivational needs within the contractor. Employee effectiveness is significantly affected by leader behaviours, and integrity is essential. Managers should recognize that a function effectively can be successful for a brief period when it's necessary to make choices speedily. In addition, a strong relationship was found between supervisors’ both relational and task leadership styles and employee communication satisfaction, while a weak relationship was found between supervisors’ both relational and task leadership styles and employee job satisfaction. Employees with high job satisfaction are capable of performing well and seek organizational interests because great managers offer correct guidance and result supporters to accomplish what is needed. Job sense of fulfilment promotes an enjoyable work environment and is critical to the group's revenue and profit. AlKahtani, and, 2021 suggested that businesses ought to establish structured leadership and managerial tactics that improve their workers' satisfaction with their work. Leaders have a variety of both immediate and secondary impacts on their own workers' production efficiency. For instance, a leader with poor preparation skills could well make it difficult for workers to meet due dates, and profitability will suffer badly as staff becomes less energized as timeframes are becoming more unachievable. Transactional kind of leaders is the ones who tend to act within the frame of the prevailing culture, while transformational kind of leaders often works towards change and adaptation of the culture to their vision. Make a point of talking with employees one-on-one about their future career goals and what the expectations are for them to achieve these goals at your company (García-Rodríguez, Dorta-Afonso, and González-de-la-Rosa, 2020). Offer opportunities for them to increase their skills, such as sending them to a conference or giving them projects that will stretch their experiences. It clearly shows that leadership is connected with job satisfaction as leaders guide employees toward work and provide training to the employees. Job satisfaction promotes an encouraging working atmosphere and is critical to the firm's sales growth. Businesses ought to establish structured organizational and managerial methods that boost their co-workers’ happiness at work.

Advantages, disadvantage, and challenges of various leadership styles

As per the opinion of Sobaih, and Hasanein, 2020, there are small administering and management structures to notify within a week of utilizing a decision under autocratic leadership. Organizations can or can't give feedback because only the ruler makes that decision. This facilitates quicker making decision, which is particularly crucial in stressful circumstances that need swift settlement. Workforce interaction involves the transfer of data from individuals to that other. When there are too many levels of communication, passing accurate information becomes a challenging process. Autocratic leadership encourages one-way communication and ensures information reaches the right audience. Autocratic leaders can influence more effective design completion by moving information quickly throughout an organization. An autocratic leader communicates and makes decisions on time, icing workers admit every piece of information required to complete the design on time. whereas, on the other hand, an autocratic leader typically supervises minor details of the work their platoon members are doing, a practice known as micromanagement. When leaders micromanage tasks and monitor every platoon's behaviour, it becomes difficult for staff members to carry out their responsibilities. Another disadvantage of autocratic leadership is that it may negatively affect squadron participants from seeking input. An authoritarian leader may reject a great deal of input in hopes of expediting the ruling procedure. An autocratic leader, on the other hand, generally supervises small details of the work their platoon members are performing, engaging in micromanagement. When leaders micromanage tasks and monitor every platoon's behaviour, it becomes difficult for staff members to carry out their responsibilities. Another disadvantage of autocratic leadership is that it may negatively affect squadron representatives from a constructive direction. An autocratic leader may not accept much feedback to expedite decision-making. However, developing original thinking as an individual can be more difficult than working as a cohesive whole. Trying to limit ideas results in a predictable workplace that does not foster a creative attitude at work. A lack of innovative thinking and imagination can often result in decreased job creation. So, it requires supervision and collaboration with smaller budgets, and authoritarian rule can flourish in new enterprises.

Kunda, Ataman, and Kartaltepe Behram, 2019 state that Democratic leadership is a leadership style in which decision-making is shared among group members. Democratic leaders encourage their team members to share their ideas and opinions. This results in a more diverse range of ideas and perspectives, which can lead to greater creativity and innovation in problem-solving and decision-making. Democratic leadership can foster a sense of teamwork and collaboration among group members. When team members are allowed to participate in decision-making, they may be more likely to work together and support each other. Democratic leadership can be time-consuming as it involves a lot of consultation and collaboration among team members. This can sometimes slow down decision-making and action-taking, which can be a disadvantage in fast-paced environments. In some cases, the need to reach a consensus can result in indecisiveness, as team members may be hesitant to take action without everyone's agreement. This can lead to missed opportunities or delays in responding to challenges. With a democratic leadership style, everyone has a say in the decision-making process, which can lead to a lack of individual accountability. If something goes wrong, it may be difficult to determine who is responsible for the outcome. In a democratic leadership style, conflict can arise between team members who have different opinions or agendas. This can lead to tension and division within the team, which can be counterproductive to achieving team goals. It is essential to keep in mind that no management style is flawless per each scenario, and it is up to rulers to choose the most suitable method for their group and indeed the circumstances in which they operate.

Impact of leadership style on employee motivation and job satisfaction in the UK hospitality sector

Autocratic leadership, often characterized by a top-down approach and centralized decision-making, can have both positive and negative impacts on employee motivation and job satisfaction within the UK hospitality sector. While it may lead to clear expectations and efficient decision-making, it can also result in employees feeling undervalued and stifled, ultimately affecting their overall job satisfaction and motivation to perform at their best. To understand this complex relationship, it is crucial to consider various factors such as employee demographics, company culture, and the competitive nature of the hospitality industry. As per Specchia, and, 2021 this leadership style has been both lauded for its ability to make quick decisions and criticized for its potential to stifle creativity and employee autonomy. In an industry where high turnover rates, competitive labour markets, and dynamic customer demands are prevalent, understanding the effects of autocratic leadership on employee motivation and satisfaction becomes crucial for the overall performance and success of a hospitality business. Autocratic leadership, characterized by top-down decision-making and strict control over employees, has been widely criticized for its potential negative effects on employee motivation and job satisfaction, particularly in the UK hospitality sector. This sector, which relies heavily on customer satisfaction and service quality, demands flexibility and adaptability from its workforce. However, the autocratic leadership style may stifle creativity and autonomy, leading to decreased motivation and job satisfaction among employees (Nordin, Mustafa, and Razzaq, 2020). Thus, it is crucial for leaders in the UK hospitality sector to adopt a more inclusive and democratic approach to encourage employee engagement, innovation, and overall productivity. Democratic leadership, also defined as teamwork, is a style that tries to encourage employee participation in organizational ruling processes. Democratic leadership has had a major beneficial effect on motivation and happiness at work in the UK hospitality sector. This enabling approach promotes trust, collaborative effort, and clear dialogue, leading to better efficiency and general organizational success. In an industry in which collaboration and working together are critical, democratic leaders' integrative practice motivates staff members to voice their thoughts and opinions in choice processes. Leaders can encourage a feeling of shareholding and the ability to participate in strategic choices by involving employees in strategic choices, which results in better inspiration, work satisfaction, and overarching employee morale (Asgari, Mezginejad, and Taherpour, 2020). Furthermore, this method may contribute to a more creative dilemma and richer work teams, improving organizational effectiveness in the hotel industry. Further, the democratic leadership style plays a very important role in developing positivity among the employees and boosting their morale for doing a better job. Overall, democratic leadership can improve motivation and happiness at work for workers in the UK hospitality business. Democratic administrators may develop a more enthusiastic and inspired workplace by participating in activities, connectivity, enfranchisement, and responsibility (Ferreira, and, 2021).

Chapter 3: Research Methods and Methodology

What research philosophy and why?

Research philosophy is a fundamental belief about the way data, findings, and knowledge are acquired, interpreted, and extrapolated in a particular field of study. It encompasses various paradigms and methodologies that contribute to the accepted and proven understanding of the subject matter (Qing, and, 2020). Research philosophy plays a crucial role in defining the relationship between the researcher, their research questions, and the ways in which they approach and interpret the data generated. Moreover, it helps researchers establish a framework for their investigation, objective analysis, and critical evaluation of the results achieved. There are different types of research philosophies that are used in various scenarios of research.

As per the study, the research is based on secondary methodology so the use of research philosophy is preferred based on that. The interpretivism philosophy is the best fit with the present study and is appropriate for secondary research. Interpretivism is a philosophical concept and research technique that examines events in society using the real worth of the culture or community in which they take place (Paais, and Pattiruhu, 2020). It is a qualitative research technique. Qualitative inquiry information is presented verbally instead of quantitative. The impact of history and culture, as well as how people's subjective feelings frame their perceptions of the world are recognized by interpretivism. It mainly helps to analyse the different parameters related to the philosophy and the present study provides a clear indication of the management.

What research paradigm and why?

A research paradigm is a set of beliefs, values, and assumptions that guide a researcher's approach to investigating a particular phenomenon. This includes the researcher's worldview, the methodologies they choose, and the methods they use to collect and analyse data (Fries, Kammerlander, and Leitterstorf, 2021). Different research paradigms may lead to different conclusions or interpretations of the same phenomenon, as the researcher's perspective and approach can greatly influence the outcome of the study. Some well-known research paradigms include positivism, interpretivism, and critical theory, each with its own unique focus and assumptions regarding the nature of reality, knowledge, and the role of the researcher in the process. For this study, where the major part is the secondary methodology, it is clear to make use of constructivism. Constructivists believe in parallel worlds instead of one transcendent truth or truth. They spend their time trying to decipher and analyse the meaning of an action. Constructivists regularly use methods of qualitative investigation that emphasize providing multiple points of view, such as research papers and personal interviews. In this, the interpretative paradigm of research can be used due to the major use in qualitative research and a better approach to the study (Kadiyono, and, 2020). In the interpretative paradigm, researchers seek to understand the complex and dynamic processes by which individuals and groups construct and negotiate meaning in their everyday lives. This involves gathering rich, detailed data through methods such as interviews, observations, and analysis of texts and artifacts, and using these data to develop in-depth, nuanced understandings of the social phenomena under study. Thus, it can be analysed that the research paradigm plays a very important role to study secondary research and helps to analyse the topic of job satisfaction and employee motivation in the UK hospitality sector (Mansaray, 2019).

What research approach and why?

A research approach refers to the systematic way in which a researcher plans and carries out a study to answer a research question or address a research problem. It involves the method or strategy used by the researcher to collect, analyse, and interpret data in order to reach a conclusion. In terms of considering the research approach for this study, as it is secondary research so there can be the use the qualitative research approach for the study (Copola and, 2021). Qualitative research is often used when the research question requires an in-depth understanding of the context and complexity of a particular phenomenon. This approach is especially useful when the topic of research is relatively new or poorly understood, and the research questions require a detailed exploration of people's experiences, attitudes, and beliefs. In this study, the major reason behind using this approach is to understand the different theoretical scenarios related to job satisfaction and employee motivation. Qualitative research involves collecting rich and detailed data through interviews, focus groups, observation, and other methods (Filatotchev, and, 2020). This enables researchers to gain a deeper understanding of the topic of interest and the social context in which it occurs. However, there is a direct connection between the researcher and the participants because the major participants are articles, case studies, and magazines. In addition to this, case studies play a major role in identifying the content and getting more information for conducting the research. Secondary case study evaluation as a preliminary step for an investigation allows an analyst to develop a first knowledge of a subject area using real-life instances without being affected by the extant theoretical framework (Almaaitah, and, 2020). Thus, the research approach plays a significant role in developing studies for the enhancement of knowledge for growth.

What research methodology and why?

Research methodology is the systematic and theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a particular field of study or research. It is the process of designing, conducting, and analysing research to obtain reliable and valid results. The methodology used in research is essential for the accuracy and reliability of the findings (Gemeda, and Lee, 2020). The methodology employed in research is determined by the type of study being conducted, the research questions being asked, and the data being collected. It may include both quantitative and qualitative methods of inquiry, studies, survey data, experimentations, and epidemiological research.

For this study, there is the use of secondary research methodology which is a method where the use of data collected by other people and make an analysis of it. Secondary research is beneficial since it's usually cheaper than qualitative data and provides the basis for any project. Analysing the present status of existing facts before moving on to the main methods of research could perhaps save you both time and finances that you could be spending somewhere else (Newman, and Gough, 2020). Secondary research provides access to a wide range of data that may not be available through primary research. For example, it may be difficult to conduct a large-scale survey on a particular topic, but there may be existing data available from other sources that can be analysed. It can be used to validate primary research findings or to compare different sets of data to identify patterns or inconsistencies. Secondary research can be particularly useful for historical analysis, as it allows researchers to access data from past periods and analyse trends and patterns over time. It will be helpful for the study to understand various scenarios due to the use of this methodology (Pandey, and Pandey, 2021). Overall, the secondary methodology can be used to supplement the primary research techniques to offer a valuable database of information for research projects. But even so, it is critical to thoughtfully examine the effectiveness and serviceability of the datasets was using, as well as to guarantee that the information is pertinent to the issue at hand.

What research strategy and why?

A research strategy refers to the plan or approaches that a researcher follows to investigate a research question or problem. It outlines the methods, tools, and techniques that the researcher will use to collect and analyse data and draw conclusions (Mukherjee, 2019). A research strategy typically involves a series of steps, such as identifying a research problem or question, conducting a literature review to understand existing knowledge and gaps in the field, formulating a hypothesis or research objective, selecting appropriate research methods and tools, collecting data, analysing the data, and reporting the findings. For this study, a research Strategy is an organized action plan that directs opinions and attempts, allowing visitors to carry out research rigorously and on time for the best output and discussion of the findings. It helps to identify the different cases regarding secondary research and provides informed data for further research (Säfsten, and Gustavsson, 2020).

The major reason behind doing a research strategy as it is essential for the systematic and organized investigation of a subject or phenomenon. This approach helps researchers to collect necessary data, analyse and interpret it, and ultimately establish a strong foundation on which to base conclusions and recommendations. By using a research strategy, researchers can reduce the likelihood of drawing erroneous conclusions or overlooking critical information, leading to more accurate and reliable outcomes. Additionally, a well-defined research strategy enables researchers to communicate their methods and findings effectively, fostering collaboration and knowledge sharing within the scientific community.

Sampling methods and why

The sample refers to the collection of individuals that are actually going to take part in the study. To draw accurate inferences from their findings, you must carefully consider the best way to select a sample that is typical of the whole group (Patel, and Patel, 2019). This is known as the sampling technique. Based on the present research, the secondary research sampling method includes the focus group study. A focus group is a small group interview of six to twelve individuals who share comparable attributes or hobbies. A counsellor leads the group through a series of hot-button issues. The mediator establishes a setting in which participants are allowed to express their preconceptions and views with one another.

Focus Group Study: Focus groups use group dynamics to gather common memories from those with comparable properties. This is not the same as an empirical investigation, which focuses on individual people. Focus groups are a great way to receive input previously, throughout, and following the development of one's item.

Only after info or other details have been obtained, results above show models are used. In general, the goal of any supplementary survey strategy is to further improve the proposed model as well as judgment sometimes in a way. Backup drawings can be predicated on the point or a design.

Strategic planning, constructing, gathering information, evaluating, sketching interpretations, and providing information on study results are all quantitative tools used in an investigation (Babii, 2020). The statistical analysis will give purpose to irrelevant data, helping bring otherwise emotionless info. The main reason behind using a focus group as it helps to consider the discussion with different people and enhance knowledge about the system.

Data collection methods/tools

Gathering data is the methodical method for collecting and analysing data concerning relevant variables in order to respond to declared research issues and testable theories, and analyse results.

  • Data from the internet: The internet ranks as one of the most popular methods for gathering secondary data. Data is easily accessible as it can be uploaded with the click of a mouse here online (Snyder, 2019). This tool is highly used in this research as it provides huge data for the study and helps to conduct the research in an appropriate manner.
  • Agencies like government: Secondary study data may additionally be obtained from government and anti-non-profits. The different agencies from the UK hospitality sector provide various information for the research.
  • Information sources: Local papers, journals, magazine articles, television, and radio networks are excellent sources of secondary research information. These marketing news sources have direct knowledge of economic growth, hidden motivations, market intelligence, behavioural segmentation, and other related topics. Business owners are able to define potential customers, yet they may also learn about ways to advertise their goods or solutions through all of these publications, which have a bigger appeal (Gupta, and Gupta, 2022).
  • Public Libraries: Public libraries are yet another good place to look for the information required for this research. Librarians have copies of conducted valuable research. They are a repository of vital knowledge and records from whom data can be derived.

Ways of interpreting data/How are you going to interpret data?

The procedure of reviewing data and arriving at applicable assumptions using various methodological approaches is referred to as data interpretation. Document analysis assists investigators in categorizing, manipulating, and summarising data in order to respond to important questions.

In terms of considering the way of interpreting the data, there is no such data to interpret and it is mainly a theory-based study. However, the data will be analysed with the help of reports from companies along with different articles and case studies. Secondary information is the use of available research data to clarify an issue that was not addressed in the artistic creation (Ryder, and, 2020). The process of reviewing data and arriving at applicable inferences using various methodological approaches is referred to as data meaning. Interpretation of the data team of technicians in categorizing, manipulating, and summarising data so as to answer pertinent questions. Some instances of qualitative data processing include using techniques and instruments to examine outcomes from questionnaires, review sites, webpage audio files, emails, personal interviews, or other text publications. It is important to consider the different sources of information that help to interpret the data and the process of considering the changes in the data. It will create a valuable impact in the process of research and provide equal guidance for the study and enhances knowledge as well. Because the info has already been collected, the scientist is unable to dedicate cash, moment, power, or even other assets to this phase of research (Pandey, and Pandey, 2021). Often a backup data set should be acquired, however, the price typically is below the price of gathering a similar set of statistics from sketch, which also probably entails pay rates, transportation, and so on. There is also significant time savings. So, because data has been previously obtained, washed, and saved in digital form, the microbiologist can devote a great deal of his or her time to analysing data rather than preparing the data for analysis.

Time prospects of the research (Gantt chart)

Conclusions and insights are influenced by individual experiences and expertise. As a result, a qualitative approach could consume weeks or months. Furthermore, because this procedure takes direct contact for data gathering, talks frequently detract from the major focus to be explored. For this activity, there is a Gantt chart that helps to analyse the activities within the proper time frames.


Activity Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 Week 9
Analyse research area
Create research questions
Write research proposal
Literature Review
Collection of Data
Data Analysis
Interpretation of Data
Findings and Recommendations

Ethical consideration of the research

In research, ethical implications are a set of values that guide the study design and practices. When collecting personally identifiable information, investigators and scholars must therefore follow a set of rules. Research ethics are important for academic rigor, living things' rights and worth, and science-society collaborative effort (Gemeda, and Lee, 2020). These requirements mean that research subjects' involvement is voluntary, made aware, as well as safe. Research ethics highly matters in terms of human integrity, and dignity as well as preventing harm to the participants. There are certain different types of ethical considerations in the research as follows:

  • Voluntary participation: It is critical to emphasize to people taking part that they will not face any bad effects or ramifications for not participating. After all, they're dedicating themselves to assisting visitors with the investigation, which means that you ought to honour their choices without trying to alter them.
  • Informed consent: The agreement is a scenario where all possible participants were given and comprehended all of the data requested to decide on their own whether or not to take part. This contains information about the original study's advantages, disadvantages, financing, as well as organizational authorization.
  • Privacy: Some research approaches do not lend oneself to privacy, yet it's critical to make every effort and warn attendees of the risks associated.
  • Possible damage: To obtain permission from the participants, ensure to publicly reveal all potential harm risks to those who will be participating. Plan to just provide reserves, counselling, or health treatment to people involved if there is a possibility of injury (Mukherjee, 2019).

Thus, all of the possible ethical considerations in the research play a very important role while conducting research and are needed to manage the level of understanding with the people. Such morally acceptable missteps led to serious injury to people involved, a waste of resources, and lowered confidence in both science and scientists. As a result, all research groups follow strict ethics rules when carrying out research.


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